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^vesetdeb to 


Dr. John Henderson 
June 12, 1888 


(For Reference only.) 



« a 

» b 

6 c 

2) b 

5 f 






like a in father ; never as in 
ball, hat, care. 

as in Eng., except at end of 
word or syll., when pron. 

before a, e, i, and ty, like ts ; 
otherwise like k; in words 
from French, before e and i, 
like ss. 

as in Eng., except at end of word 
or syll., when pron. like /. 

long, like a in game ; short, 
like e in p<?n ; when final or 
in unaccented prefixes, like 
short a in Louisa. 

as in English. 

always hard, before all vowels 
and before I, m, vt, r, like g 
in ^ive ; at end of words and 
sylls., or before other con- 
sonants, like Germ, d) ; in 
words from French, before e 
and t, like s in pleasure. 

Observe the dif- 
ference between 

21 and U. 

S3 and 58; 
b, b, b and 

6 and @; 
C and e. 

SD and D. 

@ and 6; 
e and c. 

f and f. 
& and ©. 





Observe the dif- 
ference between 

& * 


always aspirated before vowels, 
as in /;at ; silent before con- 

• sonants, after t, between 
vowels, and when final. 

b, b, ft and 

3 i 


long, like e in he; short, like i 
in sk/n. 

3 i 


like y in yet ; in words from 
French, like s in pleasure. 

* f 

kah 4 

St and 91. 

8 1 


Wl m 
91 it 



as in English. 

m and ft). 
9? and 91. 


V P 


O q 


SR r 


like Eng. r with strong guttural 
roll ; formed by making the 
tongue convex, and check- 
ing the breath by gently 
pressing the middle of the 
tongue against the roof of 
the mouth. 

91 and R; 
x and j. 

@ fg 


before vowels, like z in sone, 
or s in daisy ; before conson- 
ants, and when final, like s in 
yes; but see feb, ft, ffc, below. 
3 is used at the end of words, 
otherwise f. 

f and f. 





Observe the dif- 
ference between 

X t 


as in Eng. ; tt) also like t; it in 
foreign words, preceding an- 
other vowel, like tse. 

U u 


long, like oo in hoot ; short, like 
oo in loot. 

U and 21. 

8 t> 


like Eng. y in Germ, words; in 
foreign words, like Eng. v. 

23 and 33; 

*>, b, b, \). 

M to 


like Eng. v, except after fd) and 
j, when pron. like Eng. w. , 

* J 


like Ay, even when initial. 

E and t. 

?) * 


like the Germ, vowel i ; or 
like u. 

3 $ 


like fy. 




«(«e) a 

6 (Or) o 

U(Uc) il 

like the Germ, vowel e.. (The forms 2le, etc., 
are replaced by 2f, etc., in modern ortho- 

about like u in m«rder; nearly like French eu, 
but with lips rounded and nearly closed. 

nearly like French u; there is no corresponding 
sound in Eng. Pronounced with lips rounded 
and pointed, as for whistling. 






like long a (a in farm). 
" e {a " care). 
" " o (never like Eng. od). 




«t oi 


m ci 

r like i in f/re. 

Wit ou 

like on in htf#r. 

%u(8tcu) ou 
(9u cu 

r like oy in jtf>\ 


like z> in fzVld (not found at the beginning of 
words) ; in the unaccented sylls. of foreign 
words, i and e are pronounced separately. 





after a, o, u, cut, like ch in Scotch \och ; 
softer after a, e, i, 6, ti, du, eu ; it does 
not occur at the beginning, except in for- 
eign words, where it is pronounced like k 
before a, o, u, and like final d) before e, i. 
In French words it has the sound of s/i, 
as in French ; d)3 when in one syll. — *. 















like Eng. r/\- when divided between two 
lines, is written f-f ; not found at begin- 

pronounce both p and f distinctly. 

as in Eng. ; in foreign words only. 

like sh in Eng. ; but when the § is in a 
.distinct syll., pron. separately. 

like soft shp in Eng. at the beginning; other- 
wise like sp. 

like soft sht in Eng. at the beginning ; other- 
wise like st. 

like ss; fe replaces ff after long vowels in the 
middle of a word, and always when final. 
Hence $ujj (long u), gen. gujjeS ; but glujj 
(short u), gen. gluffe§ ; and freifjen, tufj, fle- 
btfjen. Diphthongs are always followed by 
f$. Not found at the beginning. 

like ts. It stands for jj. 

Not found at the 



Simple Vowels. 

H long : gar, bat, fam ; short : fait, Tlann, ®amm. 
(g long : bcr, ben, bem ; short : £>err, benn, 33ett. 

In formative sylls. foil, by a consonant shorter still: 

$enfter, baben, (Sfel. 

In final syll. not foil, by a consonant, like a in Louisa : 

©nbe, £abe, ©abc. Also in prefixes, as in the first syll. 

of gebemgen, gefaHen, ©cbanfen, befallen, bebenfen. 
3 long : mir, btr, -Mne ; short : [till, mit, bitten. 
O long : Xon, loben, fyolen ; short : £onne, fommen, fad. 
U long : £ut, bit, SBluteS ; short : Gutter, bumm, unter. 
$ long : Stynami't, ^oty'p ; short : 9Jtyrte, ©^fte'tn. 

Double Vowels (all long). 

«a : £aar, Hal, ©taat. | <gc : £lee, leer, 33eet. 

©a : 33oot, yflooz, 2oo§. 

Modified Vowels (Umlauts). 

H long : 23itr, fame, ^riigen ; short : ^dtta, famine, fa'Ht. 
O long : 01, £one, ©trome ; short : fonnte, ©otter, offnen. 
U long : £iite, fiir, Ubel ; short : §iitte, fiillen, miiffen. 

Diphthongs (all long) 

Hi : 9ftai, §ain, 'main. 

(£i ■ mcin, bciter, blciben. 

Hu : £aut, Hue, blau. 

Hu : £aute, 23aume, lauten 

du : beute, neu, 2eute. 

3c : bic, bier, tief (in some 
foreign words, pron. 
i-e: $amtlie, ©panien, 

examples .of pronunciation. 7 

Simple Consonants. 

b final (==/) ab, ©rail, ob. 

t soft (= ts) @d]'ar, Geremome, Gicero. 

b final (= /) diab, Job, 2teb. 

(= g in ^ive) geben, beginnen, JageS. 

(= ch) Jag, bog, gittig, 9Jtagb. 

(= zh in French words) . ©erne, ©age, $age. 

f^olje, Solje, ftralje, fiifjren, 

§ mute < fab,, Saljn, Jljiire, Stealer, 

( 9tat(lj), 3Rut($). 

.("(=>') jeber, jemanb, 3afob. 

' ((= zh in French words) . . ^afoufie, journal. 

( rebe, murren, ^paar, ©tern, 
' I @rbe, ^Brebiger. 
f initial and medial (= s in 

dai-ry) Sonne, biefer, <§attel, £>aufer. 

6 final (= s in yes) .... £au§, bieS, eg, Sajter, legbar. 
t in foreign words before i 

(= ts) national, patient. 

(in Germ, words (=/) . . Don, SBater, Setter. 

\ in foreign words(= v) . . ifto&ember, btbibieren, Sfbbofat. 

| (= Eng. v) toenn, toer, too, tote. 

1 (after fcf> and g = Eng. w) . ©ttjtoefter, ftfjtoer, gtoei, gtoecf. 

J initial (= ks) £erre§, Xenopbon. 

3 (= is) $ierbe, ju, }roanjig, 3om. 

Remark. — In the above list, only those consonants are 
given, which differ in pronunciation from their equivalents 
in English. Below are given also certain consonantal com- 
binations, most of which do not occur in English. 


Consonantal Digraphs and Trigraphs. 

initial (= k) Character, CHjor, (£Ijrift. 

" (=ch guttural) . . CHjiru'rg, (£(jemie\ 

d, \ medial and final (guttural) j * 2 °^' M; Su £ * l **> 

in French words (= sh) . Charlatan, Chicane, 
(in same syll. = x) . . £ad}8, Ddjg, 2ad)g, Strife. 
Jif $ferb, pfennig, bityfen. 

<Sd)af, Sdmee, <§d)iff; but 
pron. S separately when 

fd) (= j-^) -j it belongs to a different 

syll., as : §au3=cften, ©an3= 
jl initial (= sht softened) . . (gtanb, fleben, Stengel, Stube. 
ft initial (= slip softened) . . f^iiiren, (Sprticbe, Sporn. 
ff (preceding vowel short) . . miiffen, fuffen, Iaffen, Sfteffe. 
■ medial (preceding vowel long) grower, ftoften, frozen, 
final (preceding vowel long) 9ftaft, gro§, $uft (gen. fJu^eS). 

final rorecedinsr vowel shorrt \ ^ (gen " % a ^> ®°% ( ^n. 
final (preceding vowel short) j ^ ^ ^ (gen _ ^^ 



i. The acquisition of a correct and pure pronunciation of 
the vowels is the most important point to be attended to; 
especially that of the vowel o, which must never have a shade 
of the sound of the Eng. a in hat, ha\\, or c<?ne. Look after 
your vowels, and the consonants will look after themselves. 

2. The most difficult vowel-sounds are the Umlauts, or 
modified vowels, especially ii and ii, which must be learned 
from the teacher. 


3. The only difficult consonant-sounds are : 

r, with strong guttural roll. 

f, initial, and medial before vowels, which is like s in 

dairy, or z in zone. 
§ final = ss in English. 
d) (and g final), which must be learned from the 


4. The pronunciation of the following consonants, though 
not difficult, differs from the English pronunciation : 

6 final =/. 

t before d, e, i = ts. 

final = t. 

g never like g in gesture. 

g final see above. 

j = y in j'et. 

t) =f\x\ Germ, words. 

to = v, except after fcfr and 3. 

5. There are no silent letters in German, except f) before 
consonants, after t (see below), and between vowels ; thus c 
is never silent. Hence @nb-c r ©ab-c are dissylls. ; and g, f 
in ©nabe, $nabe must be heard. 


Long : Double vowels and diphthongs are always long. 
Simple vowels are long before a single consonant ; before a 
consonant preceded by lj ; when not followed by a consonant ; 
also before and after tfj. 

Exceptions: Articles, pronouns, prepositions, and other unaccented 
monosylls., also unaccented prefixes, and inflexional sylls. in c and i, have 
the vowel short before a single consonant. 

Short : Vowels followed by a double consonant (but see 
note 2 below), or by more than one consonant, vowels of un- 
accented words and prefixes, and of formative and terminal 
sylls., are short ; also most vowels before if), and all vowels 
before jrfj. 


EXCEPTIONS! Long vowels before several consonants: 'ilbkl', eagle; 
CVft, 'first'; ©eblirt, 'birth'; §evb, 'hearth'; Apcrbc, 'herd'; §11 [ten, 
'cough'; AlloftCV, 'convent'; SttthS, 'crab'; 9Jt(iflb, 'maid'; 9)Joilb, 
'moon'; rtcbjt, 'besides'; Cbft, 'fruit'; Oft, 'east'; Oftcrn, 'Easter'; 
s 4>apft, 'pope'; $Pferb, 'horse'; '•JSvobft, 'prebendary'; ©d)llftcr, ' shoe- 
maker'; ©rfplUTt, 'sword'; ftct§, 'continually'; tobt, 'dead' (now 
spelt tot); £roft, 'consolation '; SHogt, 'governor ' ; 2Biiftf, ' desert ' ; also 
©tdbt, 'town,' which has the vowel short in the sing., lengthens it in the 
plur. ©tfibte. Long vowels before rf) : fhtchcn, ' to curse ' ; hod), ' high ' 
(but short in £)od)}Ctt, wedding); @d)ntacf), 'disgrace'; @prad)C, 'speech.' 

Notes. — i. Long radical vowels -remain long even before two or more 
consonants ; thus : lobeit, (bit) lob-ft, (er) lob-t, gc— lob-t, all with long 
vowel, according to the quantity of the stem. 

2. Before ff all vowels are short; before ft medial, long; before ft 
final, o, 0, U are sometimes long, sometimes short ; c and i always short. 

3. The vowel a is always long before r. 

Exercise in Quantity of Vowels. 

(Accent on first syll. of dissylls.) 

§aarc, 2trt, effen, loben, lobt, 2Irt, $lee, S3tev, thun, bumm, SflooS, 
STJebel, Ofen, Ofeit, obe, bfter, tiett, nciht, faun, I08, $ahn, flatter, ahnlid), 
£iebe, itber, biiim, Dune, SooS, bami, 2)anc, Dt)V, gemorben, Ubr, 93eerc, 
roabrcnb, mcl)v, bcr, ba$, cs, benn, $ern, gcrne, mitntcr, @tabt, ©tabte, 
Statt, Staat, 93ctt, 33ect, miiffen, giifje, §liiffc, horen, hehr, fyer, §eer, 
tamme, fame. 


The principal accent is on the radical syll. in simple Germ, 
words, whether primitive or derived. 

Exceptions:— 1. Substantives in -ei have the principal accent on the 

2. The following adjectives are accented on the last syll. but one : 
lebenbig, vuarjvfjafttg, bnlfamifd), hithevifrf); also verbs in ieren. 

3. Most foreign substantives which have undergone a change of form 
are accented on the last syll., unless they end in -c, -el, ~t\, -0V, when 
they are generally accented on the last syll. but one. Those in -it are 
accented on the last syll., except those which, like ^amili-e, £ragobi-C, 
JTomobi-c, Sini-C, are directly from the Latin, the i-c being pron. sepa- 


Notes. — I. With these few exceptions, formative sylls. are always 

2. In compound substantives, adjectives and verbs, the first component 
generally has the principal accent; in other compounds (prepositions, ad- 
verbial conjunctions, etc.), generally the last component. 

3. The following prefixes are never accented : be-, et-, tmp-, ttlt-, 

ge-, uer-, §er-. 

Exercises in Accentuation. 

1. Simple words : 9Wnigung, fihrtidjteit, Gfct, ginftenuS, guticj, fpar= 
fam, ©parfomfeit, §eimat, 9Md)tum, reinlid), SReinlicfjfeit, Xugcnb, tugenb= 
haft, Strmei. 

2. Compound words : 2ut3gang, aufftefjen, s 3Iugenbltcf, entgeljen, 2luf= 
enthalt, aitfbehalten, i^erbienft, ©ejclic, Gifenhammer, mcrhiuirbig, hcrauS, 
hincingehcn, ©chrnaqroaib, bah,er, anfduglid), Scttelftab, 2Woutag, Witkit, 

3. Foreign : ©tubent, ^Jrofeffor, ^rofefforat, SDWobic, ftamilie , 3nftnt= 
ment, Stltar, $ arbinal, Nation, national, Untoerfttat, ©olbat, marfd)ierert, 
religion, Monument, monumental. 


Use of Capitals. The following words are written with 
capital letters : 

1. Words beginning a paragraph or sentence (after a 
period), and the first word of each line in poetry. 

2. All substantives and words used as such, as : ber 5Beife, 
'the wise man ' ; ba§ ©terben, 'dying,' etc. 

Note. — Substantives used as adverbs are not written with capitals, 
as : morgenS, abenbS. 

3. The personal pronoun and possessive adjective of the 
third plur. when used in address. 

Note. — The pronouns of the second person (sing, and plur.) are often 
written with a capital, and must be so in writing to persons. 

4. Ordinal numerals and pronouns in titles, as : tfriebrid) 
ber ©rofje, ' Frederick the Great ' ; &arl ber giinfte, ' Charles 


the Fifth'; ^bre 2Hajcftat, 'Her Majesty'; Seine $)urcfr- 
laucbt, ' His Serene Highness.' 

5. Adjectives from names of persons, as : bie ©oetbefcbcn 
©ebicbte, ' Goethe's poems.' 

Notes. — 1. Adjectives, with the above exceptions, are never written 
with capitals, as: J)VCllf$tid), ' Prussian '; etljjUfd), ' English.' 

2. The numeral cill, 'one,' is sometimes spelt with a capital, to 
distinguish it from the indef. art. eilt, 'a,' 'an.' 


These changes relate chiefly to the rejection of lengthening 
(j after {, which takes place : 

1. in derivative sylls. : ^ontgtum, Urtgetum, etc. 

2. after t medial and final : 2licm, dlat, tot, nKTi, etc. 

3. before diphthongs : !Xier, ieucr, !JetI, etc. 

4. before short vowels : Xurm, etc. 

Note. — In the majority of text-books, the pupil will still meet with 
the old orthography; but in the High School German Reader, and in 
the present senior author's editions of texts, the b is invariably rejected 
after t 


1. The use of Italics being unknown in German print, an 
emphasized word is printed with larger spaces between the 
letters, as: tcf> fyahc nur einen ©ofyn, 'I have but one son.' 

2. The double vowels never take Umlaut ; hence : 33oot, 
plur. 33i)te. 

3. The modified vowels as capitals are always written &, 
O, U, not (as formerly) $U, Oe, Uc. 











2? J 






t/ sW 








' ' // // 


a^ ^v <w. 


Ctw^szwfr' f^^/>/^ tJty/tny 



^ sow 4>sr siw sW 


^y iS /V <^ // ^y /? ^y *-* 



and vt . iz* and izf'. &% and 


carefully the Difference between 



izT and izTy Op 

a& ■• %? 


**. and 

•** « «. and -r^ • ■»> and -fc> 

and ■» • •». and •*-*•/ «- and -r* • ~> and y, • ■*<- and 


i. C&~ <3£A~ ~LS 

y/ <y 

y t*-*£~.^ ^i* ^C^t/jp^«.^.fZ/. J. 

* These sentences, with the exception of the last two, are identical 
with those of Ex. IV., //. 


*^j*- <=Z ■*g.-^rf-r*~rr- -*-yv- **»**«i«. «^ip«««» ^»-»--».»-«- c>^i»-^-*-*.=r 

/ </ / / y 

r ~A»Jy& 10. ^21 „„*„ «&*« 
/^/y/ ^ ^ *** **** ~. 

Remarks. — i. Observe the angularity of the small letters. 

2. Observe the mariner in which the letters are joined to 
each other. 

3. The strokes connecting the different letters should be 
made longer than those connecting the different parts of the 
same letter. This is particularly necessary where several 
s^// 's or ^^/^'s follow each other. 

4. Never omit the hook over //l^ , which alone distin- 
guishes it from /"/^ . 

5. The most difficult letters to make neatly are 




1. Present Indicative of Ijaben, to have. 

Sing, id) babe, I have fyahe icb, have I ? 

bu fyaft, thou hast baft bit, hast thou 

er i)at, he has bat er, has he 

fie b,at, she has bat fie, has she 

e§ bat, it has bat e§, has it 

Plur. loir baben, we have i)abtn hrir, have we 

ibr i)i\bt, ye have babt ibr, have ye 

fte baben, they have baben fie, have they 

2. Rule i. The verb agrees with its subject in number 
and person, as : id) babe, I have ; er fyat, he has ; fie fyaben, they 

2. Words used in a partitive sense, i. e., indicating only a 
part, not the whole, of anything, have no article before them 
in German, and the English some or any remains untrans- 
lated, as : 

Has he {any) bread ? I have {some) gold. 

£at er SBrot ? $cb i)aht ©olb. 


bread, sBrot silver, ©ilber also, audi) 

meat, $k\\<fy water, 2Baffer what, h>a§ ? 

gold, ©olb wine, 2Bem but, aber 

flour, 9JlcbI and, unb yes, \a 

milk, yjlild) or, ober no, nein 

not, nicbt 

15 LESSON II. [§§3 


A. 1. £at er 33rot? 2. %a., er Ijat SBrot, aber toir baben 
ftleifcfe. 3. §aben fie $Wcb ? 4. Stan, aber fie babcn 9Jlebl. 
5. £at fie ©olb? 6. ©ie fyat ©olb unb fie fyat and) ©ilber. 
7. @r bat Staffer, aber id; Ijabt SBein. 

i?. 1. Have we any bread? 2. No, but she has some 
bread. 3. Have they any gold or silver? 4. They have 
some silver. 5. Has he water and wine ? 6. He has only 
wine , he has not water. 7. I have milk and flour, but I have 
not meat. 


(The pupils will supply the answer to each question, with books closed.) 

1. Was hater? 2. Was haben wir ? 3. Washabensie? 
4. Was hat sie? 



3. Use of the Cases. — Every declinable word in 
German has two numbers, the Singular and the Plural, 
and in each number four cases, viz. : Nominative, Genitive, 
Dative, and Accusative. 

The Nominative is the same as the English Nominative, or 
Subjective, and answers the question who? or whatl as: 
Who (or what) is there ? The boy (the book). 

The Genitive corresponds to the English Possessive, or 
Objective with of, and answers to the question whose? of 
whom ? or of what ? as : Whose book ? The boy's book, the 
book of the boy. 

The Dative corresponds to the Indirect Object in English, 
and answers the question to whom ? as : To whom does he 
give the book ? He gives you (dat.) the book, he gives the 
boy (dat.) the book, he gives it to the boy (dat). 






















The Accusative corresponds to the Direct Object in Eng- 
lish, and answers the question whom ? or what ? as : Whom 
(what) do you see? I see the man - (the house). 

4. Declension of the Definite Article. 



bie, the 
ber, of the 
ben, (to, for) the 
bie, the 

5. Rule i. The Definite Article, like every determinative 
word, agrees with its substantive in Gender, Number, and 
Case, as: ber 9J?ann, 'the man' (masc); bit $rau, 'the 
woman ' (fern.) ; bag $inb, ' the child ' (neuter). 

2. Articles and other determinative words should be re- 
peated before each substantive in the singular, as : ®er 
Wann imb bie %tau ; ber Seforer unb ber Scbiiler. 

(N. T>. Always learn the definite article with each German substantive.) 

dog, ber £mnb flower, bie Slume 

boy, ber $nabe horse, bo§ $ferb 

teacher, ber Sebrer book, ba§ 33ud) 

teachers, bie Seiner girl, ba§ 5Rtibd) en 

scholar, pupil, ber Scfriiler girls, bie 5Rdbd)en 

scholars, pupils, bie ©cbtiler knife, bas -Jfteffer 

stick, ber Stocf knives, bie -Uteffer 

mother, bie -Dhitter who, luer ? 

pen, feather, bie $eber only, nur 

* The article is omitted in the English portions of all Vocabularies, 
being indeclinable. 

20 LESSON III. [§§6- 


A. 1. $at fie bag 99ud& ober bte g-cber? 2. 2Bir baben bag 
Surf), abcr jte bat bic geber. 3. Der ^ebrer fyat bte 9fteffer ber 
©rfnilcr. 4. 3)em Sebrer ber 9J?abcben. 5. 'Die ©rfmlcr l)aben 
ben £umb, aber fie fyaben nid^t bag ^3ferb. 6. %d) B,abe ben 
©tod, bag Ihid} imb bte ^yeber ; abcr ber ®nabe b, at nur bag Surf; 
unb bte $eber. 

B. 1. Have we not the book of the mother? 2. We have 
the book of the mother. 3. Have the pupils the dog and the 
horse, or have they only the horse ? 4. They have the horse, 
but they have not the dog. 5. Has the mother of the girls 
the flower ? 6. She has not the flower, but she has the book 
of the girls, and they have the pen. 7. To the mother and 
to the teacher. 


1. Was hat der Hund ? 2. Wer hat den Hund? 3. Wer 
hat Schiiler ? 4. Was haben die Lehrer ? 5. Was hat das 
Madchen ? 6. Hat er den Stock? 

2)tcfcif MODEL. -IMPERFECT INDICATIVE OF Ijabcn, to have. 
6. Declension of biefcr, this, that. 

Singular. Plural. 


Nom. biefcr biefc biefe§, this biefc, these 

Gen. biefcg biefcr biefeS, of this biefcr, of these 

Dat. btefem biefcr biefcm,(to,for)this bief en, (to, for) these 

Ace. biefcit biefc biefcg, this biefc, these 

In the same way decline jener, that; jeber, every; 
roelcfyer, which ? 

7 ] IMPERFECT OF babeil. 21 

Remark. — The accusative of declinable words differs 
in form from the nominative in the masculi?ie singular only. 

7. Imperfect Indicative of (jabcn, to have. 

Sing, id) battc, I had batte id), had I ? 

bu battcfl, thou hadst battcft bu, hadst thou 

er battc, he had batte er, had he 

fie batte, she had batte fie, had she 

e§ batte, it had l)atte eg, had it 

Plur. \x>\x batten, we had batten fair, had we 

tbr foattet, ye had battet il)r, had ye 

fie batten, they had batten fie, had they 


brother, ber 33ruber woman, bte $rau 

garden, ber ©arten sister, bie <5d)tr>efter 

gardens, bie ©iirten daughter, bic £od)ter 

bone, ber ®nod)eh daughters, bie £od)ter 

bones, bie $nod)en newspaper, bie 3eitung 

reader, ber Sefer house, fcms fQauZ 

readers, bie Sefer two, jtoei 

man, ber 3Jiann three, brei 

son, ber ©obn four, bier 
father, ber SBater 


A. 1. ^d) batte biefe ^eitung. 2. £)iefer £unb b/atte &nod)en. 
3. £>iefer Sel)rer b,at bier ©d)iiler, aber jener Sel)rer bat nur 
brei. 4. 3)er SBruber biefer grau I)atte jene§ $r>au§, unb er foatte 
aucb jene ©arten. 5. ^ebe§ 33ud) t)at Sefer. 6. 2Beld)e§ 23ud) 
fatten biefc 9Jlabd)en ? 7. SDer ©d)toefter itnb bem 2kuber. 

B. 1. Which newspaper had the father of these girls? 
2. The dog had these bones, but he had not this stick. 3. 
Which stick has this man? 4. Which man has this stick? 
5. This father had three daughters, but that woman had only 




two. fi. The son of that woman had this dog and horse. 7. We 
had the book of those pupils. 8. To the brother of those girls. 


1. Welches Madchen hatte die Zeiiung? 2. Welches Buch 
hatten die Madchen ? 3. Wer hatte das Buch dieser Schiiler ? 
4. Welche Feder hatte dieser Knabe ? 5. Welchen Hund 
hatte jener Mann ? 6. Was hat dieser Lehrer? 


8. Declension of mrilt, my, 























memc, my 
metner, of my 
meincit, (to, for) my 
meinc, my 

9. The following words are declined like mein: fetn, ' no ' ; 
fetn, ' his, its ' ; ibr, ' her, its, their ' ; unfer, ' our.' 

The indefinite article etn, erne, etn is also declined in the 
same way, but has no plural, thus : 


Nom. etn etne etn 

Gen. eme§ etner etneS 

Dat. einem einer einem 

Ace. eincn etne etn 

Remark. — This model differs from the btefer model only 
in having no distinctive ending in the nom. sing. masc. and 
neuter, or in the ace. neuter. Thus, while we say biefcr 


9Jtann, but biefcS 33ucb, we say c:n (fein, mein, etc.) 9Jtann, 
and also tin (fein, etc.) 33ud). 

10. Present and Imperfect Indicative of fcin, to be. 

Present. Imperfect. 

Sing, id) bin, I am id) tear, I was 

bu bift, thou art bu toarft, thou wast 

cr ift, he is er 'max, he was 

fie ift, she is fte tnat, she was 

e§ ift, it is e§ max, it was 

Plur. m'xx finb, we are h)ir ttmren, we were 

ibr feib, ye are ibr ioctret, ye were 

fie finb, they are fte toaren, they were 

bin id), am I ? etc. max id), was I ? etc. 

11. Time before Place. Rule. — In German sen- 
tences, expressions of time always precede those oi place, as : 

This man was here to-day. 
SDtefer Ttann max fjeute bier. 

12. Place of the Negative niffjt. Rule. — The nega- 
tive ntdjt precedes that member of the sentence which it 
negatives. Hence : 

Qx max geftern nidjt bier, he was not here yesterday. 

13. Agreement of Pronouns. Rule. — Pronouns 
agree in gender, number and person with the substantive 
to which they refer, as : 

$cr §ut (masc.) ift nicbt cjrofs, cr ift flein, 

the hat is not large, it is small ; but 

bic 3e'turt9 (fern.) ift nicbt grofj, fte ift fleiu, 
the newspaper is not large, it is small. 
The English pronoun it must therefore be rendered by er 

when it refers to a masc. substantive, by fie when it refers to 

a fem., and by c8 when it refers to a neuter. 

24 LESSON IV. [§§ 14- 

14. Observe : In the sentence ' the boy is good,' good is 
a predicative adjective. 

Rule. — Predicative Adjectives are not declined. 

15. A substantive following the verb to be is of course 
subject, not object, and must therefore be put in the nominative, 
and not in the accusative, as : Igt ift cm (not eincn) -Btann, he 
is a man. 


friend, bcr ftreunb pretty, biibfd) 

gentleman, ber §err cold, fait 

bird, bcr SBoqcI small, little, flein 

carriage, ) ^ m tired, mube 

wagon, ) beautiful, fine, fcbon 

carriages, bic 2Bagen strong, ftarf 

city, bic ©tabt idle, trdge 

dress ' [baSSleib warm,h,arm 

garment, ) windy, ltnnbtg 

weather, bag 2Better very, very much, febr 

old, alt yesterday, ge'ftern 

pleasant, agreeable, angenebm/ to-day, beute 

great, large, big, tall, grofj still, yet, nod) (referring to time) 

for, benn 


A. 1. (gin 33ater unb fetrt &inb finb jetjt bier. 2. ©ne -Stutter 
unb tbr $tnb roaren geftern fyier. 3. SJletn Sruber b,at fetn $ud), 
aber er b,at ein 2fteffer. 4. Unfer $reunb tear ber Sefyrer biefer 
Scbiiler. 5. £)iefe %xau ift meine <5d)roefter, unb fie ift aud) bte 
■Gutter biefer -IRabcfyen. 6. 2Bir finb flein, aber fie finb grofe. 
7. Unfer Sefyrcr ift mtibe, benn feme ©cbuler toaren fet)r trdge. 8. 
Unfere (Stabt ift febr fcbon, aber fie ift nid)t feb,r grofj. 9. dement 
SSater unb meiner Gutter. 

17] declension: — staler model. 25 

B. 1. I am the sister of those girls. 2. Where are my 
books and newspaper ? 3. Our brother and his dog are big 
and strong, but our sister and her bird are small and pretty. 
4. Which gentleman was here yesterday ? 5. The friend of 
our brothers was here to-day, but he was not here yesterday. 
6. My sister had her book, but she had not her pen. 7. Our 
father and mother have still their carriage, but they have 
no horse. 8. The weather was cold and windy, but it is 
now warm and pleasant. 9. To my brother and sister. 


1. Wo ist unsere Mutter? 2. Wann war sie hier? 3. Wer 
war gestern hier? 4. Was ist sein Vater? 5. Wer ist die 
Mutter dieser Schiiler ? 6. Wer sind diese Madchen ? 



or -1, -m, -n, -r STEMS. 

16. Declension of ber DDJolcr, the painter. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber 9ttaler, the painter bie -JRaler, the painters 

Gen. be§ 9Jtalerg, the painter's, ber ^Dialer, the painters', 

of the painter of the painters 

Dat. bem 5Raler, (to, for) the ben SJklern, (to, for) the 

painter painters 

Ace. ben -JJlaler, the painter bie IDfaler, the painters 

Observe : The only changes are additional -i in the gen. 
sing., and -n in the dat. pi. 

17. In the same way are declined : 

26 LESSON V. [§§ 17- 

i. Masc. and neuter substantives ending in -c(, -cm, -Clt, 
-tt, and diminutives in -djcn and -Icitt (these last being 
always neuter). 

2. Neuters beginning with ©c- and ending in -e, as : bdS 
©emdlbe, the painting. 

3. Two feminines : bie 3Jlutter, the mother, and bie Xoc&ter, 
the daughter. 

4. 35er $dfe, the cheese. 

(a) But many masculines with a, 0, U in the root, the two 
feminines SOiutter and £od)tcr, and one neuter, ba3 $lofter, 
'the convent,' take also Umlaut (modified vowel) in the 
plural, as : — 

Sing. n. d. a. SBruber, g. SBruberi ; Plur. n. g. a. 93riiber, 
d. SBriibern. 

(6) Substantives in -a do not add n in the dat. plur., as : 

Sing. n. d. a. 9}fdbcben, g. SOfdbcbeng ; Plur. n. g. d. a. 

(c) In feminine substantives all cases are alike in the sing. 
Hence, 9)iutter and £od)ter are thus declined : 

Sing. n. g. d. a. 3D? utter ; Plur. n. g. a. 3Jttttter, d. 9Jitittem. 
Sing. n.g. d.a. £od)ter; Plur. n.g. a. £iicbter, d. Xocbtern. 

Further examples : 

2)er SSogel, the bird : Sing. n. d. a. 93ogeI, g. 3SogeI§ ; Plur. 
n.g. a. S35gel, d. SSBgeln. 

2)er 2Bagen, the carriage : Sing. n. d. a. Sagen, g. SSageng ; 
Plur. n. g. d. a. 2Bagen. 

2)a3 ^snfter, the window : Sing. n. d. a. $enfter, g. $enfterg; 
Plur. n. g. a. ^enfter, d. $enftern. 

t!a£ ©emdlbe, the painting : Sing. n. d. a. ©emdlbe, g. 
©emdlbeg ; Plur. n. g. a. ©emdlbe, d. ©emdlben. 

i8] declension: — "Dialer model. 27 

Decline with Umlaut : ber SBater, the father ; ber <5d)roager, 
the brother-in-law ; ber 2Ipfel, the apple ; ber ©arten, the 
garden ; ber SKantel, the cloak. 

Note. — For a complete list of Substantives of this declension that 
take Umlaut in the plur., see App. A. 

Decline without Umlaut: ber Sebrer, the teacher; ber 
©dhuler, the scholar ; ber 2lbler, the eagle ; ba§ 5Reffer, the 
knife ; ber ©ommer, the summer ; ber 2Binter, the winter ; 
ber ©nfel, the uncle. 

Note. — The preposition in is contracted with the dat. sing. masc. 
and neut. of the def. art., when not emphasized, thus : in bem = im ; in 
bcm ©arten, contr. im (Garten ; in bem SBaffer, contr. im SBaffer. 

18. Rule of Construction. — If the verb is in a simple 
tense, the predicate adjective comes at the end. 


tree, ber SBaum ripe, reif 

fire, ba$ %mcx weak, fd)road) 

spring, ber gruhltng satisfied, > ^ cben 

autumn, ber ,<perbft contented, \ 

stove, ber Dfen quickly, fd)nell 
diligent, industrious, fleifug not at all, gar nicbt 

poor, arm not yet, nod) nicbt 

hot, betft with, mit (gov. dat.) 

ill, franf in, in (gov. dat.) 

rich, reid) whose, roeffen ? 

exercise v. 

A. 1. 3)te 53dter btefer s JJidbd)en roaren miibe. 2. @3 roar 
geftern fait, aber roir batten fein tfeuer im Cfen. 3. 2)ie ©e= 
mdlbe biefeS dialers finb gar nicbt fd)6n. 4. Unfere ©arten ftnb 
fcfoon, benn bag 28etter tft roarm. 5. Die Gutter btefer ©d)iiler 
roar arm. 6. W\i ben ^liigeln btefer 236gel. 7. 2)te ©d)iiler 

28 LESSON VI. [§§ 19 

biefcS 2ebrer3 toaren franf. 8. 3Me SRantel meiner Xocbter finb 
alt. 9. 2)ie ©drten in biefer ©tabt finb febr fdjon. 

B. 1. The father of this girl was my teacher. 2. Our 
father and mother are old and weak. 3. The gardens of my 
brother-in-law are very beautiful, but his carriages are not at 
all beautiful. 4. My uncle is not at all satisfied with his 
daughters. 5. These apples are not yet ripe. 6. The 
teacher of these boys was not very rich. 7. With the wings 
of this bird. 8. The weather is hot in the summer, but it is 
cold in the winter. 9. The eagle is a bird. 


1. Wann ist das Wetter kalt ? 2. Mit welchen Schulern 
sind die Lehrer zufrieden ? 3. In wessen Haus sind die 
Briider dieses Madchens ? 4. Wo waren sie im Herbst ? 5. 
Sind diese Madchen trage oder fleiszig ? 6. 1st die Blume 
schon ? 


PRESENT AND IMPERFECT OF tOCtbcn, to become. - CON- 

19. Present and Imperfect of tocrbcu, to become. 
Present Indicative. Present Subjunctive. 

Sing, id) toerbe, I become id) toerbe 

bu toirft, thou becomest bu toerbcft 

er hrirb, he becomes er tocrbe 

Plur. h)ir toerben, we become ioir toerben 

tbr toerbct, ye become ibr toerbet 

fie toerbcn, they become fie tuerben 


Imperfect Indicative. Imperfect Subjunctive. 

Sing, id) tourbc or toarb, I became id) ruiirbe 
bu Imirbcft or tuarbft, thou becamest bu tourbeft 

cr tourbc or toarb, he became er toiirbe 

Plur. fair tourben, we became tuir luiirben 

if>r tuurbet, ye became ibr roiirbet 

fte tourben, they became ftc tourben 

Observe : 1. the persistent c in the subjunctive endings ; 

2. the Umlaut in the imperfect subjunctive ; 

3. the second form (toarb, etc.) in the singular only of the 
imperfect indicative. 

20. Construction of Principal Sentences. — Place 
of Verb and Subject. 

Rule. — In principal sentences containing a statement, the 
verb is the second idea in the sentence, as : 


%$ bin bier. @r ift franf. 

I am here. He is ill. 

Observe : i . The verb is the second idea, not necessarily 
the second word, in the sentence. Thus the subject with its 
attributes and enlargements constitutes but one idea, as : 

1 2 3 


£er $ater biefeg 2ebrer§ tear bier. 

2. The subject (or subjects) with attributes and enlarge- 
ments may come either in the first or in the third place, as : 


3$ bin bier ; or : ipier bin idj. 

3. The predicate adjective is placed last, when the verb is in 
a simple tense, as : 

30 LESSON VI. [§ ^o 

I am satisfied with my daughters. 
2>df> bin mit mcincn Joditern lufrifbcu. 

Remarks. — i. Any other member of the sentence may 
occupy the first place, but in that case the subject is thrown 
after the verb, which still occupies the second place. Thus : 


3>m $rub,ltng finb bit ©tirtcn fcbon. 

2. In English, on the contrary, the subject precedes the 
verb, which is, in such cases, in the third place, as : 


In the spring the gardens are beautiful. 

3. This fixed position of the verb as the second idea in every 
German principal sentence should ?iei>er be forgotten. 

4. The conjunctions unb, after, ober, benn do not count as 
members of the sentence. 


sleigh, bcr Sd)litten dissatisfied, unjufrteben 

thunder-storm, ba3 ©erottter after, nad; (with dat.) 

attentive, aufmerifam therefore, on that account, 
green, grim beSbalb 

new, neu never, trie 

young, jung so, fo 

inattentive, unaufmerffam why, toarum ? 

unpleasant \ m ^ m again, hneber 

disagreeable," > well, toobl 


A. 1. 9?ad) bem ©emitter tourbe ba§ 2Better febon unb toarm. 
2. ©eftern tourben meine Gutter unb ir;re ©cbtocfter franf, aber 
jeljt finb fie toobl. 3. ©ein 3Sater fyat ein £au§ unb einen 
©artcn unb er bat aud) JBagen unb ©dbjitten. 4. £)a£ -JBettcr 


toarb geftern unangcnebm unb luinbig ; aber e§ ift beute lwteber 
ganj fchon unb toarm. 5. 2>er Setter roirb unjufrieben, benn 
feine ©cfiiiler toerben unaufmerffam. 6. 2$arum toirb unfer 
23ater je£t fo fc^toad^ ? 7. @r roirb febr alt, unb roirb befthalb 
aucfy fd)roac&. 8. Unfcrc Gutter ift nidfjt jung, aber fie ift nod) 
fdjdn. 9. SSaren bie fSviiber biefer Setter in Berlin ober in 
Hamburg ? 10. ©ie ioaren in Hamburg, aber fie toaren nie in 

B. 1. The brother of these pupils became our teacher. 2. 
Teachers often become dissatisfied with their pupils. 3. In 
the spring our garden becomes beautiful. 4. Our brothers- 
in-law were in Paris ; they are now in London. 5. This tree 
becomes green very quickly. 6. The pupils of this teacher 
became very attentive. 7. My daughters are not contented 
with their cloaks. 8. In the autumn (the)* apples become ripe. 
9. The father of these girls becomes old and weak. 10. With 
the feathers of an eagle. 11. We became rich, but he became 
poor. 12. The eagle is a bird ; it is large and strong. 13. 
The cloaks of those girls were new, but now they are getting 
(say : become) old. 


1. Wer ist in dem Schlitten ? 2. Wer hat das Messer 
ihres Onkels ? 3. Wann waren seine Briider in Hamburg ? 
4. Wann werden die Apfel reif ? 5. Wird der Baum im 
Sommer griin ? 6. Wann wird das Wetter kalt ? 

* Words in ( ) are omitted in English, but not in German ; words in [ ] 
are omitted in German, but not in English. 

32 LESSON VII. [§§21- 



^„ t^v S bcr 3ofm, the son; 

21. Declension of 1 " v !T V , 

l ber $>uno, the dog. 

(a) With Umlaut in the plural : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber <Sobn, the son bte ©obnc, the sons 

Gen. beg <5obn(c)§, the son's, ber ©iibnc, the sons', of the 

of the son sons 

Dat. bem ©of)n(c), (to, for) ben ©iirmcn, (to, for) the sons 

the son 
Ace. ben (Sobn, the son bte ©ofrnc, the sons 

Observe : i. The -c8 of the gen., and -t of dat. sing. 

2. The Umlaut and -e of the plur. 

3. The additional -n of the dat. plur. 

4. The -e may be dropped in the dat. sing., and (except 
after sibilants) in the gen sing., but is usually retained in 

(6) Without Umlaut : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber iQunb, the dog bie §unbc, the dogs 

Gen. be3 £mnb(c)8, the dog's, ber £mnbc, the dogs', of the 

of the dog dogs 

Dat. bem §unb(e), to the dog ben §unbctt, (to, for) the dogs 

Ace. ben §unb, the dog bie §unbc, the dogs 

22. In this way are declined : 

1. Most masculine monosyllables: generally add Umlaut 
(see App. B.) 


2. Masculines in -at, -id), -ig, -ing, -ling : never add 

3. Many feminine monosyllables with a, U, or ou in the 
root : a/ways add Umlaut (for list, see App. C.) 

4. Substantives in -ni$ and -fol : never add Umlaut. 

5. Many neuter monosyllables (all those in -r) : never 
add Umlaut, except f^lofj, Gbor, 33oot (336tc or 93oote) App. E. 

6. Foreign masculines, with accent on last syll., in -ol, 
-ait, -or: generally without Umlaut; in -oft, with Umlaut; 
in -icr, -Ott, -or, and foreign neuters in -at : never with Um- 
laut (for exceptions, see App. D.) 

Further examples : 

2)ic £anb, the hand : Sing. n. g. d. a. £anb ; Plur. n. g. a 
$anbc, d. £>dnbcn. 

(Observe again : Feminines have all cases of the sing, alike.) 

Ta§ 58egrdbni», the burial, funeral : Sing. n. a. 53egrdbnt§, 

g. SBegrdbmffcS, d. 33egrdbmf(fe) ; Plur. n. g. a. Segrdbniffe, 

d. 33egrdbmffen. 

(Observe the doubling of the final -g when a termination is added.) 

3)er, the month : Sing. n. a. 9Jtonai, g. 5Jionat(c)§, 
d. 2Konat(t) ; Plur. n. g. a. donate, d. 9Jtonaten. 

%o& Safer, the year : Sing. n. a. ^abr, g. %q&, r(e)«, d. %o$)X(t) ; 
Plur. n. g. a. %ok}Xt, d. ^abrcn. 

3)cr 2tyfelbaum, the apple-tree : Sing. n. a. 2tyfelbaum, g. 
2tyfelbaum(e)8, d. 2fyfelbaum(e) ; Plur - N - G - A - Sfyfelbaume, d. 

(Observe that in compounds only the last component is varied, and is 
declined as when standing alone). 


Examples : 
1 2 

1. Has the dog meat? 
£at berfcunb gkifd}? 



2. Which man 

is old ? 

2BeId)er 9D?ann 

ift alt? 

34 LESSON VII. | §23 

12 1 2 3 

3. Who is in the garden? 5. What has the teacher ? 
SBer ift in bem ®arten ? 2BaS bat ber Sebrer ? 

12 8 12 3 

4. Where is my father ? 6. When was the pupil here ? 
2Bo ift meinSSater? SBann toar ber ©cbiiler bier? 

Observe from these examples : 

1. That the construction of Direct Interrogative Sentences 
is exactly the same in German as in English, as far as the 
position of Verb and Subject is concerned. 

2. That in both languages the question-word always begins 
the sentence. 


(An Asterisk (*) after a word signifies that the plural has Umlaut.) 

Tuesday, 2)ien§'tag marsh, swamp, ber <Sumpf * 

enemy, ber fteinb day, ber Stag 

finger, ber finger carpet, ber Stepptd) 

Friday, $rei'tag curtain, ber 3Sor'bang * 

foot, ber $ujj * week, bie 233ocr)e 

general, ber ©eneral' room, ba§ dimmer 

young man, youth, ber ^iing'lmg thirty, breifjig 

emperor, ber &aifer five, ftinf 

acquirements, bie ®enntniffe long, long 

king, ber $6nig new, neu 

Wednesday, ber 9D?itt/toocb. magnificent, pracfytig 

Monday, ber SJlon'tag red, rot 

officer (military) ber Officer' seven, ficben 

town, city, bie ©tabt* white, toeifj 

Sunday, ber ©onn'tag where, too ? 

Saturday, i ber © onn ' a & enb > twelve, jtoflf 

' ( or <Sam§'tag 



A. 1. (Sin %ai)x bat jroolf donate unb in jebem -JJtonat finb 
breifeig Stage. 2. SDte §dnbe biefer SDidbcfcen finb !lein. 3. SDie 
©drten tn biefen Stdbten rourben im grilling fc&on. 4. $>ie 
£age finb im ©omtner lang, abcr im 2Binter luerben fie furj unb 
fait. 5. 2)ic gutter meine§ $reunbe$ mar geftern in ber ©tabt. 
6. £)ie $enntniffe be§ 2ebrer<S finb grofj. 7. 2)ie SBorbdnge bicfeS 
3hnmer§ finb roeifj, aber bie Seppicr/e finb rot. 8. $>ie <5cb>dger 
biefer Dffijiere ftnb ©enerale. 

B. 1. The horses and dogs of this young man are hand- 
some. 2. We have two feet and two hands, and each hand 
has five fingers. 3. The emperor and the king were enemies, 
but now they are friends. 4. These trees are old, but they 
are still beautiful. 5. The curtains and carpets in this room 
are new and magnificent. 6. Every week has seven days: 
Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, 
Saturday. 7. The sons are tall, but the father is not quite 
so tall. 8. The funeral of the king was magnificent. 9. My 
father has two apple-trees in his garden. 10. Where are the 
frogs ? In the spring they are in the marshes. 


1. Wo waren die Briider seiner Mutter gestern ? 2. Sind 
die Vorhange weisz oder rot ? 3. Was hat sein Vater im 
Garten? 4. Wer war gestern in der Stadt? 5. Wessen 
Schwager sind Offiziere ? 6. Welche sind die Tage der 
Woche ? 





CONJUGATION OF Ijabcn, to have. - PLACE OF 

24. Paradigm of Ijnbcn, to have. 

Principal Parts. 
Pres. Infin. fyabcn Impf. Indic. battc Past Part, gcbabt 





id; babe, I have 

id; babe, I (may) have, etc. 

bu bafi, thou hast 

bu babeg 

er fyat, he has 

er bafcc_ 

hrir babcn, we have 

loir babcn 

ibr r)abt, ye have 

ibr babct 

fie babcn, they have 

fie babcn 


id) battc, I had 

id) biitte, I had (might have), 

bu battcft, thou hadst bu biitteft [etc. 

er battc, he had 

er biitte 

fair batten, we had 

nrir batten 

ibr ^atkt, ye had 

ibr biittet 

fie batten, they had 

fie batten 

Perfect. • 


of f)abcn -f- P. Part.) 

I have had, etc. 

I (may) have had, etc. 

id) i)ab^ 

id; bfOiU 

bu baft 

bu babeft 

er bat 
toir baben 

► scl|o(t 

er f)ahz 
fair baben 

> RC^ODt 

ibr l)abt 

ibr babet 

fie baben . 

fie baben , 


PARADIGM OF bcibett. 



(Imperf. of babeti + P. Part.) 


I had had, etc 
id) hatte 
bu fyatteft 
er batte 
totr batten 
ii)r Ijattet 
fte fatten 

I had (might have) had, etc. 

> gclja&t 

I shall have, etc. 
id) tocrbc 

bu toirft 
er hrirb 
ir)r toerbet 
fietoerben , 

id) bdtte 
bu fydtteft 
er fydtte 
toir b. dtten 
ir)r fydttet 
fie b, dtten 
(Pres. of tncrben 4- infin. of baben.) 

I shall have, etc 



id) toerbe 
bu tocrbeft 
er tocrbc 
ibr toerbet 
fie toerben 
Future Perfect. 
(Future of {jabcil + P. Part.) 

I shall have had, etc. 

id) toerbe 


bu nrirft 
er toirb 
toir h)erben 
ibr toerbet 
fie toerben 

I shall have had, etc. 
id) toerbe 

> flc^obt fjnlicn 

bu tocrbeft 
er toerbe 
toir toerben 
ibr toerbet 
fie toerben 

gcljabt fjalicn 


(Impf . Subj. of merben -f- Infin. 

of baben.) 

I should have, etc. 

**»?** Ua&en 

butourbeft ) 


(Simple Cond. of Ijaben -|- Past 
I should have had, etc. 
icbtourbe \ %c¥U¥hm 
bu toitrbeft i B * * 

38 LESSON VIII. [§§ as- 

er luiirbe er nmrbc 

tone nuirben I ^ tob tofitben , ^ ^ 

tbr tourbet I if?r hmrbct 

ftc tourben J fte tuiirben . 

Imperative. Infinitive, 

babe (bu), have (thou) (ju) baben, (to) have 

b abt (tbr), have (ye) gcfjnlit (ju) baben, (to) have 

Pres. habenb, having Past, gcbabt, had. 

25. Use of Auxiliaries of Tense. — i. Jcmbcn forms 
the perfect tenses of all transitive and most intransitive 
verbs precisely as above. 

In any verb not conjugated with fetn (see 4, below) : 

The Present of baben -f- P. Part, of any verb form the 
Perfect of that verb. 

The Imperfect of baben -f- P- Part, of any verb form the 
Pluperfect of that verb. 

2. S&crben forms the Future and Simple Conditional 

The Present of toerben-t- Infin. of any verb form the 

The Imperf. Subj. of loerben -f- Infin. of any verb form 
the Simple Conditional. 

3. The Future of baben -\- P. Part, of any verb (not con- 
jugated with fein) form the Future Perfect. 

The Simple Conditional of baben -\- P. Part, of any 
verb (not conjugated with fein) form the Compound Con- 

4. <2>Ctn replaces baben in the Perfect Tenses of many 
Intransitive Verbs. (See § 53.) Compare the English ' He 
is come.' 

26] construction of compound tenses. 39 

26. Construction of Compound Tenses. — Place 
of Participle and Infinitive. 

Rule of Construction. — In every principal sentence the 
Participle and Infinitive come at the end ; but if both be 
present, the Participle precedes the Infinitive, which is always 
last, as : 


2 3 4 



{Engl.) My teacher 

has had money. 


2 3 4 



{Germ.) 2Rein Secret 

bat (Mb gcfiabt. 

1 2 

3 4 



{Engl.) We shall 

have a storm. 

1 2 

3 4 



{Germ.) 2Bir toerben 

einen ©turtn Ijabcn. 


2 3 4 5 



{Engl.) The beggars 

would have had no shoes. 


2 3 45 


{Germ.) £)ie Settler hntrben feine ©dutbe gcljabt Ijabcn. 

Remember : In compound tenses, the auxiliary is the 
verb, and occupies the second place in a principal sen- 
tence (see § 20, Rule 1, above). 


evening, ber 21'benb money, ba§ ©elb 

beggar, ber Settler guest, ber ©aft* 

holiday, ber ^ei'ertag harbour, ber £>afen* 

fish, ber gifd) glove, ber §anb'fd>ub, 

fruit, bic ^rudjt * basket, ber £orb * 

fox, ber $ud)3 * nut, bie -iftujj * 

40 LESSON VIII. [§§26- 

to be right, 9tccbt fyabcn out of, au3 (gov. dat.) 

sailing-ship, bal (Se'gelfd)iff to become of, nu3. . . roerben 

chair, ber ©tubl* poor, arm 

storm, bcr ©turm * bad, fcbledbt 

stocking, bcr ©trumbf * to-morrow, morgen 

shoe, ber (Scftub the day after to-morrow, u'bers 

table, ber Jifd) morgen 

animal, ba§ Stier much, biel 

to be wrong, Un'red;t baben already, fcfyon 

pleasure, bag SBergniigen when, mann ? 

wolf, ber SBoIf * f f~ 


A. 1. $>cb habc biet ©elb gebabt, aber jetjt bin id) arm. 2. 
2)ie griicbte roerben im £>erbft retf. 3. 355irb ber $nabe etnen 
£ifd) unb (Stiible in fetnem gimmer baben-? 4. ^bre £>anbfd)ufye 
rourben fcblecbt, benn fie roaren fcbon alt. 5. £3 ift angenebm, 
greunbe ju baben. 6. 2Ba3 rourbe au3 bem (gobne be§ Sebrers? 
Sr rourbe aud) Scorer. 7. 2>d) toerbe geinbe unb aud) ^reunbe baben. 
8. 2)ie ©afte in unferer ©tabt rourben miibe, benn ba$ 2Better 
roar febr betfe. 9. 2Berben roir SCebbicbe unb 33orb,&nge in unferm 
3tmmer b.aben? 10. (Sir batte $reunbe gefyabt. 11. £;ie roerben 
in btefem !^cd)re biel SSergniigen gebabt baben. 12. 2)ie Sofyne 
be3 $onig<3 b, aben ^ferbe unb SBagen, aber bie Stbcbter be§ 33ett= 
Ier§ baben feine ©cbube unb leine (Striimbfe. 13. 233ir batten 
9ted)t gebabt, aber er b,atte Unrecbt gebabt. 14. 2)cit meinen 
^reunbcn r)abe id) biel Sergniigen gefyabt. 15. Unfere ^reunbe 
roerben geftern biel 23ergnugen gebabt fyaben, benn ba3 Setter mar 
fcbon unb roarm. 

B. 1. The sailing-ships are in the harbour. 2. We had 
thirty fishes in our baskets. 3. He would have friends. 4. 
The evening was fine, but the weather became cold. 5. We 
have had two storms. 6. Where are our guests ? They became 
tired and are now in the garden. 7. To-morrow we shall have 

31] PARADIGM OF Ioben. 41 

a holiday, for it is Saturday. 8. We were in the garden 
yesterday, and the trees are already green. 9. What has he 
had? He has had apples and nuts. 10. Dogs, wolves, and 
foxes are animals. 


1. Wer hatte Recht und wer hatte Unrecht ? 2. Wann 
werden wir einen Feiertag haben ? 3. Wo sind die Segel- 
schiffe? 4. Wessen Sohne haben Wagen und Pferde? 5. 
Warum wurden die Gaste miide ? 6. Welche Gemalde sind 
schon ? 



27. The stem of a verb is what is left when the termina- 
tion of the Present Infinitive (-en or -n) is dropped, as : 
bab-en, stem (jab ; lob-en, stem lob. 

28. The Principal Parts of a verb are the Present In- 
finitive, Imperfect Indicative, and Past Participle. 

29. Any verb, when these principal parts are given, may 
be conjugated throughout, by using the auxiliaries, precisely 
as in the paradigm of baben in Less. VIII. 

30. Weak verbs are those which form the Imperfect 
by adding -te, and the Past Participle by prefixing gc- and 
adding -{ to the stem, as: (ob-en, to praise (stem lob), 
Imperfect lob-tc, P. Part, ge— lob— t ; tabel-lt, to blame (stem 
tobel), Imperf. tabel-te, P. Part, gc-tabel-t. 

Note. — Weak verbs are also called Regular or Modern. 

31. Paradigm of Ioben, to praise. 

Principal Parts. 
Pres. Infin. Ioben Impf. Indic. lobte Past Part, gclobt 

42 LESSON IX. [§31 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


id) lobe, I praise (am praising, id? lobe, I (may) praise 

do praise) 

bu Iob(c)fl, thou praisest, etc. bu lobcfl, thou (mayest) praise 

er Iob(c)t, he praises er lobe, he (may) praise 

h)ir Iobcn, we praise Jpir lobcil, we (may) praise 

ibr Iob(c)t, ye praise ibr lobct, ye (may) praise 

fte Iobcn, they praise fie Iobcn, they (may) praise 


(Same form for both moods.) 

id) lobtc, I praised (was praising, etc.) 

bu lobtcft, thou praisedst 

er lobtc, he praised 

roir lobtcn, we praised 

ibr lobtct, ye praised 

fie lobtcn, they praised 

(Pres. of Ijabeu + P. Part of loben.) 

id) l)abz gelobt, I have praised (been id) babi gelobt 

bu baft gelobt, thou hast praised, etc. bu ^ab^t gelobt, ic. 

(Imperf. of Ipben -f P. Part, toben.) 

id) batte gelobt, I had praised (been id) bdite gelobt, ic 
praising), etc. 

(Present of tucrben + Infin. of loben.) 
id) toerbe Iobcn, I shall praise (be id; roerbe loben 

bu roirft Iobcn, thou wilt praise, etc. bu toerbeft loben, ic. 

§ 3*] PARADIGM OF loben. 43 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Future Perfect. 

(Future of fjabcn + P- Part, of loben.) 

id) toerbe gelobt baben, I shall have id) toerbe gelobt baben 


bu toirft gelobt babcn, thou wilt have bu toerbeft gelobt 

praised, etc. baben, 2c. 


Simple. Compound. 

(Impf. Subj. of roerben + Infin. (Simple Cond. of t)abcn-f- P. Part, 

of loben.) of loben.) 

id) toiirbe lo&cn, I should id) toiirbe Qclofct I)aben, I should 
praise(be praising) etc. have praised, etc. 

Imperative. Infinitive, 

lobe (bu), praise (thou) (ju) loben, (to) praise, 

lobe er, let him praise flclo&t (}u) baben, (to) have 

loben loir, let us praise praised 

lobt (ibr), praise (ye) 
loben fie, let them praise 

Pres. lobcttb, praising Past, gelobt, praised 

Remarks. — 1. e is sometimes found in the terminations of 
the following parts : Pres. Ind. bu Iob(e)ft, er lob(c)t, ibr Iob(e)t ; 
Impf. (Ind. and Subj.) id) lob(c)te, etc. ; P. Part. ge!ob(c)t, etc. ; 
and is always retained in certain verbs. (See § 35, Rem. 2, 

2. Note again the persistent c of the Pres. Subj. 

3. English periphrastic forms of the verb are to be avoided 
in German ; thus : 

I praise \ (praise I ?) 

I am praising >• id) lobe am I praising ? y lobe id) ? 

I do praise ) do I praise ? 

44 LESSON IX. [§§3*- 

(he praised not) \ ^ {of)U (praised he not?) J {oW w 
he was not praising > . ,, was he not praising? r -x t o 
he did not praise ) did he not praise ? ' 

I have been praising, etc., id) babe gelobt, etc. 
Had I been praising? batte id) gelobt? 
4. The only true Imperative forms are those of the 2. sing, 
and 2. plur., lobe, lobt. For the other persons, the pres. subj. 
is used, as : lobe er, let him praise ; loben fair, let us praise ; 
loben fie, let them praise; — the verb preceding the pronoun. 

Construction of Dependent Sentences. 

32. The Verb in a Dependent Sentence comes last, as: 

$d) glaube, bafj er ©elb Ijat, 
I believe that he has money. 
Remember: that the auxiliary is the verb in compound 

33. In compound tenses the Participle and Infinitive 
immediately precede the verb ; if both be present, the Parti- 
ciple precedes, as in principal sentences, thus : 

$c& glaube, bafe er ©elb peljabt bat, 
I believe, that he has had money. 

3jc& glaube, bafc er ©elb fjabcn ftrirb, 
I believe that he will have money. 

3>d) glaube, baft er ©elb (lcljabt fyabert hnrb, 
I believe that he will have had money. 
Note. — The place of the Subject, in a Dependent Sentence, is 
usually the same as in English. 

34. Prepositions governing the Accusative only. 

©i3, burd), fur, gcgcn, olntc, 11m, hiibcr. 

M8, (1) till, until (time), as: I shall not come until to- 
morrow (big morgen). 


(2) up to, as far as {place), as : He travelled with us 
as far as (Big) Montreal. 

bur if), through ; as : He rode through' the forest (burd) 
ben SB alb). 

fur, for; as: That is for my friend (flit meinen $reunb); 
the scissors are not a toy for children (fitr ®inber). 

gcgctl, towards, against (not necessarily denoting hos- 
tility), as : The enemy advanced towards (or 
against) the bridge (gcgen bte 23riicfe). 

oljltc, without ; as : We cannot travel without money (o(jnc 

Uttt, (1) around, about; as: We drove around the town 
(urn bte <Stabt). 

(2) at, about {time), as : He came at four o'clock 
(utn bier Ubr); it happened at (or about) 
Christmas (um 2Beiftnad)ten). 
briber, against {opposition, hostility) , as : He swam against 

the stream (briber ben ©from); the soldiers were fighting 

against the enemy (briber ben $einb). 

Remark. — 2)urd), fur, and um are generally contracted 
with the Neuter of the unemphasized Definite Article, thus : 

burcfi ba§ = burdjg (burd)'§) 
fur ba§ = fiirg (fur'3) 
um bag = um8 (um'3) 


believe, glauben love, lieben 

hope, hoffen make, do, mad)en 

buy, faufen say, fa gen 

laugh, Iad)en send, fcf)tcfen 

live, leben play, fbielen 

learn, lernen sell, berfaufen 

46 LESSON IX. [§§34- 

weep, cry, toeinen place, square, ber ^latj * 

bishop, bcr s -23i'fcbof * ring, ber diit\Q 

German, £)eutfd) walk, bcr ©bajier/gang * 

servant, ber $)iencr time, bie $eit 

industry, diligence, ber Jleifc g°°d, kind, gut 

young lady, Miss, bag Jrdulein merry, merrily, luftta 

cardinal, ber $arbinal sad, traurtg 

noise, ber 2drm that (conj.), bafj 

Latin, ba§ Satein because, tocil 

palace, ber ^ala'ft* if, toenn 

pope, ber "$abft * why, toarum' ? 

Idiom: to take a walk, ciiicn ^pajfergang tnadytn. 
Note. — A past tense after menu ('if') is put in the subj. mood. 


A. 1. $>ie $arbinale unb 33ifd)ofe toaren geftern im $alafie 
beg ^abfteg. 2. SDag grdulein toirb biefe 9tinge faufen, benn fie 
finb fefcon. 3. £)er 9Haler toiirbe biefeg ©emdlbe nicfyt berfaufen. 
4. %<$) toiirbe biefen 9iing faufen, toenn id) reicb todre. 5. £at er 
eg geglaubt ? 6r hat eg geglaubt, toeil fein $ater eg gefagt hat. 
6. £>ie ©cbitler baben toiel Sdrm gemadjt. 7. 9Bir loben ben 
^tingling, toeil er f(eif$ig ift. 8. £)er $onig toirb feine ©ene* 
rale gegen ben fteinb fdjicfen. 9. ^Reine ©cbtoefter toirb §anb= 
fcfyube faufen, benn ibre £anbfd>ube finb fcbled^t. 10. 2Bir toitrben 
beute einen ©bajiergang burd; bie ©tabt macben, toenn bag 2Better 
febon todre. 11. ©ie toitrben aucb einen ©bajiergang gemad)t 
baben, toenn fie $eit gebabt batten. 1 2. ©ie toirb fagen, bafj id; 
$Recbt l)aht. 13. 3cb [jabi immer gebofft, bap er lernen toiirbe. 
14. ©ie liebt ibren 33ater unb ibre SJlutter, benn fie finb gut. 15. 
6r toiirbe bag ©emdlbe nicbt gelobt baben, benn eg toar nicfyt febon. 

B. 1. What were they doing yesterday ? They were playing 
in the garden. 2. This gentleman will praise his servants, 
for they are industrious. 3. We have taken a walk about 

35 1 



the town. 4. The squares in those cities are very fine. 5. 
Where were the daughters of the officers ? They were living 
in a convent. 6. Without industry we shall not learn much. 
7. The boy was playing with the dog. 8. The gentleman has 
sold his horses and carriages. 9. What are the young ladies 
doing now? 10. Why was she crying? She was crying 
because she was sad. 11. They are laughing because they 
are merry. 12. We shall have learned much in a week. 13. 
I am laughing because the child is playing so merrily. 14. 
To-day we are learning German, to-morrow we shall learn 
Latin. 15. We have bought shoes and stockings for the 


1. Weshalb hat sie gelacht? 2. Wer machte so viel Larm? 
3. Wo haben die Fraulein einen Spaziergang gemacht ? 4. 
Was hat die Fran gekauft ? 5. Weshalb hat seine Schwester 
Handschuhe gekauft ? 6. Was werden wir morgen machen ? 


— $0rf MODEL, OR PLURAL IN -Cr. 

35. Endings of Weak Verbs in Simple Tenses. 




Sing. 1. — c 

— e 

2- -(c)ft 


3. -(c)t 

— c 

Plur. 1. — en 

— en 

2. -(C)t 

— ti 

3. —en 

— en 

Ind. andSubj. 

— (e)tc 

— (c)te 
— (c)tcn 

— (e)tcn 

Sing. 2. — C 
Plur. 2. — (e)t 


Pros. — enb 
Past, gc — (C)l 

48 LESSON X. [§§35- 

Remarks. — i. Observe the following endings: 

(a) Final -t of the 3. sing, occurs only in the Pres. Indie. 

{b) The 2. sing, has -ft except in the Imperative. 

(c) The 2. plur. has -t throughout. 

2. Verb-Stems in -b or -t (tfj), or in -m or -n preceded by 
another consonant, retain -c throughout after the stem, as : 

rcbcn, to speak. 

Pres. Ind. Imperfect. Imperative. 

Sing. 2. bu rebcft Sing. 1. id) rebcte /V«r. 2. rebct (ibr) 

3. er rebet 2. bu rebctcft 

Plur. 2. ibr rebct etc. 

Thus : arbeiten, to work : id) arbeitcte ; atmen, to breathe : 
bu atmcft ; regnen, to rain : e§ regnct. 

3. Verb-Stems in a sibilant (8, ftf), jj, r, 3) retain -c in the 
2. sing. Pres. Ind. and Subj. only, as : 

tanjen, to dance : bu tanjcft ; reif en, to travel : bu reifcjt. 

4. Verb-Stems in -cl and -cr drop c of the stem before 
terminations in -c (i. e. in 1. sing. Pres. Ind., 1. and 3. sing. 
Pres. Subj., and 2. sing. Imper.), and, except in the Subjunc- 
tive, never insert t after \ or n, as : 

taucht, to blame. 

Pres. Ind. Pres. Subj. Imperfect. 

id) tabic tabic id) tabclte, etc. 

bu tabclft tablcft Imperative. 

er tabctt tabic tabic 

h)tr tabcln tablcn tabclt 

ibr tabclt tablet P. Part. 

fie tabcln tablcn getabclt 

5. Foreign verbs in -icrcn (— trctl) do not take the prefix 
gc- in the P. Part., as : ftub-ieren, to study : P. Part, ftubicrt 

37] DECLENSION : 2)0rf MODEL. 49 

(not ge— ftubiert) ; bombarbieren, to bombard : P. Part. bom= 

6. Verbs with the prefixes be- CV-, cmjl-, Cltt-, flC-, tier-, 
jer- also omit the prefix gc- in the P. Part., as : bcjablen, 
P. Part, bcjablt ; uerfebtoenben, titrfebtoenbet. 

36. Declension of bag $orf, the village. 

Singular. Plural. 

Norn, bag $>orf, the village bte 2)orfer, the villages 

Gen. beg 3)orf(e)g, of the ber Surfer, of the villages 


Dat. bem 25orf(e), (to, for) ben SDbrfern, (to, for) the 

the village villages 

Ace. bag 2)orf, the village bte 5Dorfcr, the villages 

Remarks. — i. The Singular is formed precisely as in the 
©obn model. (See § 21.) 

2. Observe -cr of the Plural, with the additional -n of the 

3. All Substantives of this Declension with a, 0, u or au 
in the stem take Umlaut. 

37. In this way are declined : 

1. Most neuter monosyllables (exceptions in App.E-f. 

2. Substantives ending in -t(lj)uin. 

3. Five neuters with prefix ©e-, viz. : 

bag ©emad), the apartment bag ©etyenft, the spectre 

bag ©entiit, the temper, dis- bag ©etoanb, the garment 

position (also ©e[td)t ; see § 64) 
bag ©efa?led)t, the sex 

4. Two foreign neuters, viz. : bag Regiment, the regiment; 
bag §ofpital (or Spiral), the hospital. 

50 LESSON X. [§37 

5. The following nine masculines : 

bcr SBofeluicbt, the villain bcr Jtanb, the edge, margin 

bcr ©eift, the spirit bcr 3>ormunb, the guardian 

bcr ©ott, the God bcr 2BaIb, the forest 

ber 2eib, the body bcr 2Burm, the worm 

bcr 2Rann, the man, (also j£>orn, Drt ; see App. 

husband (Lat. vir) E.) 

Further examples (Sing, like <3obn) : 

£)ag <Sd)lof}, the castle, palace : Plur. n. g. a. ©cbliiffer, 
d. ©cbloffern. 

SDag 33ud), the book : Plur. n. g. a. 93iicbcr, d. Siicbcrn. 

2)er 3Kann, the man, husband : Plur. n. g. a. 9Ranncr, d. 

$)ag £inb, the child : Plur. n. g. a. $inbcr, d. ftinbern. 

SDa§ £au£, the house : Plur. n. g. a. £aufcr, d. £aufern. 


to row, rubern child, bag $inb 

shake, fcbiitteln dress, bag £leib 

waste, toerfd)toenben clothes, pi. of $lctb 

exercise, task, bie Stufgabe song, bag Sieb 

leaf, bag 33Iatt courage, spirit, bcr 9Jiut 

egg, bag @i woman, wife, bag 2Betb 

possession, property, bag yellow, gelb 

©igentum enough, genug 

earth, bic 6rbc well (adv.), gut 

gardener, ber ©artner a long while, lange 

fowl, bag £ubn too, ju 


A. 1. 2>m ^erbft toerben bie ©latter gelb, benn bag SSetter ift 
fait. 2. %&) table biefe SRabcben, toeil fie ir)re 2lufgabe nid)t 
ftubiert baben. 3. 5 m 2Binter ftubierten bie ^iingltnge ; im 

§ 37] DECLENSION : $)0rf MODEL. 5 I 

©ommer arbeiteten fie. 4. „2)u ruberft nidjt fdmeU gcnug, mein 
33ruber," fagte id). 5. GDiefe 5Rdnner lieben ibre iSeiber unb 
£inber. 6. SDer Setter fagte, bafj bic ®inber §u totel Sdrm marten. 

7. $)er £6nig rebete mit ben ©eneralen, unb lobte ben 3Jiut ifyrer 
Sftegimenter. 8. 2)ie SBormimber bicfer $inber finb SBoferotcbter, 
benn fie baben bag ©igentum ber $inber toerftfjioenbet. 9. 2)ie 
SSurmer leben in ber (Srbe, aber bie f^ifc^e leben im SBaffer. 10. 
!iBo finb bie @ier ber §iibner ? ©ie finb in unferen ®6rben. 11. 
%d) toerbe miibe, tuetl idj gegen ben (Strom rubre. 12. SDer $aifer 
bat bie ©enerale getabelt, aber ir)re Stegimenter r)at er gelobt. 

B. 1. The general has bombarded the town. 2. The 
woman was buying books and clothes for her children. 3. 
The gardener is shaking the apple-tree. 4. The children 
were learning songs. 5. The boy is industrious ; he has 
studied well. 6. The apartments of the palaces are magni- 
ficent. 7. It rained yesterday, but it will not rain to-day. 

8. We have rowed a long while against the stream. 9. These 
men travelled through towns and villages. 10. The hospitals 
in London are large and fine. 11. The leaves of these trees 
are large and beautiful. 12. This gentleman would buy my 
houses, if he had money enough. 


1. Weshalb werden die Blatter gelb? 2. Wessen Regi- 
menter hat der Konig getadelt ? 3. Was sagte der Lehrer ? 
4. Wo leben die Wiirmer ? 5. Was lernten die Kinder? 6. 
Wiirde dieser Herr das Haus kaufen ? 






Declension of Personal Pronouns. 

First Person. 

Second Person. 

Sing. N. id), I 

DU, thou 

G. meiner (mein), of me 

bciner (bein), of thee 

D. mir, (to, for) me 

bir, (to, for) thee 

A. mid), me 

bicb, thee 

Plur. N. fair, we 

ibr, ye, you 

G. unfer (unfrcr), of us 

euer (eurer), of you 

D. ung, (to, for) us 

cud), (to, for) you 

A. ung, us 

cud;, you 

Third Person. 







er, he 

fie, she 

eg, it 

(ALL genders). 


fciner (fein), 

ibrer (ibr), 

feincr (fein, 

of him 

of her 

e3) 7 of it 



ibr, (to, for) 


fid), (to, for) himself, 




herself, itself 


ifyn, him 

fie, her 

e§, it 

fid), himself, herself, 



fie, they 


tbrer (i&r), of them 


ifmen, (to, for) 

1 FOR 


fid), (to, for) them- 




fie, them 


fid), themselves 

Remarks.— i. The forms mein, bein, fein, ibr, unfrer, eurer 
are poetical or archaic. 

2 The form eg of the 3. sing. gen. neuter is only used in cer- 
tain phrases, as : %$) bin c8 mube, I am tired of it. 

39] IDOMATIC USES OF e3. 53 

3. The gen. and dat. of the 3. sing, neuter do not occur, 
except when referring to persons (e. g. 9Jiabcben, ^raulein). 

4. The Pronouns of the 3. sing, must agree in gender with 
the substantive to which they refer, as : 

£aft bu ben £ut ? %<\, id) babe tljn. 

Hast thou the hat ? Yes, I have it. 

§a[t bu bte 23lume? 9iem, id) b,abe fie md)t. 

Hast thou the flower ? No, I have it not. 

2Boift bog^abefcen? <i§ ift im ©arten. 
Where is the girl ? She is in the garden. 

5. The Pronouns of the 3. person are not used after Prepo- 
sitions, when referring to inanimate objects, but are replaced 
by the adverb bo(r), there, before the. Preposition, the r being 
inserted if the Preposition begins with a vowel, as : 

©ift bu nrit birjem ©udjc jufrieben? %<x, icb bin bomit 

gufrieben. Art thou satisfied with this book ? Yes, I 

am satisfied with it {therewith). 
How much did you pay for this hat ? I paid two dollars 

for it, bofiir {therefor). 
What have you in your purse ? I have money in it 

(barin, therein). 

39. Idiomatic Uses of c8. 

1. Before the verb, representing the real subject, which 
follows the verb, and with which the verb agrees, as : 

Who is it ? It is my cousin ; it is my cousins. 
2Ber ift eg ? (18 ift mem Setter ; e§ finb meine Settern. 
@8 leucbtet bte Sonne, the sun shines, i. e., it is the sun 

that shines. 
($8 leucbtcn bie ©terne, (it is) the stars (that) shine. 

54 LESSON XI. L§§39 

Remark. — @g in this construction is often rendered by 
1 there ' in English, as : 

There is a bird in this cage. 
($8 ift ein 33ogel in btefem 23auer. 
There are three books on this table. 
($8 finb brei SBitcber auf btefem Sifd). 
(See also e§ gtebt, Less. XXXVII.) 

2. When the real subject represented by c8 is a personal 
pronoun, with the verb to be, eg follows the verb, which 
agrees with the real subject in person and number, as : 

It is I, 3 d ) &to *3. 

c 3)u Mft eg. 
It is you, -j ^br fcib eg. 

( ©ie finb eg. 
It is we, tmr finb eg. 

It is they, fie finb eg. 

Is it you? finb <3te eg? 

3. After the verb, representing a predicate or a clause, 
and corresponding to the English 'one' or 'so,' as: 

Is your father a soldier ? Yes, he is one (eg). 
We are free, and you shall be so (eg) too. 

40. Use of Pronouns in Address. 

1. !$n is used only in addressing persons with whom we 
are very intimate, or towards whom we use no ceremony; 
also in addressing the Supreme Being, as : 

2Co bift bn, lieber ftreunb ? 
Where are you, dear friend ? 

2Bag maebft bu, mein $inb? 
What are you doing, my child ? 

2Bir loben $idj, ©ott ! We praise Thee, o God ! 


2. 3Ijr (plur. of bll) is used in addressing a number of per- 
sons, each of whom we should address by bu, as : 

2Ba$ macfot iljr, $inber? 

What are you doing, children? 

3. In all other cases we use for 'you' in German, whether 
sing, or plur., the pronoun of the Third Plural : ©te, ,3$ rcr > 
$ljncn, Sic, distinguished by a capital letter. (See also 

41. Paradigm of (often with Reflexive Pronouns. 

Present Indicative. 

Sing. 1. id) lobe mid), I praise myself 

2. bu lobft bid), thou praisest thyself 

3. er \ he \ ( himself 
fte Moot fid), she Upraises -j herself 
e§ ) it ) ( itself 

Plur. 1. totr loben itn§, we praise ourselves 

2. tfyr lobt cud), ye praise yourselves 

3. fie loben fid), they praise themselves 
So throughout the verb, as: 

Perfect : %$ babe mid) gelobt, bu baft bid) gelobt, er I)at fid) 
gelobt, etc. 

42. Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns — fclofl. 

1. The Pronouns of the First and Second Persons express 
reflexive action without a special form, as shown by the above 
paradigm, but those of the Third Person have the form fid). 

2. These pronouns are also used in the Plural to express 
reciprocal action, as : 

We met each other ; they will see each other again. 
2Bir begegneten un$ ; fie toerben fid) toieberfeben. 

56 LESSON XI. [§4* 

But when, to prevent ambiguity, it is necessary to dis- 
tinguish reciprocal from reflexive action, we use ciitontlcr as 
the reciprocal pronoun for all persons, thus : 

We love each other (one another), 2Bvr Iteben ciltottbcr. 

(2Bir Iteben Utti might mean ' we love ourselves. 1 ) 

3. To emphasize and strengthen the reflexive pronouns, 
and give them an exclusive sense, as well as further to distin- 
guish them from reciprocal pronouns, the indeclinable word 
felbft (or felbcr) is used, as: 

Know yourselves, ©rfennet eud) fclbfl. 
((Srfennet CUll) might mean ' know one another') 
He has injured himself, @r bat ftdt) fet&ji befcfyabigt. 

Remark. — This word fcl&ft is in apposition to the subject 
(or object, as the case may be), as : 

2)er $onig felbfi ift nicbt immer gliicflid). 
The king himself is not always happy. 

It is also used adverbially (= Eng. ' even '), as 
Even the king is not always happy. 
Sclbft ber &onig ift nid;t immer gliicflid). 


behave one's self properly (of seat one's self (sit down), fid) 

children), artig fetn fetjen 

meet, begegnen (dat.) punish, ftrafen 

visit, befucben work, labour, bie Strbeit 

pay, bejablen parents, bie Sltem (no sing.) 

have finished (with), fertig patience, bie ©ebulb 

fetn mit gentleman, master, Mr., bet 

belong (to), geboren (dat.) hat, bonnet, ber £ut* [§err 

be ashamed of, fid; foramen John, ^obann 

(gen.) Charles, £arl 


artist, ber $iinftler away, gone, fort 

Mary, 2Rarie here, bier 

uncle, ber D'fyetm ever, at any time, je, jemabS 

dollar, ber Scaler never, me, niemalS 


A. 1. ©ei artfg &arl, bu mad)ft ju t>iel Sdrm. 2. 3ene banner 
finb fefyr reid), benn biefe §aufer geljoren ibnen. 3. ©ebort ba3 
$ferb ^bnen ? -ttein, e3 gebort mir nidbt, e§ ger)ort bem Dffijier. 
4. Unfer Dbeim I)at un§ 33itd)er gefauft. 5. £abt ©ebulb, ihn= 
ber, id) toerbe eud) morgen %p\d unb 9?uffe faufen. 6. ^d) toerbe 
morgen einen ©pajiergang mit l^bnen mad)en. 7. @r glaubt, bafj id) 
mir ba§ ^Sferb gefauft r;abe. 8. 2J?orgen toerben toir einen peters 
tag I) aben, unb mir toerben unfre ©Item befud)en. 9. !yd) toerbe il)r 
fagen, bafj ib,re Gutter fort ift. 10. 2Baren ©ie jemabB in biefer 
&ird)e? 3>d> toar n * e barin. 11. $arl unb 3>ol)ann begegneten 
ftd) geftern im SSalbe. 12. 8ft 3&r SSater nod) Iranf? 9tan, 
mein SSater ift je§t iuor)l. 13. SDfarie, liebft bu beine (Sttern? %a, 
unb fie lieben mid) aud). 14. ^d) totirbe einen ©pajiergang mit 
3I)nen macben, toenn id) $eit ^ atte - 15. £at ber Sebrer 9flarie 
getabelt? 3 a, er M fa getabelt. 16. SDie ©d)u(er loben fid) 
felbft, toetl fie ir)rc 2lufgabe fo fdmeff gemad)t fyaben. 17. 2Bir 
toitrben unS felbft aud) loben, toenn toir unfre Slufgabe gemad)t 
fatten. 18. @r toiirbe fid) fcbamen, toenn er mit feiner 9Iufgabe 
nid)t fertig todre. 19. SBeSfyalb f°& en b'xtfz $itnftler einanber? 
©ie loben einanber, toeil U)re ©emalbe fd)on finb. 20. ©inb ©ie 
mit meiner 2lrbeit jufrteben? .-ftein, id) bin nid)t bamit jufrieben. 

B. 1. Is the table large? No, it is small. 2. Her father 
has bought her a ring. 3. Were the fishes in your basket? 
Yes, they were in it. 4. Who has told it [to] her ? 5. John, 
have you my shoes ? No, I have them not. 6. We sit down 
because we are tired. 7. Even the beggars of this city have 
shoes and stockings. 8. Who has bought this hat ? 9. I 
bought it myself in the city, and paid four dollars for it. 10. 

58 LESSON XII. [§§43~ 

Charles and his teacher love each other very much. 11. 
Mother, have you bought me apples or nuts? 12. Mr. A., 
here is a chair for you ; sit down. 13. Has the teacher blamed 
him? Yes, he had not done his exercise. 14. Do you believe 
that this milk is good ? Yes, it is very good. 15. The teacher 
is ashamed of her, because she has not finished (with) her work. 


1. Wiirden sie einen Spaziergang mit mir machen ? 2. 
Weshalb loben Sie sich so viel ? 3. Was sagten Sie mir ? 
4. Sind Sie mit meiner Arbeit zufrieden ? 5. Was werden 
wir morgen machen ? 6. Werden Sie morgen Ihre Eltern 
besuchen ? 


43. Possessive Adjectives. 

First Person. Second Person. 

Sing, tncin, my bcin, thy 

Plur. unjcr, our cucr, your 

Third Person. 


Sing, fciil, his (its) iljr, her (its) fcitt, its Plur. iljr, their 
Poss. Adj. of Polite Address : ^Ijr. 
Remarks. — i. The Possessive Adjectives are the Genitive 
Cases of the respective Personal Pronouns, declined after the 
mrin Model. (See § 8, above.) 

2. Unfcr and euer may drop e of the stem when inflected; 
or they may drop c of the termination, unless the termination 
is -c or -cr, as : unfcre or unjrc ; unferc3, unfrcS or unfcrS. 

3. Observe the correlatives of the Pronouns of Address: 

bu — bcin 
iljr — cucr 
Sic— 31jr 


Thus we say : 

bu baft bcttte Slufgabe gelernt, j haye leamt 

«5T *"* T " " f lesson 

Note. — The last example shows the use of the Pers. Pron. and Poss. 
Adj. of Third Plural as Pronoun of Address. 

4. Observe also the correlatives of the Third Person : 
Referring to subst. masc. sing. fcilt (whether animate 

" " " /em. " Hjr \ or inanimate 

" " " neuter " fcttt 

" to substs.plur. (all genders) iljr 
Thus we say : 

2)cr §unb bat fctncn £nod)en toerloren (lost) 
2)tc Slume „ iljre flatter „ 
$aB 33ud) „ fcinc „ „ 

5. The possessive adjectives agree in gender with both the 
possessor and the thing possessed. The termination will 
depend on the gender (number and case) of the substantive 
they qualify (the thing possessed) ; the stem (as above) on the 
gender of the substantive to which they refer (the possessor). 

Note. — Feminine diminutives, such as: 3Diabd)eu, girl, ^raulcin, young 
lady, generally take the possessive adjective referring to them in the 
feminine, agreeing with the sex rather than the gender, as: 

2>a8 2flabd)cn tiebt iljre SDcutter. 

The girl loves her mother. 

For Possessive Pronouns, see Les.- XXIII. 

44. Use of the Articles. 

The Definite Article is required in German, contrary to 
English usage, in the following cases : 

1. Before all substantives used in the full extent of 
their signification (i. e. in a general as well as in a par- 
ticular sense); hence : 

60 LESSON XII. [§44 

(a) Before nouns (sing, or plur.) denoting a whole class, 
as : 

$cr s D?enfd) ift fterblidr), Man is mortal; 
2)ic 3$ogeI fyaben defter, Birds have nests. 

(b) Before names of materials, abstract nouns, etc., 
used in their unlimited sense, not partitively, as : 

2)08 ©Ia§ ift burcbftc&tig, 

Glass is transparent; 

$>o§ ©olb ift toertbofler al§ bos ©ilber, 

Gold is more valuable than silver ; but : 

@olb unb Silbcr Ijabe tcb nicbt, 

Gold and silver I have not (have none of). 

2)ic 9?ot ift bie Gutter bcr Srfinbung, 

Necessity is the mother of invention; 

2>tc Shift! ift einc Slunft, 
Music is an art ; but : 

@r ftubtert SRufif, 

He studies music (limited sense). 

Note. — In Proverbs and Enumerations this article is omitted, as : 

92ot fcnnt fcin ©ebot, 

Necessity knows no law; 

OKuflf unb 3Kolcrei finb fdjone $iinfte, 

Music and painting are fine arts. 

2. Before names of mountains, lakes, seas, rivers, 
forests, streets, seasons, months and days of the week, 
as : 

2>cr 3Scfui), Mount Vesuvius. 

$cr Ontario, Lake Ontario. 

$>tc £r/emfe, the Thames. 

2>er ©peffart, the (forest of) Spessart. 

$ie $riebrid)ftrafje, Frederick Street. 


3m ftrubltng, in spring. 

2)cr ^anuar ift fait, January is cold. 

%m SRontag, on Monday. 

Also before ipvmmel, (Srbe, §6ffe, as : 
3nt £)immel, in heaven ; 
Sur @rbe, to earth ; 
and before places of public resort, as : 

$ur ©cfcule geben, to go to school. 
3$ tear in ber $trd)e, I was at church. 

3. Before names of countries when not neuter, or when 
preceded by an adjective, as : 

2)tC ©cfciDcij, Switzerland. 

%>a$ fd)one granfretd), fair France. 

Note. — Further information on the article with Proper Names is 
given in §§ 73, 74, 76. 

4. The English Indefinite Article is replaced by the Definite 
Article in German when used distributively (= each\ as : 

gtoeimal beg ^abre§, twice a year. 

3)rei Abater bit @ffe, three dollars a yard. 

5. The Indefinite Article is omitted before the'unqualified 
predicate after fein or hxrben, as : 

6r ift (tourbe) ©olbot, he is (became) a soldier ; 

@r ift citt tapferer ©olbat, he is a brave soldier. 

6. (a) The Definite Article replaces the Possessiv ; 
Adjective when no ambiguity would -result as to the pos- 
sessor, as : 

@r. ftecfte bic £>cmb in bte 'itafdje, 
He put his hand into his pocket ; 
gr fd)iitteit ben £opf, 
He shakes his head. 




©ebcn Sic mir bte £mnb, Give me your hand. 
(b) With parts of the person, clothing, etc., the Dative of 
the Personal Pronoun -4- Definite Article replace the Pos- 
sessive Adjective, as : 

Gin Stem fid tljm ouf ben $opf, 
A stone fell on his head; 
(Sin DJagel bat mir ben dlod jcrriffen, 
A nail has torn my coat. 

Note. — If the subject is the possessor, the reflexive pronoun is 
used, as : 

Gv l)nt fid) in ben ^i' l fl cr oefcipiitten, He has cut his finger. 

to cost, {often 

hurt, wound, berletjen 

cry, weep, roetnen 

draw, jeirhnen 

doctor, physician, ber 9lrjt* 

axe, bie 2tjt * 

mountain, hill, ber 33erg 

lead-pencil, ber SBleiftift 

iron, ba§ (Sifen 

window, ba$ ^enfter 

wing, ber 5^9^^ 

purse, ber ©elbbeutel 

hope, bie §offnung 

merchant, ber $aufmann 

farewell, (ba§) Sebetoobl 


master, ber SRetfter 

Mont Blanc, ber 3Ront SBlanc 

music, bie 'DJiufif 

coat, ber 9iotf * 

Schiller-street, bte ©cf)ttter= 

tailor, ber ©cfinetber 
cloth, ba§ %ud) 
exercise, practice, bie Ubung 
hot, beijj 
light, leicbt 
dear, teuer 
as, when, ali 
often, oft 


A. 1. Ubung macbt ben -Staffer. 2. ©ic 3Jluftf unb bie SOJaleret 
finb $iinfte. 3. $inber, babt tbr eure Slufgaben gemacbt? ^a, 
mir baben fie gemacbt. 4. £)er 9Jlont SBlanc tft etn ©erg in ber 
©cbroeij. 5. 3ft bicfel £ucb teuer? %a, e£ foftet bret Sbalcr 


bic (Stte. 6. 2)ie Gutter fcbicft ibre $inber gur ©cfcule. 7. §aben 
©ie ©olb in ^brern ©elbbeutcl? %<$> babe fein ©olb, aber id? 
f)aU ©ilber. 8. 2Ba§ Icrnt ba§ 9ttabd?en ? ©ie lernt tf^re 2tuf= 
gabe. 9. £>er SBater fd^ixttelte feinem ©obne bie £anb unb fagte 
tbm Seberoobl. 10. £)ie §IugeI ber SSogel finb febr (eicbt unb 
ftarf. 11. £at ber ©dmeiber igbren 9tocf nad? §aufe gefd?icft? 
12. -ftem, er r)at ibn nod) nidEjt gefcbicft, aber er roirb ibn morgen 
fdt)tdfen. 13. tlnfere ©Item reiften in ©eutfcblanb unb in ber 
©cbroeij. 14. ^m ^uli ift ba§ SSetter oft fet>r beifc. 15. 2)a§ 
@ifen roirb rot, roenn e§ beifj roirb. 16. ©lauben ©ie, baft id? 
9tecr)t l)abe? 17. 5larl toerle^te fid? bie §anb, al§ er mit einer 
2tjt arbeitete. 18. !Jd? roiirbe ©olbat roerben, roenn id? alt genug 
rodre. 19. 2Bir roiirben greunbe gebabt baben, roenn roir reicr) 
getoefen roaren. 

B. 1. Gold is yellow, but silver is white. 2. Mary is 
studying music and painting. 3. Are your parents still 
living in Frederick-Street ? 4. No, they are now living in 
Schiller-Street. 5. Mont Blanc is a mountain in Switzerland. 
6. The girl is crying; she has hurt her hand. 7. Is your 
father a doctor ? No, he is a merchant. 8. Glass is trans- 
parent, and we make windows of it. 9. What are you doing 
with your lead-pencil ? T am drawing a flower with it. 10. 
The emperor is satisfied with his generals. 11. I blame you, 
because you are not industrious. 12. What are you drawing 
now ? I am drawing a bird. 13. Why are you crying, my 
child? 14. The doctor shook his head, for he had no hope. 
15. Would you buy a horse, if you were rich ? 16. Miss B. 
has sent her mother a present. 17. The girl will visit her 


1. 1st das Gold weisz ? 2. Weshalb weint das Madchen? 
3. Werden Sie sich ein Haus kaufen ? 4. Sind Sie Soldat? 5. 
Wo wohnen Sie jetzt ? 6. Was machen Sie mit Ihrem Gelde ? 

64 LESSON XIII. [§§45- 





45. Rules for Position of Objects, Adverbs, etc. 

Rule i. (a) Pronouns first of all, unless governed by 
a preposition, when they come after all other objects, ad- 
verbs, etc. 

(l>) Adverbs or Adverbial Expressions of Time precede 
everything except Pronouns without Prepositions, thus : 

12 3 4 5 

(Germ.) 3d) fdncftc iljm jicftmi (bicfc JSodjc) einen SBrief, 

1 2 3 4 5 

(Engl.) I sent him a letter yesterday (this week); 

12 3 4 5 

(Germ.) £d) fcfricfte gcftcrn einen Srief an iljn, 

12 3 4 5 

(Engl.) I sent a letter to him yesterday; 

12 3 4 5 6 

(Germ.) ^ch fyabt c8 fjcutc meiner ©cfih>e[ter gefcfcicft, 

12 3 4 5 6 

(Engl.) I have sent it to my sister to-day. 

Rule 2. Of Nouns, persons (unless governed by pre- 
positions) before things, as : 

12 3 4 5 

(Germ.) ^d) fcfetcfte geftern mciuriit IBatcr cincn ©ricf, 

12 3 4 5 

(Engl.) I sent my father a letter yesterday; 


12 3 4 5 

(Germ.) ^ch fcfeicfte geftern cincn ©ricf on mcincn ICntcr, 

12 3 4 5 

(Engl.) I sent a letter to my father yesterday. 


Rule 3. Of Pronouns, Personal before all other Pro- 
nouns, as : 

^d) Babe it|m bag (Demonstr. Pron.) gcgeben, 
I have given him that. 
Rule 4. Of Personal Pronouns, Direct Object before 
Indirect Object, as : 

12 3 4 5 

{Germ?) %$ fyabt eg iljm gegeben, 

12 3 4 6 

(Engl.) I have given it to him. 
Rule 5. Adverbs of place, cause and manner follow ob- 
jects in the order named, as : 

12 3 4 5 6 7 

{Germ.) @r bat bag 8$uaj ju f>aufe feJjr fleifetg ftubtert, 

12 3 4 5 6 

{Engl.) He has studied the book very diligently 

at home. 

Remember : 1. That in compound tenses all these objects, 
adverbs, etc., come between the auxiliary and the participle or 

2. That any of these members of a sentence may occupy the 

first place instead of the subject, especially an adverb of time, 

etc., and that the subject (see § 20, Obs. 2) is then thrown 

after the verb, as : 

1 2 3 4 5 

©eftcrn frfndte id) iljm etnen Srief. 

1 2 3 4 5 

$iefc £8odje fdjiifte id? etnen 33rief an ibn. 

46. Prepositions governing the Dative only. 

9lu8 aufjcr, bet mit, I the Dadve Case 

nad), feit, t>on, jit I b 

Ottg, (1) out of (motion), as : He came out of the house (ailg 
bem §aufe). 

66 LESSON XIII. l§ 46 

(2) of {made of), as: This house is built of wood (oug 


(3) from {origin), as: He comes from England (aitS 

Csnglanb) ; from the town (au-3 fcer 3tabt). 

(4) from {cause), as: I did it from fear (aug ^urefct). 

nufecr, (1) outside of {rest), as: The table is standing out- 
side of the room (tmftcr bent ^imm^t). 
(2) except, besides, but, as: I had nothing except 
(besides, but) my stick (auftcr mciucm Stocfc). 

bet, (1) (near) by, as : The chair stands (near) by the table 
(bci bem or beim Stifle). 

(2) at (the house, etc., of, = Fr. chez), with, as : He 

lives at the house of (or: with) his uncle (or: 
at his uncle's), er toobnt bet fetnem Dnfcl. 

(3) about (one's person), with, as : I have no money 

about (with) me (betimr). 

mit, with, as : He is coming with (along with) his friend 
(mit fetnem grcunbe) ; he struck the dog with a 
stick (mit einem ©toctc). 

ttadj, (1) after {time, order), as: He arrived after his brother 
(nod) fetnem 93ruber). 

(2) to (with names of places), as : He is going to Quebec 

(mid) Quebec); to England (nadj (Snglanb); home- 
(wards) (nod) §aufe). 

(3) according to (often follows its case in this sense), 

as : This is wrong according to my opinion (nnd) 
meiner SRetnung, or meiner SRetnung nadj). 
[fit, since, as : He has not been here since the war (feit bem 
ftriege) ; jcit bunbert ^obretl, for the last hundred 


tilin, (x) from, as : He has just come from dinner (lion DCtn, 
toom 2Htitag$ef[en). 

(2) of, as : We were speaking of our mother (toon unfercr 

Gutter) . 

(3) ty ( w ' tn Personal agent after the passive voice), as : 

Children are loved by their parents (toon ibrcn 
JU, (1) to {persons), as : He went to his friend, or to his 
friend's ($u feincnt J-reunbc) ; he spoke to me ($u 

(2) to {places, if not proper names ; see nacft, above), as: 

He was going to the town (ju ber, or jur ©tabt). 

(3) at (with proper names of towns only), as : He lives 

at Ottawa (ju Dttatoa) ; at home (ju &aufe). 
Remarks. — i. Set, bon and ^u (and sometimes aufjcr) are 
contracted with the Dative Sing. Masc. and Neuter of the 
unemphasized Definite Article, thus : bci bem = bcim, bon bcm = 
bom, ju bem = jum ; ju is also contracted with the Dat. Sing. 
Fern., thus : 3U ber = jur. 

2. The -t of the Dat. Sing, is never used when a preposi- 
tion (except }ti) stands before a substantive without an article, 
pronoun or adjective preceding, as : au3 §ofj, of wood ; mit 
gleijv on purpose ; but nitt) £au|e, home ; ju £>aufc, at home. 

3. Observe the following : 
(Germ.) £er 23rief metnc« Dnfete, 

(Engl.) The letter of my uncle = My uncle's letter. 

(Germ.) £er 33rief toon metnem Dnfel, 

(Engl.) The letter from my uncle. 
The English preposition of with a substantive must gen- 
erally be rendered in German by a Genitive case without a 
preposition, whenever it can be turned into the English Posses- 
sive case, as above ; otherwise by toon, as : 

68 LESSON XIII. [§.l6 

He was speaking of his mother (boil feiner SDluttcr). 
4. Observe also the following : 

(£ng/.) Show the book to me = Show me the book, 
(Germ.) gctgen Sie mtr ba3 33ud) (Dat. without Preposition). 
The English preposition to with a substantive must be 
rendered in German by the Dative without a preposition when- 
ever the subst. can be turned into the English Indirect Objec- 
tive, as above ; otherwise (generally) by the preposition gu, as: 
He spoke to me (311 mtr). 


to answer, antroorten dinner, ba§ -JJiit'tag^effen 

honour, ebren journey, bte 3Rcife 

show, jeigen Roman, ber Corner 

picture, ba3 23ttb aunt, bte Stante 

letter, ber 33rief thankful, grateful, banfbar 

Germany, 2)eutfd)fanb (gov. dat.) 

present, ba3 ©efd)enf ready, finished, fertig 

glass, ba§ ©lag quiet, still, ftitt 

war, ber $rieg there, ba 

Idiom : It is I, 3d) bin ei. 

A. 1. (Sett bem $riege ftnb meine <5d)h)ager fer)r arm. 2. 
SBir baben un§ jroet £>aufer in ber ©tabt gefauft. 3. 2Bo tft beirte 
Slufgabe ? £>ier tft fie. 4. 2Btr mad) ten nad) bem -JftittagSeffen 
etnen Gfcajiergang mtt unferen ©aften. 5. -Stein $ater bat mtr 
ein ©efcfyenf gcfcbicft unb id) bin tfym bafiir febr banfbar. 6. 33tft 
bit mtt bciner 2(rbeit fertig ? SRein, id) bin nod) mdbt bamtt fertig. 
7. 2Bir merben morgen mtt ^bnen naa) Montreal retfen. 8. $arl 
lernt fett bier 5Ronaten 2)eutfd). 9. „<5e$t eud) unb feib ftttt," fagte 
bte Gutter ju tbren Xod)tern. 10. SSiirben Sie btel fiir biefe 
33iid)er bejablen ? 3>cb mitrbe funf Scaler bafiir bejablen. 11. 


<5inb bic 2Rtibd)en ju ipaufe ? IJa, ibre Gutter fcbicfte ftc urn ffittf 
Ubr nad) £aufe. 12. 6bre beinen 23ater unb beine Gutter. 13. 
33ei meinem Dnfel rebeten nrir immer bid bom £riege. 14. ©inb 
6ie e§, §err ©cbmibt? !ya, id) &* n cg - 15 - §aben Sie in 
2)eutfrf»Ianb toiel SBergniigen gel)abt? ©ie fagen nicbt biel 
bon ^F>rer SReife. 16. 23ei 2>bnen baben fair immer biel 35er= 
gniigen. 17. SDiefer 9J?ann Io6t ftd) ju biel. 18. 9fleine Xante 
iff jefct bet mir ; id) roerbe ibr bie Stabt jeigen. 19. 9Jkin "Bruber 
unb meine ©d)roefter finb }u £>aufe. 20. 2BaS h)iirben Sie fur 
biefe ©Idfer bejab^Ien ? 3d) tbiirbe nicbt biel bafiir bejablen. 

B. 1. Here is my uncle's letter. 2. Is he for me or against 
me ? 3. Our servant is from Germany. 4. ' Buy me an 
apple,' said the child to its mother. 5. Have you sold your 
horses ? 6. The teacher speaks of the gods of the Romans. 
7. Charles, you have answered well, sit down. 8. My son 
always sends me the newspaper from Chicago. 9. My friend 
showed me his pictures. 10. Buy me this ring ; it is mag- 
nificent. 11. Who is in the garden ? It is she. 12. I be- 
lieve that Charles has bought himself a hat. 13. Here is the 
letter from my uncle. 14. I am ashamed of you, because you 
are not industrious. 15. My father would send me to the 
city, if I were old enough. 


] . Weshalb schamen Sie sich meiner ? 2. 1st es Karl oder 
sein Bruder ? 3. Seit wann lernen Sie Deutsch ? 4. Wer hat 
mir diese Zeitung geschickt? 5. Was machte ich nach dem 
Mittagsessen ? 6. Wo hat mein Vater dieses Buch gekauft ? 




47. Pronouns in Address. 

1. The pronouns bu and iljt are the usual pronouns of address in 
poetry and the drama, il)V being used for one person or more, as : 

Tcv Setter tft fccin, 

Unb biefen SRing nod) befUmm' id) bir, 

The goblet is thine, 

And this ring too I'll keep for thee. 

(Schiller, „2>cr Zaufyct.") 

2a\)t, tyattt, geuiig fetn ba$ graufame Spiel. 

St l>at end) beftonben, iua« fciner beftebt, 

Unb fount iljr beS §cv^cn« ©cliifteu nidjt jjabmen, u. j. »., 

Enough, father, of this cruel sport. 

lie has ventured for you what none will venture, 

And if you cannot subdue the desire of your heart, etc. [Ibid.) 

2. (fr and 2t? (3- sing. I were formerly regularly used as pronouns of 
address towards inferiors, with the verb agreeing in 3. sing., and they 
are often found so used in the classics, being spelt with a capital. 
Their use may imply contempt; so Faust says to his servant Wagner, 
who is otherwise addressed as „il)r" : 

(Set (?r fcin jrfjeUcittauter £bov, 

Don't be a jingling fool. (Goethe, „5auft.") 

3. 6r and Sic, also tf)V, are still used in complimentary address, correspon- 
ding to the polite use of @ie (3. plur.), by people of the lower orders. 

48. The forms meine^glcidjcn, beim'£g(eid)°n, etc., = 'a person, or 
persons, like me, you,' etc. (vulg. 'the like of me '), are' used as indeclinable 
substantives, either as object or as predicate, as : 

SBir toerben fciiuSflleidjen nic luirber. fetjnt, 
We ne'er shall look upon his like again. 

2)ii liift nid)t mriitefglctrfjrit, 

You are not (a person) like me (my equal). 

(For the use of beSgleirijcn, bcvgtcidjcit, see §§97. '39-) 

4J>. In addressing persons of rank, the proper title, as : 3»b re ®UObcn, 
'Your Honour'; (Sure (abbrev. (gtu.j (SjxeUenj, 'Your Excellency'; (iitv 


2)lird)laucf)t, 'Your Serene Highness'; Gure 9JJajefiat, ' Your Majesty,' 
etc., is used, also without the poss. adj., and with the verb in the plur. 
It was this plur. use of complimentary titles that gave rise to the use of 
©ic as the pronoun of polite address. The old forms 3f) r 0, 2)ero, are 
now obsolete. 

50. Prepositions with Accusative. 

i. The preposition fonBcr takes the accusative, but is of rare occurrence. 

2. ©egen has an obsolete form gen, now used only in certain phrases, 
as : gen pummel, heavenwards ; gcit -ftorben, northwards, etc. 

3. Oljne has a dative in the phrase ohnefccnt, ' at any rate.' 

4. 33i8 may be followed by another preposition, indicating motion or 
direction to (nad), }u, mi, auf, etc. 1; if this preposition is one governing 
dat. or ace, it will always take the accusative when combined with bi3, as : 

Sr ging bis on'8 Xijor, he went as far as the gate. 

51. Prepositions with Dative. 

The following additional prepositions take the Dative only : 

1. Sinnen, within (of time), as: Sinneit }iuei Xagen, within two days. 

Notes. — 1. Sinnen sometimes governs the genitive. 

2. SJinnen is used of time only ; innerfyalb (see § ) of space and time. 

2. (Sntfje'flen I Cont t as . S 9Keiner Weigiing nitcicgcn (^iroibcr), 
3- 3titt»i't)cr ^ \ contrary to my inclination. 

4 ©Cgeniiber, opposite (to), follows the case, as : 
£tm 2b,orf gcgeniiber, opposite the gate. 

Note. — The case is sometimes placed between the two parts of the preposition, as: 
qtqen bem Iljore fiber; but this is not to be imitated. 

5- ©fmajj, according to, agreeably to, precedes or follows its case, as: 

©eiiiem SBunjdie ciemafi (or genidfj icincm SSunfchc), 
Agreeably to his desire. 

6. ($Ieid), like, precedes or follows its case, as : 

©ic tcicfjclte g(?tcf) einem Gttgct (einetn Gngcl gleid)), 
She smiled like an angel. 

7- °""'° r t next to (1) of proximity (= ncben), as 

72 LESSON XIV. [§§5I 

Gr fafe nddjft mir (or mir junadjft), 
He sat next to me. 
(2) of succession, as : 

9Wdjfl fcem Scbeit Itebt cr bie @hre, 
Next to life he loves honour. 

Note. — 3 un <id)f' usually follows its case ; nfidjft is the commoner of the two as pre- 
position, especially in the senses under (2). 

8. JRebfi I , ,. . f , . ... 

C if together with, along with,as : 

2)er §crr tarn ncbft feinem ^rntnbc, 

The gentleman came along with his friend. 

25er iBater famt jeinen ftinbern, 

The father together with his children. 
Note i. Distinguish nebfi, along with, and neben (alongside of, near). 
2. ©amt is used of objects naturally belonging together, as above. 
10. 06 is poetical and obsolete for liber, and denotes : 

(1) above (of position), as: Ob foettt Slltarc, above the altar. 

(2) about, concerning, as : Gntriiftet ob biefeilt ^XCt>c\, indignant 

about (at) this outrage. 
Note. — In the latter sense it also takes a genitive. 


TIVES. - WEAK OR -It STEMS : - $ltabc MODEL. 
52. Paradigm of feht, to be. 

Principal Parts. 
Pres. Infin. fcin Impf. Indic. mar Past Part, gctoefett 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


id) bin, I am id) fet, I (may) be, etc. 

bu bift, thou art bu feicft 

er ijt, he is er fei 

h>ir ftnb, we are fair feicn 

ibr fcib, ye are ibr fciet 

fie ftnb, they are fie feicn 





icr) tottr, I was 

bu toarft, thou wast 
er toar, he was 
toir toaren, we were 
ibr toaret, ye were 
fie toaren, they were 


id) toare, (if) I were (might 

be), etc. 
bu toareft, thou wert 
er toare, he were 
it>tr toaren, we were 
ihr roiiret, ye were 
fie toaren, they were 

(Pres. of fetn + P. Part.) 

I have been, etc. 
id) bin 

bu bift 
er ift 
toir ftnb 
ibr feib 
fie finb 

I (may) have been, etc. 
id) fci 

> gcmcfen 

}■ gcuicfcn 

I had been, etc 

icb war 

bu toarft 

er toar 

toir toaren 

ibr toaret 

fie toaren 

bu feieft 

er fei 

toir feien 

ibr feiet 

fie feien 

(Imperf. of fcilt + P. Part.) 

I had (might have) been, 

> gctoefen 

id) toiire 
bu toareft 
er toare 
toir toiiren 
ibr toaret 
fie toaren 


> gcmcfcn 

I shall be, etc. 
jcbtoerbe | frf 
bu totrft ) 

(Pres. of rocrDcn + Infin. of fein.) 

I shall be, etc. 
icbtoerbe ) frf|| 
bu toerbeft J 



[§§ 5*- 

cr luirb 
tuir towben 
ibr iuerbct 
fie tuerben 




er tucrbe 
tuir iuerben 
tr/r tucrbet 
fie tuerben J 

Future Perfect. 

(Future of fctlt + P. Tart.) 

I shall have been, etc. 
id) luerbe 

bu tutrft 
er tuirb 
tuir tuerben 
ihr tuerbet 
fie toerben 

I shall have been, etc. 
id; tuerbe 

gcrocfcn jcin 

nciocicn jctn 


(Impf. Subj. of toerben + Infin 
of fein.) 

I should be, etc. 

id; tuiirbe 
bu tuiirbeft 
er tuiirbe 
tuir luiirbcn 
ibr iuiirbct 
fie tuiirben , 


bu iuerbeft 

er tuerbe 

Voir tuerben 

it)r iuerbet 

fie tuerben 



(Simple Cond. of fcin + Pas' 

I should have been, etc. 

id; tuiirbe 

bu tuiirbeft 

er tuiirbe 

tuir iuiirben 

ibr tuiirbet 

fie iuiirben 

iiciucjcn fcin 

fei (bu), be (thou) 
feib (ibr), be (ye) 

(ju) fein, (to) be 
gcttJCJCtl (§u) fein, to have been. 

Pres. feicnb, being 


Past, fjetnejen, been 

Remarks. — i. Observe the absence of the Subjunctive -c 
in the i. and 3. sing. Pres. 

53] use of fein as auxiliary of tense. 75 

2. The above paradigm shows the use of fcttt in forming 
its own perfect tenses, in precisely the same way as baben is 
used with most verbs. (Seiu is used in the same way with the 
verbs mentioned in the following Section. 

53. Use of fein as Auxiliary of Tense. 

(Sein replaces baben as auxiliary of the perfect tenses with 
the following neuter verbs : 

(a) With those expressing a change of condition, as : 

fterben, die roadjfen, grow 

genefen, recover (from illness) roerben, become. 

(b) With neuter verbs of motion when a change of 
place is specified or implied, as : 

fabren, drive, go (in a conveyance) fommen, come 

geben, go, walk Jtefyen, move, go, proceed. 

(c) Stilt, to be ; bletben, to remain ; begegnen, to meet ; 
folgen, to follow. 

{d) The impersonal verbs : gehngen, gliicfen, to succeed; 
gefcbefyen, to happen. 

Remarks. — i. The proper auxiliary to use with such 
verbs is always given in the dictionary. 

2. Other verbs of this sort only take fein when the change 
of place is specified. 

3. Most of them (except fommen) take baben when they 
denote an action merely, and not a specific change of place, as : 

@r bat toiel gereift, he has travelled a great deal. 

4. Compounds do not necessarily take the same auxiliary 
as the simple verb. Thus, brgeben, being transitive, takes 
b,aben, the prefix changing the nature of the verb. 

7 6 



54. Declension of bcr At italic, the boy. 



bte $naben, the boys 
bcr Atnabcn, the boys', of 

the boys 
ben Alnaben, (to, for) the 

bte Alnaben, the boys 


Nom. bcr $nabc, the boy 
Gen. be3 $naben, the boy's, of 
the boy 
bem $naben, (to, for) the 

ben $naben, the boy 

Observe : i. All cases end in -tt, except Nom. Sing. 

2. No Umlaut added in Plural. 

3. The only change is the addition of -n. 

Remark. — The Plural ox-en is a remnant of the -n declen- 
sion in English. 

55. Substantives ending in a consonant add -en, as : 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber ©raf, the count bte ©rafctt, the counts 

Gen. be§ ©rafctt, of the count ber ©rafen, of the counts 
Dat. bem ©rafctt, (to, for) the 

Ace. ben ©rafctt, the count 

ben ©rafctt, (to, for) the 

bte ©rafctt, the counts 

56. Feminines do not vary in the singular, as 

Nom. bte 33lumc, the flower 
Gen. ber 33Iumc, of the flower 
Dat. ber 33lumc, (to, for) the 

Ace. bte 23lumc, the flower 

57. In this way are declined : 

1. All masculines ending in -c, except ber ®afe, cheese (see 
§ 17), and the doubtful ones in § 61. 

bte SBUtmeit, the flowers 
ber Slumett, of the flowers 
ben 33lumen, (to, for) the 

bie ©lumen, the flowers. 


declension : — ®nabe model. 


2. Certain masculines which have dropped the final -e, as: 

ber ftelb, hero 

ber §err, gentleman, master 

ber §irt(e), herdsman, shep- 

ber 5Renfd), man (human be- 
ing = Lat. homo) 

ber 33dr, bear 

ber 33auer, peasant 

ber Gbrtft, christian 

ber ©efeU(e), fellow, companion, 

ber @raf, count 

A full List of these Substantives is given in App. F. 

3. All feminines, except stutter, Stocfcter (§ 17, 3), the 
monosyllables under § 22, 3, and those in -ni§ and - ( ol 
(22, 4 ). 

4. No Neuters (but see §§ 62, 63). 

5. Foreign Masculines accented on the last syllable, except 
those in -of, -an, -or, etc. (§22, 6). 

Further Examples : 

Like ®nabe : 



n. ber 3?otc, messenger 

g. d. a. 33oten n. 

g. d. a. Soten 

ber ipafc, hare 



ber 9tie[c, giant 



ber Stuffc, Russian 

Like ©raf : 


n. ber 33&r, bear 

g. d. a. 53aren n. 

g. d. a. SBdrctt 

ber %vx\t, prince 



ber £>elb, hero 



ber -IRenfdL man 



ber ©tubent', student 



ber Solbaf, soldier 



Remark i. Xer §err, gentleman, master, lord, adds -n only 
in the sing., but -en in plur. 

78 LESSON XIV. [§§57- 

Like SBhtme : 
Singula*. Plural. 

n. c d. a. 33lume n. g. d. a. 33Iumen 

£ircbe Mitten 

©cr/onbeit ©cbdnbeiten 

%i>at £b,aten 

s Biijcnfcbaft 9Biffcnfc^nftcn 

Remark 2. Feminines in -el, -tv add -it only in the Plur., as: 
Sing, bie $eber, pen Plur. $ebern 

bie ©abel, fork ©abeln 

bie Scbtuefter, sister ©djtocftern 

Remark 3. Feminines in -in double the n in the plur., as : 
Sing, bie ©rafitt, countess Plur. ©raftnnen 


admire, benumbern monarch, bcr -iJJionarcb' 

hasten, eilcn news, bie s Jtadjrid)t 

hunt, jagen nephew, bcr 3?effe 

dwell, reside, live, toobnen planet, ber planet' 

astrologer, bcr SIftrolog' Prussian, ber ^sreufje 

lady, bie $)ame raven, ber Waht 

influence, ber ©in'flufj * valley, ba§ £bal 

heathen, ber §eibe happy, gliicHicb 

comet, bcr hornet' when, al<8, roenn 

landscape, bie Sanbfcbaft when ? toann ? 

58. When = toenn always with Present, Perfect and 
Future ; and also with Imperfect and Pluperfect, of a 
habitual or repeated occurrence (= whenever), as : 

I always rose, when (i. e. whenever, ttjcnn) the sun rose. 
When = a(0 with Imperfect and Pluperfect only, of a 
single, definite occurrence, as : 

I rose yesterday, when (0(8) the sun rose. 

59] declension : — ®nabe model. 79 

When? interrogative = luontt? as: 

When was your father here ? 
JBBonn mar ^br 23ater bier ? 

Note. — Remember that tuemi also = "if." 

59. When a conditional or " if " sentence precedes the 
principal sentence on which it depends, the principal sentence 
is usually introduced by the particle jo, which is not to be 
translated into English, or counted as a member of the sent. 

Note. — A principal sentence preceded by a subordinate clause has 
the subject after the verb, the subord. clause being reckoned as a single 
idea (see § 20), as : SBenn id) ©elb hatte, fo roiivbe id) gvcunbe Ijabert. 


A. 1. 28ir iuerben morgen ju unferer Xante in Dttama reifen. 
2. 2)te SBoten beS 50tonard)en finb mit ber 9}ad}rtcbt nod) $art3 
geeilt. 3. £)ie Strme eine§ Sttcfen finb fehr lang unb ftarf. 4. 
2)ie 33dume in biefen ©dlbern finb febr fdjon gemefen, aber jetjt 
finb bie SIdtter gelb gemorben. 5. 2>er Skter ift in ber ©tabt 
geiuefen unb bat feinen $naben 33iid)er gefauft. 6. $d) betounbre 
bie ©dbonbeit biefer 2anbfd)aften. 7. 2>te ©d)uler unb ibr Seljrer 
rebeten biel toon ben Xfyaten ber £elben. 8. SDie ©d)uler merben 
gliicflid) fein, roenn fie mit ibrer Strbeit fertig finb. 9. ©inb bie 
Stuffen £eiben? 9Rein, fie finb ©briften. 10. SJietn -fteffe mar 
lange in 33erlin geiuefen unb i)att<i bort bie 2Siffenfd)aften ftubiert. 
11. 9Jteine Sd)mefter roar mit ibrer Strbeit nid)t fertig, al§ id) 
geftern bet ibr tear. 12. ©ie 2lftrologen rebeten toiel bom (Sinfluji 
ber ®ometen unb ^laneten. 13. £er Sebrer lobte feine ©d)uler 
unb fagte ju u)nen : „^b,r feib fleifjig geiuefen." 14. 3Senn id) 
nadb. £>eutfrf)lanb reife, roerbe id) meine Dfyeime unb meine Xanten 
befud)en. 15. 5)ie $naben fatten btel 23ergnitgen, ate fie bie 
§afen unb tyud)fe burd) SBdlber unb Xl)dler jagten. 16. $)ie 
©rdfinnen roaren febr glurflid), al<3 fie bie -Kacbricbt Don intern 
SBater b. orten. 17. 2)iefe £>erren roerben arm roerben, menn fte il)r 

80 LESSON XV. [§§6o- 

©clb fo tierfcfrtoenben. 18. Unfere 9icffcn finb lange bei un$ 

B. 1. The castles of the count are magnificent. 2. The 
churches of this city are large and beautiful. 3. When will 
your brother be at home ? 4. Are these soldiers Prussians ? 
No, they are Russians. 5. The bears live in the forests. 
6. The boys have two ravens and three hares. 7. The 
ladies have been in the church, but they are now at home. 
8. Who was right? 9. For a boy of (bon) five years he is 
very large. 10. I should be happy, if I were rich. 11. He 
has not been at home to-day. 12. When she was in the city 
she lived at her aunt's. 13. Would the girl be contented, if 
she were with her mother? 14. The students became tired, 
because they had studied too much. 


1. Was hat Ihr Neffe in Berlin gemacht? 2. Hatte ich 
Recht ? 3. Wer eilte mit der Nachricht nach Paris ? 4. 
Haben Sie jemals Hasen oder Fiichse gejagt ? 5. Wann 
wird mein Bruder zu Hause sein ? 6. Wiirde ich glucklich 
sein, wenn ich reich ware ? 



60. Declension of ber 9lnmc, the name. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber ^larnt, the name bie -Women, the names 

Gen. be3 9?amen0, of the name ber Dlamen, of the names 

Dat. bcm 9?amen, (to, for) the ben -Women, (to, for) the 

name names 

Ace. ben Xiamen, the name bie Mermen, the names 

63] declension: — -ftamc model. 81 

Observe: i. -e in the Nom. Sing, and -cuS in Gen. Sing. 

2. -ctt all other cases. 

3. No Umlaut, except in 3cbabe (see below). 
Note. — The Nom. Sing, sometimes has -n. 

61. In this way are declined the following masculines : 

ber 33ucfyftabe, letter (of the Al- ber ©ebanfe, thought, idea 

phabet) ber §aufe, heap 

ber ^rtebe, peace ber ©ame, seed 

ber $unfe, spark ber <Sd)abe, harm, injury 

ber ©laube, faith, belief, [pi. 3c6oben] 

creed ber SSifte, will 

Also one neuter : ba§ §erg, the heart (Ace. Sing. §erg). 

62. Some masculine and neuter substantives follow the 
model of ffllaltt (§ 16) or Sojjt! (§ 21) in the singular, and 
that of Slnabc (§ 54) or ©rttf (§ 55) in the plural, as : 

2)er 9?acbbar, the neighbour : Sing. n. d a. 92ad)bar, g. Wad); 
barg ; Plur. 9iad)barn. 

3)a§ £)br, the ear : Sing. n. a. Dbr, g. Dbr(e)8, d. £)br(c) ; 
Plur. Dbren. 

63. In this way decline also : 

1. Certain masculines, as : 

ber ©taat, state ber better, (male) cousin 

ber ©trabl, beam, ray 

2. Certain neuters, as : 

ba§ Stuge, eye ba§ @nbe, end 

ba§ %ttt, bed 
(A full List of these substantives will be found in App. G.) 

3. Foreign (Latin) masculines in unaccented -or, as : 

ber ^rofeffor, the professor : g. ^Srofefforg ; Plur. ^profeffo'rett. 
ber SDoftor, the doctor : g. Doftorg ; Plur. Mto'retl. 

82 LESSON XV. [§§64- 

<>4. Substantives with Double Plural. 

The following have double forms of the Plural, with a 
different meaning for each : 

Singular. Plural. 

bag 53anb, ribbon SBanbcr 

bag 33anb, tie, bond SBanbc 

(bcr 33anb, volume SSnbr) 

bie San!, bank (commercial) 33anfcn 

bie Sanf, bench 33onfc 

ba§ GJeftd)!, face, countenance Weficbtcr 

bag Gkficbt, vision Ctfcjtditc 

bcr Saben, shop Siiben 

ber Sabcn, shutter Saben 

bag Sanb, land, country StnbfT 

ba§ 2anb, province Snnbc 

( SBottWf, words considered separately 

, ' \ 2Bortc, words considered connectedly 
word I . , . 

\ (as making sense) 

Remark. — The plural Sanbc is also used in poetical lan- 
guage; and in the compound bie ^icberlanbc, the Netherlands 
(= Lower Provinces). 

65. Prepositions governing the Dative or 

The following nine prepositions govern the Dative when 
they indicate locality merely, or answer the question 
' where ? ' or 'in what place ? ' ; the Accusative when 
they imply motion, direction or tendency (figurative motion) 
towards, or answer the question 'whither?' or 'to what 
place or person ? ' : 

an, auf, litnter, in, nebett, 

iibcx, untet, \>ov and jtmfrfjctt. 




Oil, 1 . (of place) : 

(a) With DAT., on, upon (adjacent to), as : 
The picture hangs on the wall (an 
ber 3Banb). % 
(p) With acc, to, towards, on, as : 

I hang the picture on the wall (on 
bic SSanb). 

2. (of time, date) with DAT. only, on, upon, as : 

I was born on the eighteenth of August (oill 

acftt^ehnten 2lucut[t). 
He will arrive on Monday (om 3Rontag). 
Observe : that in this use the Prep, and Article are always 

OUf , (of place) : 

(a) With dat., on, upon (on top of), as : 

The book lies on the table (ouf 
bcm Sifcf)). 

(b) With acc, to, towards, on, as : 

I lay the book on the table (ouf 
Ijintcr, behind : 

(a) With dat., as : The dog lies behind the stove 
(ljintcr bcm Dfen). 

(p) With acc, as : The dog goes behind the stove 
(Winter ben Dfen). 

in, 1. (of place): 

(a) With dat., in, as : The gardener is in the garden 

(im ©arten). 

(b) With acc, into, as : The gardener goes into the 

garden (in ben ©arten). 


84 LESSON XV. IS 65 

2. (of time) in (with dat. only), as : God made the 
world in seven days (in ficben £agcn). 

ncbcit, near, alongside of, by : 

(a) With dat., as : The chair stands near (by) the 

table (neben bem %\\§i). 

(b) With acc, as : I place the chair near the table 

(nebcn ben Xifd>). 
iificr, 1. (of place) over, above : 

(a) With dat., as : The bridge is over the river (iibcr 

bem $lufff). 
(I?) With acc, as : I go over the river (liber ben tJflufj). 

2. (of excess) over, above (with acc. only), as : He 

remained over (more than) two days (iiber jlnei 

3. about, concerning (with acc. only), as: He spoke 

with me about his journey (iiber feinc 9ietfe). 
untet, 1. (of place), under, beneath, below: 

(a) With dat., as : The cat lies under the chair (nnter 

bem ©ruble). 

(b) With acc, as : The cat creeps under the chair 

(untcr ben StuBI). 

2. (of number) among: 

(a) With dat., as : The wolf is among the sheep 

(nnter ben (Scfrafen). 

(b) With acc, as : The wolf mingles among the 

sheep (unter bic ©d)afe). 
tior, 1. (of place) before, in front of : 

(a) With dat., as : The chair stands before the win- 
dow (tior bem $enfter). 


(b) With acc, as : Place the chair before the window 
(Dors ftenfter). 

2. (of order) before fwith dat. only), as: He came 

before me (tior ntir). 

3. (of time) before, ago (with dat. only), as : 

He came before two o'clock (box jmet Ubr). 
He came two hours ago tior giuet Stunben). 
}tt)ijd)Cn, between (oi two objects, : 

{a) With dat., as : The chair stands between the 
door and the window (jmijtfocit bcr Jbtire unb 
bem ^enfter). 
(b) With acc, as : Put the chair between the door 
and the window (jroijdjcu btc Ibiire unb Da* 
Remark. — Observe the following contractions with the 
unemphasized Definite Article : 

an bem = am in bem = tm 

an ba£ = an$ in bas = ing 

auf bas = oufg 
Also the following, which are of less frequent occurrence : 

butter bem = binterm unter bem = unterm 

binter ba% = binterg unter bas = unter£ 

itber bem = ii6erm bor bem = norm 

iiber bas = itbers bor bag = bor§ 


please, lit., (I) beg, (I) pray, lay, legen 

(icb) bitte put, place, set (down), jetjen 

hang (trans.), bangen put, place, set (upright), 
fetch, bring, get, bolen ftellen 

hear, boxen seek, look for, fudien 

hunt, chase, pursue, jagen kill, toten 

86 LESSON XV. l§§ 65 

wait ( for >, toarten (ouf + acc.j open, offen 

strawberry, bic (Srbbecvc heavy, hard, febroer 

fire, bai acucv ten, jefyn 

Netherlands, bic Sfieberlanbc thereupon, on it, etc., barauf 

philosophy, bio ^bilofopfyie' first, not before, erft 

stove, ber Cfen* if you please, gcfdtligft 

school, bic Scbule no longer (lit., not more), 

door, bie £biir(e) nidjt mebr. 

difference, ber Unterfcbieb where, mo 

university, bie Uniberfitdt in order to, urn (foil, by infin. 

dictionary, ba£ 3S6rterbucb with gu at end of clause) 


A. 1. ^ener tyflann fetjte fid; gegen meinen SBifien auf bie 
33anf. 2. 2)er Sieffe be3 $rofeffor§ mar lange Stubent, aber er 
ift jefct Xoftor ber ^fytlofopfyie. 3. 2Barum fyaben meine SSettern 
iiber (at) mid) gelacfyt ? 4. 5Rein SSater mirb un§ am SRontag 
ober (am) £>ien£tag in bie (Sd}ule febiden. 5. SDer Sobjt unb 
bie Sodjter unfer(e)§ StacbbarS fudjten 33 lumen unb ©rbbeeren im 
3B.aIbe. 6. 5Retn $>ater unb meine SRutter finb fett brei 2l*od;en 
auf bem Sanbe. 7. 3)ie 33anfen merben erft morgen urn jer)n Ubr 
offen fein. 8. Segen <2ie gefdtligft biefe 23dnbe neben micb auf 
bie 23anf. 9. $)er &6mg ber Stieberlanbe reifte burd) feine 
■Staatcn unter bem Stamen eineS ©rafen. 10. 3)er griebe be3 
§crm f ex mit eud). 11. 2)er ©raf fdjidte fetnen <Sob,n auf bie 
Uniberfitdt, 12. £a3 ®inb ift feb,r !ranl unb bie Gutter fyat 
jmei 2)oftoren gebolt. 13. 2£esb,a(b marten (gie fo lange toor ber 
S£b,ure ? 14. SDie §erren jagten ben 33dren Winter ben 2BaIb, mo 
fie ifyn tbteten. 15. ^m -©inter feijen mir un<S oft bor ba3 geuer 
unb bemunbern bie gunfen. 16. Unfere .'per^en merben immer 
traurig, menn mir -iftadjricbt bom $riege fybren. 17. 2Ba3 ift ber 
Unterfcbieb jmifeben ben 2L*6rtern 33anfen unb33dnfe? 18. $ie 
9lugen be§ Stubenten finb fcf^mad), meil er gu bid ftubiert bat. 
19. ©etjen <Sie fid; auf biefen ©tub, I, benn <Sie finb miibe. 20. 


53itte, [tell en 3te mir biefen ©tuhl Winter ben Dfen. 21. Tie 
(gtubentcn lemen bom ^rofeffor bte ^Ramen ber ©otter ber Corner. 
B. 1. The children were playing before the house. 2. 
What is the name of this professor ? His name is Schmidt. 
3. Hang the picture of my father over the door. 4. Every 
human being has two eyes and two ears. 5. Why do the 
professors praise their students ? 6. The professors praise the 
diligence of their students. 7. The difference between my 
brother and me is not great. 8. I laid the pens upon the 
table, but they are no longer there. 9. Our neighbours sent 
their children into the wood to search for flowers. 10. Our 
cousin lived happy and in peace with his neighbours. 11. 
The pupils would look for the words in a dictionary, if they 
had time. 12. Your eyes are tired, because you have studied 
too much. 13. These words are hard to learn, for every 
word has ten letters. 14. Place this chair, if you please, be- 
hind the stove for me. 15. If Charles is not ready, we shall 
go (reifen) without him to Germany. 


1. Wann wird Ihr Vater Sie auf die Universitat schicken ? 
2. Weshalb hat die Mutter die Doktoren geholt? 3. Was 
lernten die Studenten von den Professoren ? 4. Werden Sie 
ohne mich nach Chicago reisen ? 5. Wo reiste der Konig 
der Niederlande ? 6. Wann werden die Kirchen offen sein ? 

66. Substantives without Plural. 

The following classes of substantives are used in the singular only : 
1. Proper names, unless they denote a class (as : bic ^ajaelf, painters 
like Raphael), or several individuals of the same name (as : bte titer erften 
^)einrid)f, the first four Henries, i. e., kings of that name). 


2. Names of materials, etc., unless they denote different kinds of the 
same material (as: ©riiier, -£al}e, different kinds of grass, salt), or when 
they have a special meaning (as : ©elber, sums of money; s Rapierc, docu- 

3. Abstract Substantives, unless they have a concrete {particular) 
meaning, as: Jugenben, virtues ; 5d)bitl)«tcn, beauties, etc. 

Note. — Many nouns of this sort, when used in a concrete sense, use the plurals of 
other words, generally compound, as: ber Sob, death ; bie Jobeefdllt, deaths (i. e. cases 
of death). 

A list of these is given in App. H. 

For the plural of nouns of measure, etc., see Less. XXX. 

67. Substantives without Singular. 

The following classes of substantives are used in the plural only: 

1. Names of certain diseases: 2)ie Slattern, the small-pox ; bie SJiafern 
or SRotchl, the measles. 

2. The following names of festivals, etc.: 2Beif)nad)ten, Christmas; 
goftcn, Lent; Cftern, Easter; ^ftngftcn, Pentecost (Whitsuntide). 

3. Those plural by meaning, viz. : 9Ilpen, Alps ; 33einflctber, trou- 
sers; 33riefjd)aften, documents; (Sinfiinfte, income, revenue; Gttein, 
parents; gcrien, holidays; ©Uebmafjen, limbs; §efen, dregs, yeast; 
ftofien, Unfoftcn, expenses; £eute, people; 2Rolfen, curds. 

68. Irregular Compounds. 1. Substantives having -monit as the 
last component form the plural : 

(a) Regularly, when denoting male individuals or occupations, as: 

Gbemdnner, husbands; (Sbrenmdttncr, men of honour; (Staatsntttttner, 

(b) By changing -mann into -leule, when used collectively or in a 
general sense, or to include both sexes, as : 2Irbeit«lcute, working-people; 
Gheleutf, married people; SpanbckMcute, trades - people ; ftmblfutc, 
country-people; i'anbSleittC, people of the same country; 93iiet«Ieitte, 
lodgers (male and female). 

Notbs. — 1. With words of common occurrence, such as tfaufmann, merchant, £of= 
mann, courtier, the plur. with -leute only is used. 

2. The form with -[cute is the plur. of the fern, compound with -frau (e. g. (Sbefratl, 
married woman), as well as of that with -mann. 

2. £>ie Ohninocht, the fainting-fit, and bie 2>ollmad)t, the power-of- 
attorney (from 2Jiarf)t, pi. 3J>iad)te), have the pi. nnrfjtcn ; bie 2Inttt)ort, 
the answer (from ba8 SBort, pi. SBortc and SBiJrter), has pi. -en. 


69. Special Cases. 1. A few substantives in -m, viz.: 2ftem, 
Obem, S3robem, breath; SBrofam, crumb; (Stbam, son-in-law, follow the 
Scaler model (§ 16) in the sing. The plur., if it occurs, ends in c (.£>tmb 
model, § 2t, b, no Umlaut), except 33rofam, which is more commonly 
■weak in the plur. (—fit). 

2. Weak feminines are often found with the old weak gen. and dat. in 
-tit, especially when used without article after a preposition, as: nuf 
(Srbeit, on earth (but ouf bcr Gibe, on the earth) ; ju Gbvctt, in honour of; 
in ©naben, in mercy, etc. 



70. Summary of Declension of Substantives. 

The following tables show the endings of the various forms 
of Substantive Declension : 

A. Strong Declension. 

I. dialer Model. 
(Contracted Form.) 





II. ©obn Model. 
(Primary Form.) 




— c 
— e 
— e 

III. $orf Model. 
(Enlarged Form.) 


— (e)8 



— er 
— er 
— er 

Remarks. — i. The term ' Strong Declension ' is applicable 
to all the three forms given above. 

2. The ©ofon Model is sometimes called the Primary 
Form of the Strong Declension, and shows the -g of Gen. 
Sing, and -c of the Plur. From this are derived the other two 
forms, viz. : 

90 LESSON XVI. [§§70- 

3. By contraction dropping -c of the termination), the 
IlKalev Model, hence called also the Contracted Form of 
the Strong Declension ; and 

4. By enlargement (adding -r in the Plur., the Sing, remain- 
ing the same), the 2)orf Model, hence also called the En- 
larged Form of the Strong Declension. 

5. Feminines remain unchanged in the Sing. 

6. The Umlaut may occur in any of these forms, viz. : 
generally in masc. monosyllables, regularly in feminines and 
in Enlarged Form ; never in neuter monosyllables of Primary 
Form. (See Lists, App. A., B., C, E.) 

B. Weak Declension, 
ftnabe, ©raf, Stume Model. 

Sing, Nom. (c) Plur. (c)n 

Gen. (e)n (c)n 

Dat. (c)n (c)n 

Ace. (e)n (c)n 

Observe: i. The persistent -n. 2. The absence of Um- 
laut. 3. Uniformity of Cases. 4. Feminines unchanged in 

C. Mixed Declension. 

II. mafybax, Dbr Model. 
Sing. Plur. — (e)ll 

-(e)» -(c)n 

-(c) -(e)n 

All three follow the $nabe Model in the Plur. 

2. The 9?ame Model is a Mixture of the 9Jialer and $ttabe 
models in the Sing., usually taking -$ in the Gen., sometimes 
-n in the Nom. 

I. 9?ame Model. 

Sing. N. — c Plur. 

— n 

G. — ng 

— n 

D. — n 

— n 

A. — n 

— n 

Remarks. — 1. All thi 

■ee f 


3. The 9iacfybav Model follows the 9J?aler Model in the 

4. The Dbr Model follows the <5obn Model in the Sing. 

71. The Essential Parts for the Declension of a Sub- 
stantive are : 

The Nominative Singular, 
The Genitive Singular, and 
The Nominative Plural. 
These being given, the remaining cases of the noun can be 
formed from the above Tables, with the assistance of the 
following : 

Remarks. — 1. All Feminines are unchanged in the Sing. 

2. The Nom. and Ace. Sing, are always alike, except in 
the Weak Declension ($nabe, ©raf and 3iame models). 

3. The Gen. Sing, ends in -§ in Masculines (except in 
the Weak Declension) and in all Neuters. 

4. The Nom., Gen. and Ace. Plur. are always alike. 

5. The Dat. Plur. always ends in -n. 

Decline the following substantives throughout : 

2)o« 33ud), bie ©djouljeit, ber ©turm, bie £od)ter, bcr ©djroager, bcr 
better, ba% Regiment, bie ©tabt, ba3 2Uige, ber 2Jfrnut, ber SDieufd), ber 
^Jaloft', ber planet', ber ©pa.uergang, ba% @d)of, bie grau, baS graulein, 
ber geiertag, bie @d)tt>efter, ber ©laube. 

Declension of Proper Names. 

72. Geographical Proper Names : 

1. If never used without an article, etc. (see § 44, 2, 3), are 
declined like common nouns, as : ber 9tbein, g. bes 9(t>em(c)d r 
d. bem 9ibein(c); bie ©cbtoeij, g. ber ©cfetoeij, d. ber ©cfetoeij, etc. 

2. If not generally used with an article, etc., they take no 
ending except -i in the Gen. Sing, (unless they end in a 

92 LESSON XVI. [§§72 

sibilant), as : SDeutfrhlanb, Germany, g. ©eutfcftlanbg ; $ranf= 
reirf), France, g. g-ranfretrhg ; 3iom, Rome, g. 9{omg. 

3. If they end in a sibilant (g, fd), 3, ft, y), the Gen. is 
replaced by the preposition tion, as : $)ie 33efefttgungen Hon 
parts', the fortifications of Paris. 

4. ©Oil may replace the Gen. with other names also, and 
is always used after titles, as : SDie $onigm toon ©nglanb, the 
Queen of England ; ber Siirgermeifter lion Toronto, the Mayor 
of Toronto. 

5. When the Name of a Place is preceded by a common 
noun, they are in apposition to each other, but the proper 
name is not inflected, as : 2)ic ©iabt I'onboit (not Oon Son; 
bon), the City of London, g. bcr <5tabt Sonbort. $)a§ ^omgreid) 
tprcufjcn, the Kingdom of Prussia, g. be3 $ontgrcid)g $rcuf$en. 

6. Proper Names of Places are not used in the Plural. 

73. Proper Names of Persons are now inflected in the 
Gen. Sing, only, as follows : 

1. If preceded by an article, etc. (which shows the case), 
they remain unchanged, as : The letters of Cicero, bte ^riefe 
be§ Gicero. 

2. If not preceded by an article showing case, etc., those 
ending in a sibilant, and Feminines in -c, add -(c)ng in the 
Gen. ; all others add -g only, as : 5Jlay, g. SRajcng ; Soutfc, G. 
fioutfcng ; Statl, g. tfarl*. 

Remark. — Surnames and classical names in a sibilant 
now commonly take an apostrophe instead of -tng, as : 
Dpi$' 2Berfe, Opitz's works. 

74. Family Names are used in the Plural with added -g, 
as in English, but without article, as : the Schmidts, ©cfrmtbtg 
(meaning the members of the Schmidt family). 

Further Remarks on the Declension of Proper Names and of Foreign 
Substantives will be found in Supp. Less. C, below. 


75. Prepositions Governing the Genitive. 

1. JfikflCH, on account of, on behalf of, for the sake of 
(sometimes follows its case), as : I remained at home on 
account of (for the sake of) my child, (tocgen metrics 

Note. — SBcgeit always follows the Gen. of the Pers. Prons., which 
are then written in one word with the preposition, and have special forms 
ending in -t, as: mcim'imcaeii, for my sake; ibrcfluecjetl, for her (their) 
sake; ltiljertltH'flCii, for our sake, etc.; also with the Relative and 
Demonstr. be r : biUT(a)ttl)cgcn (Sing. Fern, and Plur. =' for the sake of 
whom, which, that,' etc.). 

2. S&iiljrcnt), during, as : We went out walking during the 
rain (roafjrntb beg 9iegen§). 

3. Statt, or nnftatt, instead of, as : He will come instead 
of his friend (ftatt, or anftatt feincS jyreunbeg). 

The other preps, with gen. will be found in Lesson 


give, present, make a present Henry, §etnrid) 

of (foil, by dat. of person Ireland, (ba§) 3rtanb 

and ace of thing), fchenfen Margaret, 5lrargarete 

library, bie SitbUotftef speech, oration, bie 5Hebe 

bookseller, bcr Sud/baubler St. Lawrence, ber (St. (<Sanct) 
cousin (fern.), bie doufine So'renj 

Elizabeth, fjlifabetb Sarah, (Sara 

Europe, CJurr/pa Scotchman, ber ©cbotte 

festivity, bie $eftlid)feit street, bie ©trafje 

Frederick, $rtebrid) Thames, bie Sbemfe 

Fred, Freddy, %x\§ work, ba3 SBerf 

poem, bag ©ebicbt William, Wilbeim 

George, ©eorg broad, wide, breit 

Greece, (ba3) ©rtecbenlanb high, bod) 

capital (city), bie £>aupt|tabt* clear, flar 

94 LESSON XVI. [§§75- 

turbid, muddy (of water), soon, balb 

triibe everywhere, liberal!' 

Idioms: to be on a visit at (any one's), auf Srfurit fciu bci ; as a birth- 
day present, junt Wcburtdtng. 


A. 1. $)er &aifer toon £)eutfd;lanb ift and) ®onig toon ^Sreufeen. 
2. 2)ie 23crge @nglanb§ unb $rlanb§ finb nid;t v)od), aber bic 
Serge ber (5d»roeij finb bod; unb pracfytig. 3. 28ir ftubiercn bie 
$3riefe be3 Gicero. 4. ©ara3 (Soufine toar bet it)r auf 33efud>, 
aber jeijt ift fie fort. 5. 5RiU(er§ toaren geftcrn bet un§, aber 
fair Iwaren nicfyt ju ipaufe. C>. 2Ca§ ift ber 9iame be§ 33itrger= 
tneifterS bon Sonbon? 7. 9)?etn SSater fyat mtr Seffing§ 21>erfe 
unb £>cine§ Steber jttrn ©eburt§tag gefdbenft. 8. 2luf metner 
9leife befucbte id; bie ©tctbte Sonbon, tyaxiZ, SBerlin unb SWorn. 
9. Tie $liiffe @anaba§ finb grofj, aber bie ^liiffe ©riedjenlanbS 
finb flein unb furj. 10. 2Bir toerben bie Slumen fur Soplne auf 
ben £ifd; ftellen. 11. g-riebricbS Gutter fd;enft ibm SvtopftodS 
SBerfe, benn beute ift fcin ©eburtstag. 12. ®a3 2Baffcr be3 
5anct Sorenj ift flar, aber ba§ 2Baffer ber £bemfe ift triibe. 13. 
Souife, bole ©opfyte unb ©lifabetb, unb loir toerben einen Bpa^kx- 
gang im SBalbe madden. 14. SDiefer Sd;otte rebet toiel toon 
Sums' ©ebid;ten. 15. <geinrtd;§ ^reunbe ioerben balb nacb, 
Snglanb reifen, unb fie hxrbcn aud) granfretd; befudjen. 16. £)ie 
©trafjen 2oronto§ ioaren nnibrenb ber $eftlid)ieiten fefyr fd;on. 
17. 2Be3b,alb ftubieren (Sie bie Steben be<§ £>emoftr; ene§ ? 18. 
21m Jreitag ober <8onnabcnb toerben roir nad) $ingfton rcifen 
urn Souife unb 3)krgarete ju befucyen. 19. ©eorg ift jetjt bei 
feinem better grit} auf 23efucr). 20. 3lm (Sonntag roaren roir 
toegen be§ SturmeS jtt §aufe. 21. %d) fyabe in ber <5d;h)eij nidjt 
biel SBergnitgen gebabt, lueil id) auf ber 9teife franf loar. 

B. 1. Charles, bring Freddy and Max, and we shall play 
in the garden. 2. We have looked for William's book every- 
where. 3. The streets of Paris are wide and beautiful. 4. 


Who has bought these gloves for Emma? 5. The city of 
Ottawa is the capital of Canada. 6. We live in Canada, but 
our parents live in Germany. 7. We have presented flowers 
to Elizabeth and Mary. 8. You have Goethe's works in 
your library. 9. I bought Schiller's William Tell at (bet) a 
bookseller's in Hamilton. 10. We learn in this book the 
names of the gods of the Romans. 11. The Schmidts visited 
us yesterday. 12. What is the capital of Switzerland? 13. 
My father sent me instead of Max, because Max was too tired. 
14. The city of Berlin is the capital of the kingdom of 
Prussia. 15. Would you be happy, if you were rich ? 


1. Wer ist Konig von Preussen ? 2. Wo war Saras Cou- 
sine ? 3. Was hat Ihr Vater Ihnen zum Geburtstag ge- 
schenkt ? 4. Sind die Strassen Torontos immer schon ? 5. 
Weshalb waren wir am Sonntag zu Hause ? 6. Was ist die 
Hauptstadt Canadas ? 



76. Further Remarks on Declension of Proper Names. 

i. Proper names of towns, governed by a preposition in the genitive, 
do not take -g, as : mnucit Hamburg, not far from Hamburg. 

2. Names of persons, even if preceded by an article, etc., take -g in 
the genitive before a governing noun, as: be$ fletneit Siavi$ 93ucf)CV (but 
bie SBiidjev be§ flcinen .ftarl). 

3. Feminine names frequently take -(f )tt in the dat. and ace, especially 
if they end in -f, as : Soutfe, D. a. Souijcn. 

4. Family names (and even Christian names) formerly added (e)lt in 
the dat. and ace, and are usually so found in the classics, as: 

Ooethe, n. a. @octhen 

©djiUev, " ©djillcrn 
.Start, " Sarin 

Sefftng, " i'effingen 

Note. — This inflection is now obsolete and not to be imitated. 


5. In the case of proper names in the genitive, preceded by a common 
noun as title : 

(u) If the governing word follows, the proper name takes the genitive 
ending, the title remaining undeclined and having no article, as: tfbuig 
£>eiuri(t)8 @ohtie, King Henry's sons. 

(/') If the governing word precedes, the title has the article and the 
genitive ending, the proper name remaining undeclined, as : bie 2o()iie 
bc$ M'bnigS $einrtd). 

Note. — The title £>err takes -n in the genitive in both these cases, as : £errtl 
Sd)mibt3 §mi$, or ba3 £au3 be3 iperrn Sdjmibt. 

6. In the case of a Christian name without article, connected with a 
family name preceded by Won (indicating noble rank) : 

(a) When the governing word follows, the family name only is de- 
clined, as : griebvich »on ©cfjillerg (Sebicfite. 

{6) When the governing word precedes, only the Christian name is 
declined, as : 2)te ©cbicftte ^riebrichg toon ©cftiller. 

7. The names of the Saviour, 3>efu8 GtbviftuS, usually both follow the 
Latin declension, thus : n. 3efu$ ShriftuS, g. 3efu (£hrifti, d. 3efu Shrifta, 
a. 3c|um Shriflum, Voc. 3cfu Sbriftc. 

Note. — Other biblical names, if without article, also follow the Latin inflection, espe- 
cially in the gen., as : Da§ ©oangelium ©t. 3Jlattfjai, the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

77. Declension of Foreign Substantives. 

1. Most foreign substantives follow one or other of the regular forms 
of declension, all feminines being weak. 

2. Most masculines and neuters from the Latin, ending in -ug, have 
the classical plural, but with no case-inflection in either number, as : 
bev 9Jf 0bll£, the mood : N. G. D. A. Sing. 9Jiobu8, Plur. 2Jiobt ; bee dojug, 
the case : n. g. d. a. Sing. dafuS, Plur. (£ufu0 ; bo8 £embU$, the tense : 
n. g. d. a. Sing, JcmbuS, Plur. £emtoora. 

Notes — 1. Others change -u3 to -tn in the plur., as: ®lobu§, Plur. ©lobttt (such 
forms as GSlobuffe should be avoided as barbarous). 

2. $>er MtlaS has pi. bie 2(tlanten. 

3. The Hebrew words Sfjcrub and ©erapl) have the Hebr. PI. in -fin and take -8 in 
the gen. sing. 

3. Neuters in -0 from the Greek, and in -uttl from the Latin, take -j 
in the gen. sing., and change -0 or — uitl into -ctl in the plur., as : bil3 
®vanio, the drama, g. Sing. 2)ramag, Plur. 2)ramen ; ba« £t)ema, the 


theme, Plur. Xbemen ; ba8 3nbiBibuuin, the individual, G. Sing. 3nbt»i= 
buumfi, Plur. 3nbi»ibuen ; bo8 55erbum, the verb, riur. bie SSerben. 

Note. — S)a§ filima, the climate, has pi. .ulimata or fllimntcn. 

4. Neuters from Latin Substantives with plur. in -ia add -% in the gen. 
sing., often dropping the Latin sing, termination, and form the plur. in 
-tCtl, as: bag 2tbt>erb(iuin), the adverb, G. Sing. 5lbrjcrb(ium)g, Plur. 2Ib= 
toerbien; ba§ ^articip(ium), the participle, g. Sing. ^arttcip(tum)§, Plur. 
^articipiett; ta% goffil', the fossil, Plur. ftoffilten; ba« 2Jiinerat', the 
mineral, Plur. 2Jtineralictt. 

Notbs. — 1. These words formerly followed the full forms of Latin declension, gram- 
matical terms (e. g. Serbum, etc.) retaining these forms longest. 

2. The German word baSJMetnob, the jewel, has Plur. fiteinobietl as well as the regular 
Plur. JUeinobe. 

5. Masculines and neuters of recent introduction from modem lan- 
guages take -$ in the gen. sing., and add -g to form the plur., as : 2orb8, 
Slubg, @ofag, 93anqmerg, portraits, ©olog, etc. 

Notb. — Italian words are also found with their proper foreign plur., as Soil, Gontf. 

78. The Article with Names of Persons. 

Besides the cases specified in § 73, 1, above, the article is used with 
names of persons : 

1. Colloquially and familiarly, as: bet $arl, bie Soittfe. 

2. When they denote a class, as : Cttt SSeUington, a {man like) Wel- 

3. Before names of paintings, etc., named from a pers., etc, as : till 
SRafacl, a {painting by) Rafael; bie SSenuS toon 3Jtilo, the {statue of) 
Venus of Milo. 



79. The Gender of Substantives is determined in German : 

I. by Meaning ; or 
II. by Form (Ending, etc.). 

80. I. Gender as determined by Meaning. 
1. Masculine are names of: 

(a) Males, as : bcr 9)?ann, the man ; bet 6elb, the hero. 

98 LESSON XVII. [S3 80 

Remark : But diminutives in -djctl and -Icttt are neuter, as: 
bag 2)itinnlcin or Wcinncben. 

(f) Seasons, months and days, as : bcr .^erbft, the autumn ; 
brr ^anuar, January ; bcr SCNitttood), Wednesday. 

(c) Points of the compass, as: bcr ^orb(en), the north. 

(d) Precious stones and mountains, as : bcr SDiamant, the 
diamond ; bcr SBrocfen, the Brocken. 

2. Feminine are names of : 

{a) Females, as : bic $rau, the woman ; bic £od)ter, the 

Remark : But bag 28etb, the woman, is neuter ; also diminu- 
tives in -djcit and -tcttt, as: bag Xocbtercbcn, the little 
daughter ; bag -JRabcben, the girl ; bag ftraulein, the young 

(b) Trees, plants, fruits and flowers generally, as : bit @td)e, 
the oak ; bic 9?effel, the nettle ; bic 23irne, the pear (but bcr 
2lpfel, the apple) ; bic Siofe, the rose. 

(<r) Cardinal Numerals used as substantives, as : bic @tn§, 
the (number or figure) one ; bic <5ed}§, the six (at dice, etc.). 

3. Neuter are names of : 

(a) Metals almost always, as : bag Slei, lead ; bag ©ifen, iron. 
Note. — $cr @taf)(, steel, is Masc. 

(b) Collectives almost always, as : bag 3Solf, the people ; bag 
£>eer, the army ; especially when beginning with ©C-, as : bag 
©ebtrge, the mountain-chain. 

(c) Countries and provinces almost always, as : (bag) (Suropa, 
Europe ; (bag) (Sanaba ; islands, cities, towns, villages, etc., 
always, as : (bag) Hamburg ; (bag) S^om, Rome. 

Remarks. — 1. Names of countries and provinces in -ct, 
-Oil and -3 are feminine, as : bic £itrfci, Turkey ; btc ©cfctoeij, 


2. Names of countries, etc., when not neuter, always have 
the definite article (see § 44, 3). 

(d) Infinitives, letters of the alphabet, and other parts of 
speech (except Adjectives used of persons, and Cardinal 
Numerals; see 2, c, above), used as Substantives, as: bag 
Sadjen, the (act of) laughing; bag % the (letter) A; bag 3d), 
the I; bag 2Benn unb bog 9lber, (the) 'if' and (the) 'but.' 

Give the gender of the following Substantives, assigning the rule in 
each case: Stpril, (Mb, (Srbbecrc, £od)ter, guropa, 23tfd)of, Jonboit, 3ura, 
SRubin (ruby), SBaUo^ei (Wallachia), Unrest, ©uben (South), (Mb, 
$<mfen, ©ommer. 

81. Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives. 
The Interrogative Pronouns are : 

1. toclojcr? which? — Definite. 

2. met? who? 

, — Indefinite. 
3. ttjog? what? 

82. SBeldjer? is declined after the biefer Model, but, as 
Pronoun, lacks the Gen., thus : 

Singular. Plural. 


Nom. toelcfcer toelc&c toelcfrcg toelcbe, which 

Dat. roelcbcm toelcber toelchcm roelc&cn, (to,for)which 
Ace. toeldjen toelcbe roelcbeg roeldje, which 

Remarks. — 1. 2BeId)er? asks 'which of a number?' of 
persons or things, and agrees in gender with the noun follow- 
ing it, as: 

2Beld)er bon btefen 9Ranncrn tft bier geroefen? 
Which of these men has been here ? 

■ffielcfceg won btefen JBitrfjcvn fyahen <Sie gebobt ? 
Which of these books have you had ? 


2. The neuter sing, tocldjcs is used before the verb 'to be,' 
irrespectively of the gender or number of the subject (com- 
pare the similar use of c3, § 39, 1), as : 

Which is your sister (brother)? 

9Belcf/cS tft 3Bre ©cfcroefter (^br SBruber) ? 

Which are the children of the count ? 

2Belcfec§ finb bie £inbeu be§ ©rafcn ? 

83. 2Bcr ? and trjas ? are used in the Sing, only, and are 
declined as follows : 


Nom. roer, who ? roaS, what ? 

Gen. roefjcn (or it>c§), whose, of roeffen (or JoeS), of 
whom what 

Dat. roem, (to, for) whom 

Ace. toen, whom roa§, what 

Remarks. — 1 . JjBct is used of persons only, for all gen- 
ders and both numbers, as : 
Sing. m. 2Bcr iff biefer Sftann? f. jene f|rou? n. biefe§ $tnb? 
Plur. SBeufinb btefe banner? etc. 

2. 93Bc8 is not used of persons. 

3. IBB08 is never used in the Dative. In the Dat. or Ace. 
with prepositions, roa§ is replaced by tt)0 (roor before vowels), 
placed before the preposition (compare § 38, Rem. 5, for 
similar use of ba), as : 

SBorauf fitjen <3ie? On what (whereon) are you sitting? 
99Bo»on fpred)en <Ste ? Of what (whereof) are you speaking ? 
Note. — SBOvum ? = for what, wherefore, why ? not roOrutn. 

4. With prepositions governing the Gen., foeS is used before 
the preposition, as : locSbalb, toegtoegen ? on what account, 
wherefore, why ? 

5. The neuter Gen. roeffen ? is rarely used, except as above. 


6. 2£(tS is sometimes used (as interrog. adv.) for toarum, why ? 
(For the use of toaS for ettoaS, see under ettoaS, § 149, 1.) 

84. The Interrogative Adjectives are : 

1. tticldjcr, tocldje, b)tfrf)C0? which? what? — Definite. 

2. toag fur ein, mog fiir cine, tons fiir cin ? j what kind of ? 

Plur. ttJOS fiir ? i — Indefinite. 

85. JHMtfjcr, as Interrogative Adjective, follows the 
biefer Model throughout, as : 

Singular. Plural. 






feelc^e, which 





rDeId)er, of which 





toeld)en, (to, for which) 





toelcfce, which 

Examples : 
Which man was here ? 
SBeldjer 9ttcmn toar 6ier ? 
What books have you ? 
SEBeldje 23iid)er fectben <2>te ? 
Remarks. — 1. 2Beld)er is also used in exclamatory sen- 
tences (= what !), sometimes without termination, as : 
2BeWj(c8) 23ergniigen ! What pleasure ! 

2. The stem toeld) is also followed by ein, and is unin- 
fected, as: 

SBcI^ ein ©turm ! What a storm ! 

86. In declining toaio fiir ein, toa8 remains unchanged, 
while cilt agrees with the substantive, as : 

n. m. 2Ba3 fiir cin £ut ? a. 2Ba§ fiir eincn $ut ? What kind 
of (a) hat ? d. 2£a§ fiir einctn §ut? To what kind 
of a hat ? 

102 LESSON XVII. [§§ 86- 

g. f. 2BaS fiir einer SBlume ? Of what kind of (a) flower, etc. 

In the Plur. hJOS fiir is used without article, as : 

n. a. jffioS fiir &inber ? What kind (sort) of children ? 

d. 2Bo8 fiir £inbew ? To what kind of children ? 

The ritt is also omitted before names of materials and 
other words used partitively, as : 

2Ba§ fiir £ot$ ? Stag fiir SBetter ? 

What kind of wood ? What sort of weather ? 

87. Indirect Statements. 

Direct Statement or Quotation : 
He said :' I am tired.' 

Indirect Statement or Quotation : 

He said (that) he was tired. 

i. An Indirect Statement is always a subordinate clause. 

2. In Indirect Statements, the Verb is usually in the Sub- 
junctive (especially if the verb of the principal clause be in 
the Impf.), and has the same tense which it would have, if 
statement were made directly, as : 

©te fagten, bafe eS roabr fci (i. e., fie fagten : „(£§ ifl roabr," 
pres.), They said that it was true. 

@r antroortete, baft er geftern angefommen fci (i. e., er antroors 
tete : „%<$ Bin geftern angefommen," /<=?/)> He answered, 
that he had arrived yesterday. 

Note. — In English, on the other hand, a past tense is always fol- 
lowed by a past tense, as in the above examples. 

3. The conjunction bafj may be omitted in such clauses, 
which then have the construction of a principal sentence 
(i. e., verb in second place), as : 

@r fagte, cr fci geftern angefommen. 

88] indirect statements and questions. io3 

88. Indirect Questions. 

Direct Question : 
Who is there ? 

Indirect Question : 
He asked who was there ? 

1. In Indirect (or Dependent) Questions the con- 
struction is that of a dependent clause (verb last). 

2. If the verb of the principal sentence be in the Impf., 
that of the question will be in the subjunctive, and have the 
same tense which it would have in the direct question, as : 

Sagen <5te mir gefattigft, too jener £err toobnt (Dir. Qu. : 

2Bo toobnt jener §err? pres.), Tell me, if you please, 

where that gentleman lives ? 

@r fragte mid), toelcber toon biefen £>erren mein 33ruber fei, He 

asked me which of those gentlemen was my brother (Dir. 

Qu. : 2Belcber, etc., ifl ^br SBruber ? pres.) 


*#* The article will be supplied by the pupil, according to preceding 
rules, where not given. 

to use, braud) en buying, b— $aufen 

march, marfcbieren life, b — Seben 

save, retten learning (act of), b — Semen 

answering, b — Slnttoorten lily, b— Sitie 

paying, b — 33egablen market, bet Wlaxlt 

jewel, precious stone, b — morning, ber 9ftorgen 

©belftein afternoon, ber -ftacbmitiag 

asking (of questions), b — plum, b — ^flaume 

fftagen emerald, b — ©maragb' 

Italy, Jjtalien winter-month, ber 2Bintermo'= 

fire-place, b — $atmn' nat 

elm, b — Ulme valuable, precious, toerttooll 

blue, blau generally, usually, getoofynlid) 

light, easy, leicbt etc., u. f . Id. (= unb fo roeiter, 

useful, nutjltdb, i. e. " and so further ") 

104 LESSON XVII. [§§ 88- 

Genitive with ) i n the morning, morgen3 or be3 9J?orgen3 
3 force a ) m tne afternoon, nad)mittag3 or be3 5?ac^mittagS 
The Cardinal Points of the Compass (= bic bier §tmmel^= 

gegenben) : North, (ber) -ttorben ; South, (ber) ©iiben ; East, 

(ber) Often ; West, (ber) Seften. 
Names of the Months : ber l^anuar, ber $ebruar, ber 9ftarj, 

ber Styril', ber Wax, ber 3u'm, ber ^u'H, ber Sluguft', ber ©ep= 

tember, ber Dftober, ber 9lobember, ber ^ejember. 

Idiom : I saved his life, lit. I saved to or for him the life, 
3d) tettett 1 1) m kai fieben. See § 44, 6 (b). 


A. 1. 2Ber bat ba§ 23ilb toon meinem Sfteffen iiber ba§ $amtn 
gebcingt? 2. 2Ba§ fiir einen £ifd) bat ^obann auf bem -Btarfte 
gefauft? 3. 2luf toelcbe S3an! roerben roir un§ fe£en? 4. 2BeI= 
d)em ilnaben gebort bief e§ defter? @3 gebort 2Bitbelm. 5. $ene3 
9Rabd)en auf ber ©trafee ift bag £od)terd)en unfereS 9tad)bar3. 

6. 9Ba§ macben ©ie getoobnlid), roenn ©ie einen $eiertag baben? 

7. 3)e§ 9Jtorgen3 ftubiere id), unb be§ 9?ad)mittag3 rubre id) auf 
bem ^luffe. 8. 2BeId)e§ finb bie -Kamen ber fieben Stage ber 
2Botf;e? SDtontag, u. f. to. 9. 2Bem fcbicfen ©ie biefen Srief? 
10. £$d) fcbide ibn bem 33ud)bcinbler. 11. 2Boriiber i)aUn bie 
£erren gelad)t ? 12. 2Ber ift bie $rau neben meiner Stante auf 
ber93anf? 13. 2Ba§ fiir Slugen bat ber ©tubent? ©eine 2lugen 
finb blau. 14. 2Borau§ mad)en roir ©cbiffe? 2Bir mad)en fie 
au3 (Sifen unb ©tabl. 15. $arl ift mit bem Semen feiner 2tuf= 
gabe nid)t fertig. 16. 2Borauf baben bie ©d;uler fid) gefe^t? 
©ie baben fid) auf bie Snide gefefct. 17. 23a§ fiir ©belfteine 
baben ©ie ba ? 18. %<fy t)aU einen S)iamant(en), einen Sftubin, 
unb einen ©maragb. 19. SDaS £eer ift Don ftranfreid) nad) 
^talien marfcbiert. 20. -ftapoleon fd)i(fte bem ©rafen einen SDia* 
mant(en), roeil ber ©raf ibm ba§ ?eben gerettet batte. 

B. 1. Which of your sisters are learning German ? 2. For 
whom is this diamond ? It is for the countess. 3. Which 


are your pens ? 4. The asking of questions is very easy, but 
the answering is very difficult. 5. The north, the south, the 
east, and the west are the four cardinal points of the compass. 
6. Which of these students is Mr. Braun ? 7. The boy buys 
himself pears and plums in the market. 8. My uncle has 
three children — a girl and two boys. 9. June, July, and 
August are very hot in Canada. 10. Buying is pleasant, but 
paying is very disagreeable. 11. Iron and steel are very 
useful. 12. The rose and the lily are flowers, but the oak 
and the elm are trees. 13. I blame Mary because she wastes 
her money. 14. What would you do with your money, if you 
were rich ? 15. We always hoped that William would learn 


1 . Wo hangt das Bild von Ihrem Neffen ? 2. Wer ist das 
Madchen vor unserm Hause ? 3. Weshalb schickte der 
Konig dem Biirgermeister einen Diamant(en)? 4. Was fur 
Augen hat der Student ? 5. Ist das Fragen leicht ? 6. Was 
wiirden Sie machen, wenn Sie einen Feiertag hatten ? 



89. Gender of Substantives as determined by Form. 

1. Masculine are : 

(a) Substantives in -id), -ig, -ing, -HI, almost always, 

as : bcr $rantdj, the crane ; bcr £>omg, the honey ; 
bcr trembling, the stranger ; bcr 9Item, the breath. 

(b) Those in -cl, —en (not infinitives), -tt, generally 

(names of agents in -cr always), as : bcr Soffd, 

106 LESSON XVIII. [§§89- 

the spoon ; bcr ©artcn, the garden ; bcr ©artncr, 
the gardener. 

(c) Monosyllables — generally (but with many excep- 
tions), as : bcr $rieg, the war ; bcr %a%, the day, 

2. Feminine are : 

(a) Substantives in -ei, -Ijcit, -fcit, -fd)aft, -Ultg, -lit, 

always, as : bic <5d)meid;elci, flattery ; bie ©d)ons 
Ijeit, beauty; bic SDcmfbarfeit, gratitude; btc 
$reunbfdjttft, friendship ; bie ^offming, hope ; bic 
©rdfin, the countess ; bic ^reunbin, the- (female) 

Note. — The termination -in is used to form feminine names from 
masculines, usually with Umlaut, always so in monosyllables. 

(p) Those in -t (especially after a consonant), -citb, 
generally, as : bie $raft, strength ; btC gufunft, 
the future ; bic £ugettb, virtue. 

(c) Those in -c, generally (but with many exceptions), 

as : bic §5&c, height ; bie ©rojje, size. 

(d) Some in -ni§ (see also under neuters), as : bic 

SStlbniS, the wilderness. 

(e) Foreign Substantives in -OflC, -ic (French) ; -if 

(Greek); -enj, -tat, -(t)ion, -ttr (Lat.), always 
as : bie GourttflC, courage ; bie 9Jtelobie', the melody ; 
bie 5Rufif, music ; bie Slubicnj', the audience ; 
bie Untoerftiaf, the university ; bie Nation', the 
nation ; bie Sftatur', nature. 

3. Neuter are : 

(a) Substantives in -djen and -Icitt (diminutives), al- 
ways (without regard to sex), as : ba§ Sftdnnleitl, 
bag ftrdufein, bag ^Kabojcn. 


(b) Those in -turn, almost always, as : bag (Sfcrtftentlim, 

Christendom, Christianity. 

(c) Those in -nig, — fal, -|cl, generally, as : bag ©reigttig, 

the event ; bag ^Sd)idffol, fate, destiny ; bag WsX- 
fcl, the riddle. 

(d) Those beginning with the prefix ©C-, unless other- 

wise determined by meaning, termination, or 
derivation, as : bag ©cmcilbe, the painting ; bag 
©cmad), the apartment ; but : bcr ©ebattcr, the 
godfather ; bic ©ebatterin, the godmother ; bic 
©efettfdjaft, the company ; bcr ©ebrauaj, the 
usage (from bcr 33raud), masc. monosyll.). 

Give the gender of the following substantives, assigning the rule in 
each case : 3}eUd)etl, §ut, $trd)e, Slitlftfer, i'aitbfdjaft, ©f fig (vinegar), 
93lumc, ©cfdjenf, $nablein, 23egrabrti«, ^urd)t, £>afen, ©emitter, ginger, 
2tpfcl, forb, Uniberfttat', 2tftroIog, SCe^irfj, "Kfjilofophie. 

90. General Remarks on Gender. 

1. Gender agrees, as in English, with sex, except in bag 
SBetb, m Diminutives in -OJCtt and -Icitt, and in certain 
compounds (see below). 

2. Inanimate objects, which in English are all alike neu- 
ter, may be of any gender in German, as determined by 
Meaning or Form, as : bcr four, bic 231ume, bag 3Bud). 

3. Each substantive of which the gender is not determined 
by the rules should be learnt with the Definite Article as 
the sign of its gender. 

4. Compounds are of the gender of the last component 
(hence bag ^rauenjimmcr, the woman, is neuter), except 

bcr SIbfdjcu, disgust, from bic ©d)eu. 
bic 2lnttoort, the answer, from bag SBort. 
bcr 'JJUtttoOO), Wednesday, from btC SSocfoe. 




Also certain compounds of Wut, which are given in Ap 
pendix I. 

5. The exceptions to the foregoing lists will be found in 
Appendix I. 


Double Gender. 

The gender of the following substantives (with others 
given in App. J.), varies with their meaning : 

bag 23anb, 

\ See § 64, above. 


ber 33anb, volume 33anbe 

ribbon Stinber 

bond, tie Sonbe ) 

ber SBauer, peasant SBauern 

ba0 SBauer, bird-cage SBauer 

ber £>eibe, heathen > 

bie £eibe, heath ) 

ber <5d)ilb, shield ©d)ilbe 

bag <5d}Ub, sign (of an inn, etc.) ©djilber 

ber ©ee, lake | 

btc (See, sea > 

ber £bor, fool, g. beg Sffooren Xfyoxtn 

bag Sfcor, gate, g. beg Stfcoreg £feore 

(The pupil will supply the article in German where not given.) 

to visit, study (at a univer- 
sity), befuc&en (-f- Ace.) 

collect, gather, fammeln 

peasant, country-man, b — 

bee, b — 3Mene 

relate, tell, erjablen 

paint, malen 

(female) neighbour, b — -iftad); 

orator, b — 9tebner 
bedroom, b — ©cfylafeimmer 


boat, ba§ 33oot little son, b — ©ofmdjen 

friendship, b — f^reunbf c^>aft sun, b — ©onne 

inn, b — ®aftbau§ city-gate, town-gate, b — 

district, locality, b — ©e'genb ©tabttbor 

history, story, b — ®efd)id)te ingratitude, b — Unbanfbarfeit 

waiter, b — Refiner way, road, b — 2Beg 

piano, ba§ $latoier/ wind, b — 2Btnb 

vice, ba§ Safter rage, fury, bie 2But 

lesson, b — Seftion' sign, ba§ 3eid)en 

people, bie Seute (pi.) terrible, terribly, furd)terlid) 

love, b — Sie&e strong (heavily, of rain, etc.), 

mathematics, b — 9J?atbematt! ftarf 

(sing.) willingly, with pleasure, gem 
so, fo 

Idioms : 1. I like to learn German, 3rf> lornc qern $eutfd> 

2. A week ago to-day, $eute Dor a d) t Ingcn (Dat.). 

3. A week from to-day, $eute ix b c r adyt Sage (Ace). 


A. 1. DEme (bie) greunbfd^aft, (bie) £offnung unb (bie) Stebe 
roiirbe ba§ Seben febr traurig fetn. 2. Unfere 23ettem roaren Ijeute 
bor acfyt 3:agen bei un§. 3. (2)ie) (Sd)meid)elei ift fetn .o^icfjen ber 
grcunbfdjaft. 4. 2Bilbetm, Ierne betne Seftion. 5. 2Ba§ fiir 
SBanbe finb auf bem £ifd)e in ^b/rer SBibliotb, el ? 6. @§ finb fiinf 
SBanbe toon ©d)iffer§ SBerfen. 7. 1)te 2But be§ ©turme§ ift 
furd^terlid;, aber taZ <Sd)iff ift fd)on im £afen. 8. Sernt ^br 
23ruber gem ^Stati) ematif ? -ftem, aber er lemt gem ©eutfd). 
9. 23elcf)em 9Kabd)en geboren btefe 9tinge, ber 9Jiarie ober ber 
©ara ? 10. 2)te 2)anfbarf eit ift eine £ugenb, aber bie Unbanfbar= 
ieit ift ein 2after. 11. £arl <Sd)mtbt befud)t im SSinter bie Uni* 
toerfttat, aber im ©ommer roobnt er bei feinen ©Item auf bem 
Sanbe. 12. ^ene§ $rau(ein I)at tbrer $reunbin ein Sanb jum 
©eburtgtag gefebenft, unb tyre $reunbm ift bamit febr jufrieben. 
13. $)iefe §anbfd)ub,e geboren nicbt mir, fie gefyoren meinem 


<Sd)roager. 14. $)er -Staler bat ein <Sd)tlb fiir bag ©aftbauS bor 
bem Xfjor gemalt. 15. Wane, baft bu bie SSdnber fiir beine 
"JRutter gefauft ? ^ftein, aber id) toerbe fie morgen ober am WxtU 
Vuotf) laufen. 16. Refiner, fyolen ©ie mir gefdtfigft ein 3Reffer 
unb einen Soffel. 17. @r t/at mir feine 2lntroort auf meinen 
93ricf gcfdjicft. 18. 2Ba3 fiir eine s Mobie fpielt bag gocbtercben 
unferer SBvrtin auf bem Plainer? 19. SBenn id) (Mb bcitte, fo 
roiirbe id) einen %fypi<fy unb 93orr/dnge fiir mein ©d)Iafjimmer 
faufen. 20. 2Benn 5Raric t^re Seltion nid)t Iernt, fo roirb fie in 
ber ©dude nid)t gut antroorten. 

B. 1. This country-man lives on a heath near the lake. 
2. The tempest is terrible, but the ship is already in the 
harbour. 3. The stranger praises this locality on account of 
the beauty of the landscape. 4. What kind of a flower is it ? 
It is a violet. 5. We met a stranger on the way to the uni- 
versity. 6. Your aunt is my neighbour. 7. Who are these 
people ? They are the parents of my cousin. 8. The mother 
relates to her little son the story of the little man in the 
wood. 9. Have you heard the words of the orator? 10. 
During the tempest the wind shook the house. 11. The girl 
hangs the bird-cage before the window in the sun (ace). 12. 
The bees gather honey from the flowers upon the heath, and 
the peasant sells it in the town. 13. When we hastened 
home yesterday, it was raining heavily. 14. I shall not wait 
for George, because I have no time. 15. When I resided at 
(bei) my uncle's, I was always at home at ten o'clock in the 


1. Wer war heute vor acht Tagen bei Ihnen ? 2. Was fiir 
Biicher haben Sie auf Ihrem Tische ? 3. Lernen Sie gern 
Mathematik? 4. Was macht Karl Schmidt im Winter? 
5. Wer spielt jetzt auf dem Klavier? 6. Was werden Sie 
heute iiber acht Tage machen ? 




92. Relative Pronouns. 

The Relative Pronouns are : 

i. focr, bit, bag, ) who (of persons), which (of 

2. toeWjer, toclttje, toeldjeS, > things) — Definite. 

x. tocr, who (= he who, whoever) ) 

. \ ,~ ,. , , si — Indefinite. 

4. ttoS, what (== that which, whatever) ) 

\ ' l. * .* r the like of whom or which — Indeclinable. 
6. bergmdjen, > 

93. 2>cr, bit, bog, as Relative Pronoun, is declined as 
follows : 

Singular. Plural. 


Norn, ber bie ba§ bte, who, which, that 

Gen. beffcn beten beffcn bercn whose, of which 

Dat. bem ber bem bencn, (to, for) whom, which 

Ace. ben bte ba§ bie, whom, which, that 

Observe. — These forms are the same as those of the Defi- 
nite Article, except the added —en of the Gen. Sing., Gen. 
Plur., and Dat. Plur. 

94. 2Bclri)Cr, as Relative Pronoun, is declined after the 
biefer Model, but, like the Interrogative toeld)er, lacks the 

112 LESSON XIX. [§§95~ 

95. Remarks on bcr and tocldjcr. 

i. 2>cr and inciter refer alike to both persons and things, 
and are interchangeable, except that : 

(a) In the gen., beffen, beren, beffen,//. beren (not toeld)e§, 
etc.), are always used (see § 82, above). 

(J>) Jier is used when the antecedent is of the First or 
Second Person, the relative being* in that case, always fol- 
lowed by the Personal Pronoun, as : 

I, who am your friend, 
3d), ber id} ^br greunb bin, 
(or : 3$, bie id> 3^ re ^reunbin bin). 

O God, (thou) who art in Heaven, 
D ©ott, bcr bu im £immel bift. 

2. JlCT and tocldjcr, referring to inanimate objects, are usu- 
ally replaced by too (toor- before a vowel) before a preposition 
(compare § 83, 3, above, for similar use of too for toaS), as : 

The table, on which {whereon) the book is, 
$)er Xifd), auf toelc&em, or : toorauf ba§ 33udb tft. 

3. The Gen. beffen, etc., always precedes its case, as : 

A tree, the leaves of which are green, 
©in Sawn, beffen flatter grim ftnb. 

96. Remarks on tOCt and looS. 

1. 99Bcr and loa§ are declined like the Interrogative Pro- 
nouns tocr? and toa§? 

2. JBBet is used of persons only, for all genders and both 
numbers ; toOS never of persons. 

96] REMARKS ON lUCf AND rOCt3. 113 

3. SBcr and toa8, as relatives, are indefinite and compound 
in meaning, and include the antecedent, as : 

SBer nicfyt boren toill, muf} fur/len, 

(He) who will not hear, must feel. 

2Ba8 icb, ^bnen gefdbicft babe, ift nid)t tuel, 

What (= that which) I have sent you, is not much. 

4. JBBcr never has an antecedent, since it includes the ante- 
cedent itself ; therefore 

never say : ©er -IRarm, tDcr bier toar, 
but : SDer 5Hann, tuclr^cr bier roar, 
(The man who was here). 

5. JBB08 never has an antecedent, unless the antecedent be 
a neuter adjective or pronoun, such as nicbt§, nothing ; etlcag, 
something ; atte§, everything ; or a phrase, in which cases tonS 
always replaces btt§, as : 

Nothing (that) I say, etc., 9ftd)t§, tOOg icb fage, etc. 
All (that) I have, etc., ȣ, I008 id; l)aht, etc. 
The best (that) I have, etc., 2)a§ Sefte, foal icb ^aU, etc. 
He does not learn his lessons, which (i. e. ' the not 

learning ') is a great pity, @r lernt feme Seftionen nid)t, 

toaS febr febabe ift. 

6. Ever = and) or tmmcr after roer or roa§, as : 

2Ber e§ nitrl) (tmmcr) gefagt b, at, Whoever has said it. 

7. The Relative foag, like the Interrogative, is not used 
after prepositions in the Dative or Accusative, but is re- 
placed in the same way by too(r); with prepositions governing 
the Genitive, focJ is used (see § 83, 3, above). 

Observe. — The relative must never be omitted in German, 
as it so frequently is in English, hence : 
(Engl.) The man I met, 
{Germ.) £>cr 3Kann, tuclcfjcm (bem) \d) begegnete. 

114 LESSON XIX. [$*97- 

97. $C80lcidf)Cn and bergletrfjeit are indeclinable words, 
the former referring to a masc. or neuter noun in the sing., 
the latter to fem. or plural nouns, as : 

©in 9Jlann, beegletcben (dat.) id) nie begegnete, 

A man, the like of whom I never met. 

§aben <Ste iemalS beSgleicben gebort? 

Have you ever heard the like of that ? 

(Sine^yrau, bergleicben, etc., A woman, the like of whom, etc. 

$tnber, bergleid) en, etc., Children, the like of whom, etc. 

98. Construction of Relative Sentences. 

i. Every relative sentence is of course a dependent sen- 
tence, and as such must have the verb at the end, as : 
The wine, which I have sent you, is very good. 
SDer 2Bein, ben id) ^l>nen iicjrhitft Ijafie, tft fefyr gut. 

2. When the antecedent is subject, the relative immediately 
follows it (as in the sentence given above) ; but if the ante- 
cedent be object, the sentence in which the object occurs 
should be completed before the relative is introduced, as : 

I have not used the book which you sent me, $d) I)abe ba§ 
33ud? md)i gcbraudjt, toelcbeS <5ie mtr febidten. 

I would have bought the book you showed me yesterday, 
if I had had money, ^d) toiirbe ba§ 33ud) gefauft haben, 
toelcbeS ©ie mir geftern jeigten, toenn id) (Mb gebabt b, arte. 

3. In sentences with ftier or ft)a§, the relative clause will be 
counted as the first member of the principal sentence, which 
will therefore begin with the verb, e. g. : 

39Bcr nid)t boren twill, tnuft fiibjen, 
He who will not hear, must feel. 

Note. — In German, every dependent sentence or clause is separated 
from the sentence on which it depends by a comma. The relatives 
mcldjer and ber must therefore always be preceded by a comma. 




99. Irregular Weak Verbs. 

1. A Few Weak Verbs, besides adding the termination -it 
to form the Impf., and -t to form the P. Part., also change 
the Stem Vowel in the Impf. Indicative and P. Part., but 
not in the Impf. Subjunctive. They are : 


brennen (intr.), to bum, be 
consumed with fire 

fennen, to know, be ac- 
quainted with 

ncnrten, to name 

rennen, to run (at full speed) 

fenben, to send 
toenben, to turn 

Impf. Ind. Impf. Subj. 

bronnte brcnnte 

lonnte fcnnte 

( ftmbte 
( fenbete 
( toonbte 
\ toenbete 



P. Part. 


f gefanbt 
1 gefenbet 
f geitwnbt 
( getocnbet 

Observe: i. The double forms of the last two verbs, of 
which the shorter are in more general use. 

2. The three following verbs have also a consonant change, 
with Umlaut in the Impf. Subj. : 

Infinitive. Impf. Ind. Impf. Subj. P. Part. 

brtngen, to bring 
benfen, to think 


btt>ttcn to seem (tapers.) j "™*^ 
(beaten, barter,) \^' 

briidjte gcbradjt 

badjte gebadjt 

beudjte gebcud)t 

(baud)te) (gebaud)t) 
biinfte gebunft 

Remarks. — 1. Compare the English: bring, brought; 
think, thought. 

2. The forms btiucfote, gebciucfot, are as yet more common 
than beudjte, gebeud)t, but the latter are according to the new 
official orthography. 

Il6 LESSON XIX. [S 99 

3. Besides the Inf. bcudjten, there is also a Pres. Ind. 
3. sing. bcud)t. 

Note. The German Perfect often replaces the English Past or 
Imperfect (see also Less. XLIIL), as: 

I sent you the book yesterday, 

3d) fjabe Sljnen gcftmi ba« $ud) gcfdjirft. 

I was working yesterday the whole day, 
3d) Ijabc gcftern ben ganjen Sag gcorbcttcL 


consider, bcbcnfen (trans.) acquaintance, bie53efannt[d)aft 

order, bespeak, bcftellen postman, bcr ^oftbote 

think of, benfen an (-)- ace.) title, ber Xitel 

or benfen (-J- gen.) all, everything, 2ttte§ 

recognize, erlennen unhappy, unfortunate, un* 
like to hear, gem boren gli'tcfUd) 

divide, share, teilen improbable, unmabrfdjetnltcy 

burn, consume with fire just now, eben, foeben 

(trans.), berbrennen diligently, industriously, fletfjig 

wish, ttninfd)en easily, readily, leicbt 

apply to, fid) nxnben an really, mirflid) 

(-j- ace.) 

Idiom : It is a pity, (Si tfi i'd>cibe (adj.). 

A. 1. $)er $atfer fanbte einen 23oten mit ber 9tad)rid)t nad) 
Berlin. 2. Ser nid)t fiir mid) tft, tft miber mid). 3. $)ie Seute, 
bet benen id) auf Sefud) gemefen bin, finb ©gotten. 4. §at ber 
Mner 2ll(e§ gebracbt, ma£ mir braudjien? 5. 2)er $oftbote bat 
mir bte 5ftad;rirf)t gebracbt, morauf id) martete. 6. $cb erfannte 
mirflid) ben £>errn nicbt, ber geftern mit metnem better in ber 
$trd)e mar. 7. 2)a§ $ferb be§ ©eneralS rannte urn ben $rei§. 
8. ®er trembling, beffen 33efanntfd)aft id) ju madden miinfd)e, 
roirb tnorgen bier fein. 9. SDas $euer brannte tm Dfen unb ber= 


brannte bag £olj. 10. 2Bcnn cr ungludlid; roar, toanbte cr fid; 
immer an mid), bet id) fcin greunb mar. 1 1 . $d) bacbte fyeute an 
bie ©efd)id)te, bie <2ie mir geftern erjdblten, unb id) fyabe fe^r 
bariiber gelactyt. 12. |>ai ber 3)iener bie 53iid)er nad) £au[e 
gebradjt, bie id; beim 33ud)bdnbler gefauft I)abe? 13. 9Jknfcb, fyaft 
bu je bebad)t, toaS bu bift? 14. 3Bit baben bag §oIj fd;on ber= 
brannt, bag loir Dor adit £agen gefauft I)aben. 15. 3Diefe§ &inb 
erjdljlt immer ju £>aufe, mag eS in ber ©cbule bbrt. 1(J. Sttteg, 
roaS cr r)at, teilt er mit mir, ber id; fcin grcunb bin. 17. ©lauben 
©ie bie (55efcr)tdb)te, bie .'pen 23raun ung bat? 18. 2)ie 
$rau, beren £od)tercben bei ung auf Sefuch iji, mirb morgen nad) 
£>aufe reifen. 19. 2Bag Sie in ber ©tabt gebbvt l)aben, i[t fel)r 
unroabrfd).ctnlid). 20. (?g rcgnetc geftcrn, YoaZ fefyr fcbabe mar, 
ba mir auf ban Sanbe maren. 

B. 1 . Do you hear what I say to you ? 2. My father al- 
ways burnt the letters which were no longer useful. 3. He 
has not told me what he wishes. 4. The man, in whose 
house we lived, is the brother of our neighbour. 5. Here is 
the meat which you have ordered. 6. The honey which the 
countryman brought us yesterday is not good. 7. Do you 
know the artist who has painted this picture? 8. People 
who are not industrious do not become rich. 9. We readily 
believe what we hope and wish for. 10. What were you 
thinking of when you met me yesterday? 11. Have you all 
you need? 12. I believe that I know the man who is in 
front of the house. 1 3. I always burn the newspapers I do 
not need. 11. The students to whom these books belong do 
not study them diligently, which is a pity. 15. I do not 
know the song, the title of which you have just named. 16. 
What was burning ? The gardener was burning leaves. 


I. Was machen Sie gewohnlich mit den /eitungen, die Sie 
mehr brauchen ? :>. Wer hat Ihnen diese Nachricht 

I I 8 LESSON XX. [§§ ioo 

gebracht ? 3. Woran denken Sie ? 4. Was machen Sie, 
wenn Sie einen Feiertag haben ? 5. Glauben Sie jede Ge- 
schichte, die Sie horen? (i. Was erzahlt das Kind? 



100. Declension of Attributive Adjectives. 

The boy is good — Predicative Adjective. 
The good boy — Attributive " 

Remember : That Adjectives used as Predicates are not 
varied (see § 14). 

101. Every Attributive Adjective either is or is not 
preceded ky a determinative word (i. e., article or pronominal 
adjective), which shows gender, number and case by distinc- 
tive endings. 

102. First Form. — If not preceded by any such deter- 
minative word, the Attributive Adjective follows the Strong 
Declension, which is the same as the biefer Model through- 
out, thus : 

Strong Declension of gut, good. 

Singular. Plural. 


























Substantives with Adjectives. 


good wine good soup good glass 

Nom. gutcr 2Bein gutc ©uppe gutcg ©la§ 

Gen. gutcS (en) 2Betn(e)3 gutcr ©uppe gute§ (en) ©lafes 

Dat. gutcm 2Betn(e) gutcr ©uppe gutcm ©laf(e) 

Ace. gutcn 2Bein gutc ©uppe gutel ©Ia§ 



Nom. gutc 2Beine, Buty^m, ©lafer 

Gen. gutcr SBeine, ©uppen, ©lafer 

Dat. gutcn 2Betnen, ©uppen, ©Idfern 

Ace. gutc Seine, ©uppen, ©Iafer 

Observe : In this form, where there is no other word to 
show the gender, etc., of the noun, this work must be done 
by the adjective, which therefore has as full a set of end- 
ings as possible. 

Remarks. — i. The Gen. Sing. Masc. and Neuter generally 
has -en instead of -c§ before strong substantives, as : gutcn 
2Beinc8, gutcn 33rotcS. 

2. Adjectives in -c drop the -c of the stem in declension, 
as : mtibc, tired : miib-er, miib-c, miib-cS, etc. 

3. If several Adjectives precede the same substantive, 
all follow the same form, as : 

gutcr, alter, rotcr 2Bein, etc., 
good, old, red wine. 

Decline throughout in German: sick child, high tree, long lesson, 
beautiful broad stream, young woman, lazy horse, tired boy. 

120 LESSON XX. [§§103 

103. Conjugation of Strong Verbs. 

Verbs in German are either Strong or Weak. The Weak 
Verbs, which indicate change of tense by the addition of a 
termination (usually without change of vowtt)^ as: lob-en, 
lobtc, gelob-t, have been treated in Lessons IX, X. 

104. The Strong Verbs, on the other hand, indicate the 
change of tense by a change of the Root Vowel with- 
out adding a termination, as : fing-en, to sing, Impf. fang; 
bleiben, to remain, Impf. bticb. 

105. The Past Participle in Strong Verbs ends in -en 
(not -et), usually also with change of Vowel, as: fing-en, P. 
Part, ge-fung-cn; bleiben, P. Part, ge-bltcb-en; but geben, P. 
Part, ge-gebcn. 

Remark. — This change of Root-Vowel is called 'Ablaut,' 
and is common to English and German. Compare Eng. sing, 
sang, sung ; give, gave, giv-en. 

106. Paradigm ok Simple Tenses of fingcn, to sing. 

Principal Parts. 
Infin. fing-en Impf. fang P. Part, ge— fling— en 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


id; finge, I sing id; finge, I (may) sing, etc. 

bu fing(e)ft, thou sing-est bu fingeft 

er fing(e)t, he sing-s er finge 

toir ftngcn, we sing fair fingcn 

ihr fvng(e)t, ye sing tbr finget 

fie fingcn, they sing fie ftngcn 


(Ind. Stem vvithUmlaut, where possible.) 

id; fang, I sang icb fitngc 

bu fang(e)ft, thou sanest bu fongeft 


simple tenses of ftngen. 


er fang, he sang 
hrir fangen, we sang 
tfcr fong(e)t, ye sang 
fie' fongctl, they sang 


er fongc 
ft>ir fiingcn 
tfcr fitngct 
fie fangen 

fing(e) [bu], sing [thou] 
fingc er, let him sing 
ftngen fair, let us sing 
fing(e)t [tyr], sing [ye] 
fingen fie, let them sing 

Observe : The Person endings are the same throughout as 
in the paradigm of loben, in which -it of the Impf. is a 
Tense ending (see Lessons IX, X) ; this is shown by the 
following : 

107. Table of Endings of Strong Verbs in 
Simple Tenses. 


Sing. 1. — C 

2. -(e)H 

3. -(c)t 
Piur. l . — en 

2. -(e)t 
3. —en 






— p 


— e 


— f 






— et 



— en 


— e 


Observe: i. The changed Vowel of the Imperfect, and ab- 
sence of person endings in i. and 3. sing. 

2. The Umlaut of the Imperfect Subjunctive. 

3. The persistent -c of the Subjunctive (Imperf. 

as well as Pres.) 

122 LESSON XX. [§§107- 

Remarks. — 1. The -c of the termination in the 2. Sing. 
of the Pres. and Impf. Ind. is only retained in Strong Verbs 
after t, i, or a sibilant, as : id) reit-e, bu reit-cft ; id) preif-e, 
btl pvcif— eft ; and in the 3. Sing. Pres. Ind., and 2. Plur. Pres. 
and Impf. Ind. after b, t, as : cr reit-ct, ibr reit-ct, ibr ritt-ct ; 
but er preif-t, ty x preif— t, ifer prtef-t. 

2. The compound tenses of a Strong Verb are formed pre- 
cisely like those of a Weak Verb, some being conjugated 
with baben, others with fetn ; hence it is only necessary to 
know the Inf., Impf. and P. Part., and in some cases the 
2. Sing. Imper.,in order to conjugate a Strong Verb throughout. 

108. Paradigm of Compound Tenses of fingen, to 
sing (with baben) ; fatten, to fall (with fetn). 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


(•^-■{jrK '•'•h sew 

id; \)<xU gefungen, I have sung id; babe gefimgen 

bu fyaft gefimgen, thou hast sung, etc. bu babeft gefungen, etc. 

id; bin gefatten, I have (am) fallen, etc. id; fct gefatten, etc. 


id; batte gefungen, I had sung, etc. id; batte gefungen, etc. 
id; toar gef alien, I had (was) fallen, etc. id; toorc gefaften, etc. 

(Pres. of mcrben + Infin. of j j"J® C " j- ) 

id; toerbe fingen (fatten), I shall sing id; toerbe fingen (fatten) 


bu h)irft fingen (fatten), thou wilt sing bu toerbeft fingen (fatten), 

(fall), etc. etc. 

no] compound tenses of ftngen, fatten. 123 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Future Perfect. 

<— {ST I + "•'-«■• <&) 

tcb nxrbe gefungen fyaben, I shall have id) ioerbe gefungen haben 


bu hnrft gefungen fyaben, thou wilt bu toerbeft gefungen 

have sung, etc. fyahm, etc. 

tcb toetbe gcfaften fcin, I shall have tcb toerbe gefallen fcin, 

(be) fallen, etc. etc. 

Conditional. COMPOUND. 

SlMPLE - ,_. .' . t J Robert -| , 

(Impf. Subj. of tterbett -f- Infin. (Simple Cond. of -j ^ -f 

of ftngen, fatten) P- Part . of f imn> f aUen) 

tcb toiirbe ftngen (fatten), I tcb, toiirbe gefungen baben, 

should sing (fall), etc. etc. 

tcb toiirbe gefallen fcin, etc. 
Infin. Per*. 

(P.Part.ofi fl 7 n [+Pres.Infin. of { ?« ben } ) 
I fallen ) I |em ) ' 

gefungen (ju) b aben, to have sung 
gefallen ju fern, to have (be) fallen 

109. Compound Verbs. — Compound Verbs are con- 
jugated like the simple verbs from which they are derived; 
those having one of the inseparable particles be-, tt— , ftttj)-, 
Cltt-, gc- t»cr-, jer-, do not take the prefix ge- in the P. Part., 
as : be-ftngen, P. Part, bc-fungen (compare be-jablen, P. Part. 
bc-jat)It, § 35, Rem. 6), and in the Inf. take gu before the 
prefix ; other compounds take the prefix gc- and the particle 
ju between the prefix and the verb (Part, or Inf. respectively). 

110. The Strong Verbs are divided into classes, according 
to the 'Ablaut, ' or Vowel-changes, of the root (see § 105, Rem., 
above). These classes, with the verbs belonging to each, are 
given in the following Lessons (XXII-XXXI). 




111. Shorter Forms of the Conditional. 

The Impf. and Plupf. Subj. are frequently used in all 
Verbs instead of the Simple and Compound Conditional 
respectively, thus : 

id) Ijiittc = id; iuiirbe ba&en ; id) fringe = id) luiirbe fingen ; 

id) Ijattc gc^ofit == id; tottrbe gefyabt baben ; id; Ijattc gefuttgen = 

id) ttmvbe gefungen baben. 

Note. — These shorter forms are always to be preferred in the Passive 
Voice (Less. XXI), and in the Modal Auxiliaries (Less. XXXIV). 


help (serve) one's self, fid; 

acknowledge, confess, befen= 

catch cold, fid; erfdlten 
nominate, appoint, ernennen 
fill, fullen 

spread out, fid; toerbreiten 
bough, branch, ber 2lft * 
ink, bie 3)inte or £inte 
company, bie ©efettfd)aft 
governor, ber ©ouberneur' 
concert, ba§ ^onjert' 
queen, bie $bntgin 
paper, ba§ ^abter 
advice, counsel, ber dlat 

singer, ber ©anger, bie ©an* 

liberal, generous, freigebig 
friendly, kind, freunblid) 
fresh, frifd; 
glad, frob; 
hard, bart 
hoarse, beifer 
bad, fd)led)t 
black, fd;toarj 
brave, valiant, tabfer 
true, faithful, tren 
weighty, important, h)icbtig 
at last, finally, enblid) 
yes (emphatic), yes indeed, 

ja toobl 

Idioms: To appoint (as) governor, jum ©ouoerneur ernennen; cheer- 
fully, frorjen SJfcuted (genitive with adverbial force); good morning, gtiten 3Ror= 
gen (i. e., 3d) rounfdie 3ftnen linen guten SRorgen). 


A. 1. 5flein Stteffer ift toon gutem, bartem <Stat)Ie. 2. $ob,e 
23aume fyaben getooljnltd; grope 3tfte. 3. *Bo& fur $ferbe baben 


©ie gefcmft? 3>d> fyabe fdjtoarje unb toei^e s ^fcrbe gefauft. 4. 
Jutten ©ie gefdfligft mein ©la3 tnit frifcbcm SBaffer. 5. Xapfere 
©olbaten eilen frozen ^uteS in bic ©dilacbt. 6. gtoei gliidlicbe 
s IRenfcf;en toobnen in jenem £mufe. 7. §aben ©ie ettoaS SJleueS 
in ber ©tabt gebbrt ? 3>a to °b^ &i*l 5Reue§, aber nicbt§ 2>nte= 
teffanteS. 8. §ier ift guter &dfe unb frifcbe§ 23rob ; bitte, 
bebienen ©ie fid). 9. 2Ber bu bift jeigt beine ©efellfcbaft. 10. 
©uten 9ftorgen, £err SBraun, id) boffe, bajj fair fyeute fcboneS 
SBetter fyabm toerben. 11. 3>n toelcbem ^afyre ernannte bie 
$6nigin ben ©rafen ton ©ufferm jum ©ouberneur toon Ganaba? 
12 $>$ babe gute§ ^ctyier, aber meine fteber ift fd)led)t. 13. SDie 
$inber liebten meinen Dnfel, toeil er nie miibe ttmrbe, ibnen fcbone 
@efd)id)ten ju erjdblen. 14. ©ie fyahm enblid; befannt, bafj Sie 
Unrest ^ahm. 15. $;d) f>abe mid; erfdltet ; toenn id; je|t fdnge, 
toiirbe id) fyeifer toerben. 16. ^d; fyahz fd)on oft ba§ 2ieb 
gefyort, toelcbeS bie ©dngerin im ^onjert gefungen b,at. 17. 
©ute 33iid)er finb treue greunbe, bie immer $tat fiir un§ baben. 
18. SBenn fair fleifcig finb, fo toerben unfere Sefyrer un3 

B. 1. Have you black ink or red? I have black. 2. Rich 
people are not always generous, and generous people are not 
always rich. 3. What kind^of neighbours have you ? We 
have friendly neighbours. 4. Please fill my glass with pure 
fresh water. 5. High mountains and beautiful valleys spread 
out before our eyes. 6. I have something important to say 
to you. 7. New friends are not always good friends. 8. 
This mother buys her children something useful. 9. Have 
you white paper or blue ? I have white, but my brother has 
blue. 10. I like to hear the singer, who sang at (in) the 
concert yesterday. 1 1 . My sister did not sing at the concert, 
because she was hoarse. 12. If she had not been hoarse, 
she would have sung. 





1. Weshalb liebten die Kinder meinen Onkel ? 2. Wer 
wohnt in jenem Hause? .'5. Was hat die Mutter ihren Kin- 
dern gekauft ? 4. Was fur Papier haben Sie fur mich 
gekauft ? 5. Warum sangen Sie nicht ? 6. Womit haben Sie 
mein Glas gefullt ? 



112. The Passive Voice is formed by means of the various 
tenses of the auxiliary verb lucrum, to become (see §19) — |— 
the Past Participle of the Verb to be conjugated, as in 
the Paradigm below. 

Principal Parts of lucrum : 
Infin. lucrbcn Impf. iuuruc (toarb) Past Part, getuorbcn 

Note. — The perfect tenses of rocrben are formed with feirt (see 
§ S3, a), Perf. 3d) bin geroorbcn; Plupf. icfj toor geroorbcn, etc. For the 
formation of the future and conditional, see ff in (§ 52). 

Paradigm of the Passive Voice of (often, to praise. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


(Pres. of rocrben + P« Part, of loben.) 
I am (being) praised, etc. I (may) be praised, etc. 

id) roerbe 
bu roirft 
er iDtrb 
roir tuerben 
tfor ioerbet 
fie luerben 


id) toerbe 
bu roerbeft 
er toerbe 
h)ir toerben 
ibr h)erbet 
fie toerben 



passive voice of loben. 




(Imperf. of roerbcn -j- P. Part, of lobni.) 
I was (being) praised, etc. I might be (being) praised, 

id) tourbe (toarb) 
bu tourbeft (toarbft) 
er tourbe (toarb) 
fair tourben 
ibr tourbet 
fie tourben 

► gelobt 

id) toiirbe 
bu ioiirbeft 
er unirbe 
fair toiirben 
ibr roltrbet 
fie hmrben 




(Perfect of luerben -f- P. Part, of loben.) 

(Part, of roerbcn omits ge-) 

I have been praised, etc. I (may) have been praised, 

id) bin 
bu bift 
er ift 
fair ftnb 
ib.r feib 
fie ftnb 

► gelobt toorben 

id) fei 
bu feieft 
er fei 
hrir feien 
tr)r feiet 
fie feien 



gelobt toorben 

(Plupf. of rucrben + P- Part, of (obcn.) 

I had been praised, etc. I might have been praised, 

id) Wat gelobt toorben id) totire gelobt toorben [etc. 

bu toarft gelobt toorben, etc. bu toareft gelobt toorben, etc. 

(Future of toerben + P. Part, of (oben.) 

I shall be praised, etc. I shall be praised, etc. 

id) toerbe gelobt tuerben id) toerbe gelobt merben 

bu toirft gelobt toerben, etc. bu toerbeft gelobt toerben, etc. 

128 LESSON XXI. [§"2 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Future Perfect. 

(Fut. Perf. of koerben + I'. Part, of (oben.) 
I shall have been praised, etc. I shall have been praised, etc. 
id) rocrbc gclobt rocrben fetn id) toerbe gclobt tuorbcn fein 

hi lvirft gelobt luorben fein, etc. bu roerbeft gelobt toorben fein 


(Cond. of rocrben + P. Part, of (oben.) 

Simple. Compound. 

I should be praised, etc. I should have been praised 

id) toiirbc gclobt toerben irh roiirbe gclobt toorben fein 

bu toiirbeft gelobt roerben, etc. bu roitrbeft gelobt roorben fein 


Infinitive. Participles. 

(Infin. of roerben + P. Part (Part, of TOerben + P. Part 

ofloben.) of toben.) 

Pres. to be praised Pres. being praised 

gelobt ($u) roerben gclobt toerbenb 

Perf. to have been praised Past, been praised 

gclobt toorben (§u) fein gclobt toorben 

(Imper. of rocrben + P. Part, of loben.) 

be praised, etc. 
toerbe gclobt 
toerbe er gelobt 
toerben toir gelobt 
toerbet gelobt 
toerben fie gelobt 

Remarks. — i. The shorter forms, i. e. Impf. and Plupf. 
Subj. (see § in, and Note), are commonly used for the 
longer forms with roiirbe in the conditional. 

§1121 PASSIVE VOICE. 129 

2. Observe the omission of the gc- in the P. Part, of tuerben 
(tuorbctt for ge-ioorben) when used as auxiliary of the passive 

3. The personal agent with the passive voice (which is 
the subject of the active verb) is denoted by the preposition 
bolt (Engl, by), as : 

SDer unarttge $nabe roirb toon feinem Sebrer beftraft, 
The naughty boy is being punished by his teacher. 

4. The auxiliary participle roorben is omitted whenever the 
state of the subject may be regarded as still continuing, thus : 

2)a3 £>au£ ift gebaut, 

The house has been (is) built (and is still standing). 

5. The Engl. ' I am,' ' I was,' etc., as part of the passive 
auxiliary ' to be,' must be rendered into German as follows : 

(a) By the proper tense of rocrben when they are equivalent 
to ' I am being,' ' I was being,' etc., as : 

The child is (i. e., is being) punished by its parents, 
£)a<S £tnb totrb toon feinen ©Item beftraft ; 
The dinner was being served, when we arrived, 
$>a3 Sfft tttagSefjen tourbe ferbtert, aU roir anfamen ; 

or when the verb, being turned into the active voice, is in the 
present or imperf. tense respectively, as : 

The boy is (was) always punished by the teacher, 

when he is (was) naughty, 
Xer £nabe tmrb (ttmrbe) tmmer bom 2ebrer be* 
ftraft, toenn er unartig ift (roar) ; 

\ The teacher always punishes (pres.) or punished 
(impf.) the boy, when he is (was) naughty, 
2)er Sebrer beftraft (beftraftc) tmmer ben ftnaben, 
roenn er unartig ift (roar). 

Passive: < 

Active : 

I3O LESSON XXI. [§§"2- 

(b) By the proper tense of fcin (with or without roorben, see 
last Remark), when they are equivalent to 'I have been,' 
' I had been,' etc., or when the verb, being turned into the 
active, would be perf . or pluperf. respectively, as : 
„ ( I am (= have been) invited to the party, 

' 1 %d) bin jur ©efcttfcfraft einarfabcn (toorben) ; 
. . ( They have invited (perf.) me to the party, 
\ 9Jlan Ijat mid) &ur ©efettfcbaft cingclabcn. 
i The dinner was (= had been) served, when we 
Passive: X arrived, 

( ®a§ 2Rittag§effen mar fcrbicrt, ate loir anfamen; 
. . ( They had served (plupf.) the dinner, etc., 
X Wlan f)atk ba§ 9)«ttag§effen fcrbicrt, u. f. to. 

The following examples will serve to show more clearly the 
proper use of the various forms of the passive : 

(a) £)ie Sdben tucrbcn je£t gefcfrloffen, The shops are 
being shut now (present). 

(b) 2)te Saben finb btefe 3Boa> frttbcr gefd)loffen roorben, 
The shops have been shut earlier this week 

(c) 2)ie Saben finb jeljt gefcfrloffen, The shops are (and 
remain) shut (past state, continuing in the 

(a) £)er ©olbat murbc toon enter $ugel bcrmunbct, The 
soldier was wounded by a ball (a ball wounded 
him, imp/.). 

(b) 2)er Solbat mar toon einer ®ugel toerhmnbet morben, 
The soldier had been wounded by a ball 

(c) 2)er ©olbat mar fd)roer toertounbet, The soldier was 
severely wounded (and still suffered from his 
wound : past state, cotiti?iuing in the past). 

3- i 


(a) Diefe $3riicfe lourbc bor jerm £jabren gebaut, This 
bridge was built ten years ago (they built it 
then, that is the date of its being built, imp/.) 

(b) SMefe 33rucfc roar bor jebn !gahren gebaut, This 
bridge was built ten years ago (and is still 
standing: past state, continuing in the /raw*/). 

Exercise on the Preceding Rules. 

A. Turn the following sentences into German: 1. This house was 
built by my father. 2. My window is broken (gebrocben). 3. The child 
is washed (gcruaichni). 4. Thifl man is esteemed by everybody (jebcrmami). 
5. The garden must be sold. C. The enemy was beaten (gcfdjtagetl). 

B. Turn the following sentences into the passive ; 1. SBorauS irtflrhen 
roir 9Kcffer? 2. SKobert ©tcwenfon bat bie SBictovia SBriicfc bci 3J?ontreat 
gebaut. 3. 9Mu 93rubcr bat mir biefe Uhr grfchenft. 4. 3>ie geinbe bom= 
barbterten bie ©tabt. 5. ®cr ?cb,rcr batte ben ftnabcu beftraft, rocit ber 
$nabe feirt 93ud) ocrforcn (lost) fjattc. 6. S)ein SBatev rotrb bid) loben. 

113. Limitations of the Passive Voice. 

1. Only the direct object of a transitive verb can be- 
come the subject of the passive verb , thus we say in the 

Active : s Dunn 5>atcr fiebt mid) ; and in the 
Passive : $d) tuerbe bon meinem £>ater geltebt. 

But the sentence : 

1 1 have been promised help by him ' = 
£>ulfc tft mir bon ibm berftorod)en (promised) morben, 
since in the 

Active : @r hat mir §iilfe berfbrod)en (promised), 

£>ti(fc is the direct, but mir the indirect object. Hence it fol- 
lows, that 

2. Intransitive verbs can only be used impersonally in the 
passive, thus : 

132 LESSON XXI. [§§ 113 

I am allowed = (fg mirb mtr crlnuH (Lat. mihi per- 
mittitiir) ; 

He has been helped = (?g iff tbm gebolfen toorben. 
This impersonal passive is also used in expressing an action 
without specifying any agent, as : 

(f 6 ttJUvbc geftern 2tbenb bid flctottjt, 

There was a great deal of dancing yesterday evening. 

Note. — The pron. c8 in these constructions is omitted if any other 
member of the sentence precedes the verb, as : 

Wit toirb edembt ; ©cftcrn 3lbenb tourbc, etc. 

114. Substitutes for the Passive Voice. 

The passive voice is much less frequently used in German 
than in English, particularly in the longer forms. It is often 
replaced, especially with intransitive verbs : 

(a) By the indefinite pronoun matt (Fr. on, see Less. XXVII), 
with the verb in the active voice, as : 

9Rtm gloubt thm ntdjt, He is not believed ; 

SBon femn tbm md)t troucn, He cannot be trusted. 

(b) By a reflexive verb, as : 

SDer ©cbjuffet toirb fid) finben, The key will be found ; 
and particularly with laffen, as : 

3)a§ liifet fid) Ietd;t mad)en, That can easily be done. 


to conquer, overcome, ero'bern mill, bte SftUble 

believe, glauben (intr., -)- dat. beef, ba§ Sttnbfletfcb, 

of person) courage, bte £crbferfeit 

wait (for), roarten(auf + ace.) untruth, falsehood, bte tin's 
workman, ber Slr'bctter luafyrfyctt 

visit, visitors, ber 23efudj> as, cd§ 


once, ein'mal carefully, forg'fdltig 

this evening, foeute 2lbenb severely, ftreng 

as sooir as, fobalb' little, roenig 

Idioms : As a child, when (I etc. was) a child, aid &tnb ; This house 
is for sale (lit., to sell, to be sold), bicfed §au$ ifl }u ocrf aufcit ; to have 
visitors, 33c fud) babcn. 


A. 1. £)iefe§ 93ilb tnurbe toon meiner <Sd)roefter gemalt, unb e§ ift 
bid gelobt loorben. 2. SDie ©tabt ift bom ©eneral bombarbiert unb er= 
obert roorben. 3. 9Bir toerben beftraft toerben, roenn toir unfere Set's 
tion nicfit forgfdltig lernen. 4. SDteSdben finb gefcbloffen, benn beute 
ift (ein) ^eiertag. 5. 3ft ba§ £au§ neben ber -JRiible berfauft? 
6. ^atoofyl, eS rourbe geftern bon 3b,rem 9?effen gefauft. 7. 33on 
roem ftmrbe ba§ $inb gercttet, ate ba§ §au3 brannte? 8. @§ 
rourbe bon einem Slrbeiter gerettet, toelcber roegen feiner SCabferfeit 
bon ben Seuten gelobt tourbe. 9. 2Bdre ber $nabe nad) Jpaufe 
gefcfiicft worben, toenn er ntcf)t unartig geroefen todre? 10. %lthtn 
bem ipaufe unfere§ 5iad^bar§ rutrb eine $ird)e gebaut. 11. @3 
ftmrbe geftern 2tbenb biel bei un$ gefungen unb gefpielt, benn mir 
fatten Sefud). 12. 3ft ba§ 9Unbfleifd; gefcfctdEt morben, wekbe§ 
id) beftettt Ijaht? 13. 2)er Seljrer fagte, baft er mit meiner 2lrbett 
jufrieben fei. 14. SDa3 SBilb mare bon ben $imftlern nid)t gelobt 
morben, roenn e3 nicfet febr fd)6n geroefen rodre. 15. 2lte $inb 
rourbe id) immer bon meinem 33ater ftreng beftraft, roenn ia) eine 
Unmabrbeit fagte. 16. 2Sirb e§ un§ erlaubt fein, unfere 2Iufgaben 
ju berbrennen, menu roir bamit fertig finb? 17. @§ rotrb fyeute 
biel gefbiett, aber roenig ftubiert, roett roir morgen feine ©dude 
b,aben. 18. @3 ift mir nid)te babon gefagt roorben. 19. 2Bir 
rourben nidjt gelobt, roetl roir nid)t fleiftig roaren. 20. ©obalb bie 
Seltionen gelernt finb, roerben toir einen ©bajiergang madden. 

B. 1. Our parents love us. 2. We are loved by our parents. 
3. By whom was this letter brought? 4. It was brought by 
a messenger. 5. Our house is built, and we are already 
living in it. 6. Is the dinner served ? No, it is being served 

134 LESSON XXII. [§115 

now. 7. Was the soldier in the hospital wounded, or was he 
ill ? 8. He had been wounded by a bullet. 9. The carriages 
of the count will be sold to-day. 10. His horses are ajready 
sold. 11. Why is this boy not believed? 12. He is not 
believed because he once told an untruth. 13. It is agreeable 
to be praised. 14. My sister is learning the song, which was 
sung at (in) the concert yesterday. 


1. Wer hat dieses Rindfleisch gebracht ? 2. Wann wird 
uns erlaubt werden, im Garten zu spielen ? 3. 1st das Haus 
neben der Kirche verkauft ? 4. Wird heute Abend viel stu- 
diert werden? 5. Von wem wurde der Knabe nach Hause 
geschickt? 6. 1st dieses Bild zu verkaufen ? 


VERBS: fccifjett MODEL. 
115. Declension of Adjectives: Second Form. 

If preceded by the Definite Article or by any deter- 
minative word of the ilicfcr Model, the Attributive Adjective 
follows the Weak Declension, and takes -c in the Nomi- 
native Sing, of all Genders, and in the Accusative 
Sing. Feminine and Neuter; otherwise -en throughout, 

Weak Declension of gut, good. 

Singular. Plural. 




all gend: 





















§ 115] weak declension of adjectives. 1 35 

Substantives with Adjectives. 


the good man the good woman the good child 

Nom. ber gutc Wlann bie gutc %xau bag gutc $tnb 

Gen. beg gutcn 9Jtanne§ ber gutcn $rau beg gutcn $inbeg 

Dat. bem gutcn -Btanne ber gutcn fttau bem gutcn &inbe 

Ace. ben gutcn SJtann bie gutc $rau bag gutc ^inb 



Nom. bie gutcn Planner, $rauen, $inber 
Gen. ber gutcn banner, $rauen, ®inber 
Dat. ben gutcn SJlanncrn, $rauen, ^inbern 
Ace. bie gutcn banner, $rauen, ®inber 
Observe : Words of the bicfer Model having (as far as pos- 
sible) a full set of endings showing gender, etc., the adjective 
has as few of such distinctive endings as possible. 
Further examples : 

btcfer gutc s Jfflann, this good man 
btefeg gutcn 5Ranneg, of this good man, etc. 
jene gutc ^rau, that good woman 
jener gutcn $rau, of that good woman, etc. 
Riddjcs gutc ®inb, which good child 
toelcfyeg gutcn $inbeg, of which good child, etc. 
Remark. — Two or more adjectives qualifying the same 
substantive follow the same form (compare § 102, Remark 3, 
above), as : 

ber gutc, altc, rote 28ein, 
gutcr, alter, rotcr 2Bcin. 

Decline throughout in German: the sick child; that high tree; which 
long lesson; this beautiful, broad stream ; that young woman ; this lazy 
horse; which tired boy. 




1 lO. Third Form. — If preceded by the Indefinite Ar- 
ticle or by any determinative word of the mctn Model, the 
Attributive Adjective follows the bicfcr Model in the Nom- 
inative and Accusative Sing, of all Genders ; otherwise, 
it takes -cit (i. e., follows the Weak Declension) through- 
out, thus : 

Mixed Declension of gut, good. 

Singular. Plural. 

























Substantives with Adjectives. 






a good man a good woman 

em gutcr 9ft ann etne gutc %xaix 
eine§ guten 9Jlanne§ einer guten $rau 
einem guten SJianne einer guten $rau 


a good child 
ein gutcg $inb 
eineS guten $tnbe§ 
einem guten $inbe 

Ace. ein en guten SDccmn eine gutc $rau ein gutcg $inb 

Observe : This form differs from the weak form only in the 
Nom. Sing. Masc, and Nom. and Ace. Sing. Neut., 
where words of the mcin Model have no distinctive endings. 
The adjective must consequently have the missing sign of 
gender and case. 

The Plural of this form is the same as that of the Weak 
Declension, but, as ein has no Plur., the full declension of 
Substantives with mein is given here : 





my good brother my good sister 
N. mem guter 5kuber meine gute ©cfomeftcr 
G. meineS guten meiner guten 

23ruber§ ©cbroefter 

metnem guten meiner guten 

33ruber ©cfyroefter 

meinen guten 23ruber meine gute ©cforoefter 



my good child 
mem gutc$ $mb 
meine§ guten 

meinem guten 

mein gutcS $inb 


Nom. meine guten SBriiber, ©cfcmeftern, $inber 
Gen. meiner guten SBrtiber, ©c&raeftern, $inber 
Dat. meinen guten SBrubern, ©c&uieftern, ®inbern 
Ace. meine guten SBriiber, (Sdjroeftern, $inber 

117. Compound Verbs with Separable Prefix. 

1. The prefixes be-, er-, etc. (see § 35, Rem. 6), hence 
called Inseparable Prefixes, are never separated from the 
verb ; other prefixes (chiefly the Prepositions) are Separable, 
but only in Principal Sentences with Simple Tense, 
as : 

SDer $6nig fdjtrfte &roei 23oten ou8, 
The king sent out two messengers. 

9ftein SBruber rcift morgen aft, 

My brother sets out (= departs) to-morrow. 

Note. — These Prefixes contain an idea distinct from that of the verb, 
and hence, if retained before the Verb in the cases above, would throw 
the verb out of its place as Second Idea of the Principal Sentence. 

2. The gc- of the P. Part, and 511 in the Infin. follow the 
prefix, making together but one word, as : 

SDie SBoten be§ $onig3 finb abj^crcift, 

The messengers of the king have departed. 

I38 LESSON XXII. [§§"7 

9Kein 2>ater tminfd)t morgcn abjurcifcn, 
My father wishes to depart to-morrow. 

3. The principal accent is on the Verb when the Prefix is 

Inseparable ; on the Prefix when Separable, as : befu'djen, ber= 
fau'fen ; but auS'fc&icfen, ab'reifcn. 

4. The principal parts of Separable Compound Verbs 
should therefore be given as in the following examples : 

Infin. Lmpf. P. Part. 

an'greifen, to attack griff . . .an angegrtffen 
ab'fdmetben, to cut off fdjnitt . . .ab abgefd;nitten 

118. Strong Verbs: betfjen Model. 

Infin. Impf. P. Part. 

Germ. Model : bcif$en bifj gebiffen 

Engl. Analogy : bite bit bitten 

Ablaut: CI t I 


Notes. -- 1. Compounds are only given in the Lists when the simple 
Verb is not found in the strong form. 

2. R. = Reflexive; N. = Neuter, i. e., conjugated with fcilt only; 
N. A. = Neuter and Active, i. e., with feirt or habcil; W. indicates that 
the Weak form is also used without difference of meaning. 

beijjen, bite 



(erjblcidicn (W. N.), turn pale 



(bc)fleti5cn (R.), apply 

one's self 



gleicben, resemble, be 

equal to 



gleiten (N.), glide 



greifen, grasp, seize 



fneifen, pinch 



Iciben, suffer 






pfeifen, whistle 
reijjen, tear 
reiten (N. A.), ride 
fcbleicben (N.), sneak 
fd)ktfen, grind 
fcbmeifjen, fling 
fdineiben, cut 
fcbreiten (N.), stride 
ftreid)en, stroke 
ftreiten, contend 
toeicfcen, yield 






















Remarks. — 1. The root vowel being shortened in the Impf., 
the following consonant, if single, is doubled ; s and stems 
in -b (fcbnetben, leibert) change b into tt. 

2. Those whose stem ends in -jj change § into ff in the 
Impf. (unless final) and P. Part., as : beifjen, id; bif|, toir biffen, 

3. The following Verbs are weak when they have a different 
meaning, as below: 

bletcben (trans.), bleach bleicbte gebletd)t 

fd)letfen, drag ; raze (to the ground) fcbleifte gefd)leift 

li)eid;en, soften, soak tueicbte geroetd)t 

4. 33egletten, to accompany, is no compound of gleitert, to 
glide, but of leiten, to lead (weak, = be-ge-leiten) ; toerletben, 
to make disagreeable, spoil (not from letben, but Seib) is 


to set out, depart, ab'reijert 
cut off, ab'fdjnetben 
paint (not pictures), an'- 

slip, slide, au3'gleiten 
comprehend, understand, be= 

seize, ergreifen 




fear, fid) furcfytcn (uor + dat.) 
tear (to pieces), jetretp'en 
pass (time, etc.), ju'bringen 
Cinderella, ^(fd)cnputtcl 
barber, ber 33arbicr' 
idea, notion, bcr 33egrtff 
steamer, steam-boat, bag 

thief, ber SDieb 
grass, bag ©rag 
hair, bag §aar 
hay, bag £>eu 

huntsman, hunter, ber ^dger 
illness, bte ^ranfbett 
fever, bag ftieber 
slipper, ber $antoffel 
rain, ber iftegen 
rheumatism, bcr Sibeumatigmug 

piece, bag ©titd 
little piece, bag ©tiiddjen 
traveller, ber 2i$anberer 
tooth, ber $abn* 
toothache, bag gafynhxf) 
evil, angry, cross, bofe 
joyous, merry, froblidj 
smooth, slippery, glatt 
golden, of gold, golben 
violent, heavy (of rain), befttg 
naughty, ill-behaved (of 

children), un'artig 
true, iuabr 
furious, toii'tenb 
on that account, begtoegen 
of it, babon 
the day before yesterday, bor'= 


Idioms : To be on the point of (be about to), im 33cgriffe fein. You are 
tired, are you not? 2ie finb iiitibc, ntd)t mabr? So are we, 2Bir finb eo 
ami). George has torn my coat, ©et>rg bat mir ben Jiocf {crrifTen. 


A. 1. SDer ©enerat 501. rttt auf einem fcbhmrjen ^ferbe burd? 
bie (Strain Xorontog (toon SCoronto) . 2. SSie I)aben <Sie bte geit 
auf bem 2anbe jugebracbt ? 3. 2ln toag fi'tr einer ®ranfbeit bat 
3;br 3Sater fo lange gelttten? 4. <&k finb miibe, nid)t toafyr? 
2Btr finb eg aucb. 5. 2IIg mein 33ruber jung toar, b^ atte er fcbled)te 
3abne unb Ittt febr an 3<*hnh)ef). 6. SDer fcfytoar^e §unb un= 
fer(e)g s 3iad;barg tft bbfe ; er fyat toorgeftern ein fleineg $tnb ge- 
biffcn. 7. Unf(e)re alten 9Zacbbarn begletteten ung nad) bem 
£afen, alg h)ir abreiften. 8. 2Bo h)of)nt ber SBarbter, ber 3bnen 
bag §aar gefdmitten f) at ? 9. s Iftetn alteg 9fteffer fcbneibet je£t 
gut, benn ber SDiener fyat eg geftern gefcbliffen. 10. 2llg id) bor 

§n8] strong verbs: beifjen model. 141 

ber ©cfyule iiber bte glatte ©trafce fcbrttt, glitt icb au3 unb jerri^ 
mir ben neuen 9tod. 11. 3llS ber 2)ieb im SBegriffe roar, in3 
£auS ju fd)letcben, ergriff ifm ber ©iener. 12. Unfer alter dlad)- 
bar Utt lange an (am) SibeumattSmuS, unb roar beSroegen immer ju 
§aufe. 13. ©er ©eneral ritt mit feinen Dffijteren iiber bie Snide. 
14. ©er bofe $nabe auf bem 2lbfelbaum rifj bie reifen 2lbfel 
bom Saume unb fdnnifj fie auf bie @rbe. 15. -Stein jungcr -fteffe, 
ber auf ber Uniberfttat tear, t)at am $ieber gelitten, aber er ift 
jefct roieber mob; I. 16. 2Ifcbenbuttel3 <3cf/toefter fcr)nitt fid) (dat.) 
ein ©tiid bom gotjje ab, roeil er ju grofj fiir ben golbenen ^Bantoffel 
roar. 17. $d) bin fcbnetf nad) £aufe geritten, roeil id) mid; bor 
bem roiitenben ©turme fiircbtete. 18. ©er -UBanberer fd^ritt frozen 
2Rute§ burd) ben griinen 2BaIb unb bfiff * m frbr)Iicr)e§ Sieb. 

19. ©iefeS SReffer ift ntd)t fcbarf; roann rourbe e§ gefcbliffen? 

20. $arl3 fdroner, neuer 9tod tourbe bom £>unbe gerriffen. 

B. 1. Where is the old knife that you ground? 2. When 
Mary was young she resembled her mother. 3. The bears 
sneaked (perf.) into the wood, but the hunters followed (perf.) 
them. 4. Where does the painter live who painted (perf.) 
our house ? 5. The industrious countryman cut (perf.) the 
grass yesterday, and is making hay to-day. 6. Why are you 
crying, Charles? I am crying because George pinched (perf.) 
me. 7. The rain spoiled my (dat. -4- def. art.) journey to the 
country. 8. The steamer has whistled already. Now I shall say 
farewell. 9. Little Charles is a naughty child ; he has torn 
his (dat. of refl. pron. -4- art.) new dress. 10. Old people 
often suffer from rheumatism. 11. Have you understood 
what he said ? 12. The gardener was burning the boughs, 
which he had cut from the trees. 13. I have quarrelled with 
my old friend, because he was wrong. 14. This blue ribbon 
is too long, please cut a little of it off for me. 15. Why is 
Charles crying ? He has been bitten by a dog. 





1. Was fiir einen Hund hat Ihr Nachbar? 2. Wie wiirden 
Sie die Zeit zubringen, wenn Sie reich waren ? 8. Was 
machte der Wanderer, als er durch den Wald schritt? 4. Wo 
wohnen Sie jetzt ? 5. Wann werden Sie Heu machen? 
6. Weshalb sind Sie so schnell nach Hause geritten ? 


119. Possessive Pronouns. 

1. The Possessive Pronouns are used when no substantive 
is expressed, as : 

The hat is mine {Pronoun) ; but : 
It is my hat {Adjective). 

2. They are formed from the stems of the corresponding 
Possessive Adjectives by adding certain endings, as follows : 

(a) Endings of biefer Model (without article), as : 





Norn, meincr meinc 

mein(c)8 meinc, mine 

Gen. meincg meincr 

meincg meincr, of mine 

Dat. meincm meincr 

meincm meincn, (to, for) mine 

Ace. meincn meinc 

mein(c)8 meinc, mine 

Observe : In the Nom. and Ace. Neuter, -c of the ending 

may be omitted. 

So for the other persons : 



Sing, beincr 

beinc beince, thine 


feinc feince, his, its 


ibrc ibrcl, hers (its) 







Plur. unf(e)rcr 


unf(e)rc3, ours 



eu(e)rc8, yours 



ibrcS, theirs 



S&rcS, yours) 

(b) Preceded by the Definite Article, and hence with end- 
ings of Weak Adjective, thus: 


ba§ meinc 
be§ meincn 
bem meincn 
ba§ metnc 


N. ber metnc 
G. be§ meincn 
D. bem meincn 
A. ben meincn 


bte meinc 
ber meincn 
ber meincn 
bie meinc 



bie meincn, mine 
ber meincn, of mine 
ben meincn,(to, for)mine 
bie meincn, mine 

So : ber, bie, ba§ beinc, thine ber, bte, ba§ jeu(e)rc, yours 

ber, bie, ba§ feinc, his, its ber, bie, ba§ ibrc, theirs 

ber, bie, bas> ibrc, hers, (its) (ber, bte, ba§ %1)xt, yours) 
ber, bie, ba§ unf(e)rc, ours 

(r) Preceded by Definite Article, with ending -ig -|- Weak 
terminations, thus : 


Nom. ber metnige bie meinige ba§ meinige 

etc. be§ meinigen, etc. 


»m. ber metmge bte metmge 

n. be§ meinigen, etc. ber meinigen, 



Nom. bie meinigen, mine 

Gen. ber meinigen, of mine, etc. 

So : ber, bie, ba<B beinige, thine 
ber, bie, ba§ feinige, his, its 
and so on for the other persons. 

Note. — 1. In unjrigc and curige the -e of the stem is always omitted. 

144 LESSON XXIII. [§§"9 

REMARK. — i. These forms are interchangeable, without 
difference in meaning, as : 

I have my book, but I have not yours, 

3cb babe incin 53ucb, aber tcb b,abc nidbt < bag ^rc 

( bag 3(jrta,c. 

His letter is here, but ours is not here, 

( unf(c)rer \ 
©em 23rief ift bier, aber -j ber unf(c)re >- ift nidjt bier. 

( ber uttfrtge ) 

2. When a Possessive Pronoun is used as predicate, it may 
be replaced by the Possessive Adjective without ending, as : 

This book is mine, SDiefeS Sucb, ift mcin. 

3. Observe the following idiomatic uses of the Poss. Prons. : 

(a) %tf) toerbe bag 9Rctnige (neuter sing.) tbun, 
Is shall do my part, my utmost. 

(J>) $tc SJteinigen, bic ©einigen (Plur.), 
My, his friends, family. 

(c) A friend of mine = (Sitter bott meinen greunben. 
This friend of mine = 2)icfcr tttcttt ftreunb. 

120. Strong Verbs : bletben Model. 



P. Part. 

Germ. Model : bletben 



Eng. Analogy : wanting 

Ablaut: ei 




bletben (N.), stay, remain 



(ge)beib / cn (N.), thrive 



leiben, lend, borrow 




strong verbs : bleiben model. 


meibcn, avoid 

preifen, praise 

reiben, rub 

fcbeiben (N. A.), part (intr. and trans. 

fcbeinen, shine ; seem, appear 

ftbreiben, write 

fdjreien, scream, shout 

fd)ir>etgen, be silent 

fpeien, spit 

fteigen (N.), mount, ascend 

treiben, drive 

toetfen, show, point out 

fletfyen, accuse 




























to copy, ab'fcbreiben 
hang up, aufbcingen 
ascend, befteigen (trans.) 
prove, demonstrate, be= 

appear, erfcbeinen 
shine, glitter, gldngen 
descend, berab'ftetgen 
guard, keep, bitten 
rule, reign, govern, regieren 
write (to), fcbreiben (dat. or 

an-)- ace.) 
climb, fteigen (ouf -4- ace.) 
pardon, excuse, berjeifyen 
remain behind, juriitf'bleiben 
cold, bie (Srf&ltung 
family, bie $amitte 
herd, flock, bie §erbe 

Idiom : Up to the present 

heat, bie §i|e 
last, ber Seiften 
pepper, ber ^feffer 
shepherd, ber ©cbdfer 
shoemaker, cobbler, ber 

silence (act of keeping s.), 

ba§ <Sd}ft)eigen 
speaking (act of), bag ©precben 
throne, ber Stbron 
pasture, pasturage, bie SBeibe 
fifty, funfstg, funfgtg 
bright, brightly, bett 
loud, loudly, laut 
correct, ricbtig 
round, runb 
bad, fd)Iimm 
strong, severe, ftarf 

time, still, nod) tinnier. 

I46 LESSON XXIII. [§§120 


A. 1. @3 ift nicbt 2Ules ©olb, roa§ gldnjt. 2. ©fcred;en ift 
©ilber, ©cbnxigen ift ®olb. 3. ©dntfter, bleib' bei beinem Sciften. 
4. ©eit acfyt Sagen bin id; roegen einer ftarfen (Srfdltung ju £>aufe 
gcblieben. 5. (Sine »on mcincn Goufincn ift jctjt bci un3 auf 33efut^, 
aber fie bleibt nid;t lange. 6. s Ba§ fur £iere finb in jencm 
©albc? (53 finb 33dren. 7. ®ie Gutter unb tyre Socbter 
nnnnten beftig, aH fie toon einanbcr fcbiebcn. 8. 9Jlein Dbeim 
blieb roegen ber grofjen £it>e mit feiner ^amilie auf bem Sanbe. 
9. $arl b,at an feinen SBater gefdjrieben, unb id; bin im Segriffe 
an ben meinigen ju fcbreiben. 10. S)er $bnig fcbtoieg unb fcbien 
traurig ju fein, al§ er bie fcblimme -Jiacbridjt borte. 11. Sitte, 
toerjeiljen ©ie tnir, baft id; ^jfjnen nod; nid>t gefd;rieben l)aU. 
12. 2Bo t)ahzn ©ie lyfyren §ut aufgefydngt? ^d; fyahz ifyn neben 
ben ^fyrigen S^dngt. 13. 2113 Joir auf ben 23erg fttegen, fcbien 
bie ©onne fcbon fyett. 14. SBelcbe toon biefen Sucbern roiinfdjen 
©ie? ^d) roimfcbe bie meinen. 15. 2Bir roiirben auf bemSanbe 
geblieben fein, toenn unfere $reunbe aud; geblieben iudren. 16. $)ie 
§erben tourben auf bie SBeibe getrieben, aU roir bom SBerg 
berabfiiegen. 17. @§ ift un§ beroiefen toorben, ba| bie @rbe 
runb ift. 18. SSor funfjig ^abren beftieg bie $onigin Victoria 
ben £b,ron, unb fie regiert nod; immer. 19. 2Burben ©ie nad; 
©uroba reifen, raenn id; juiiidbliebe, urn !Jbr £au<S ju bitten? 
20. 35ie $naben bfiffen unb fcbrieen, aU fie auf ben 23erg ftiegen. 

B. 1. George has black ink, but mine is red. 2. Mary's 
sister and mine are learning German. 3. We have looked 
for William's books and ours everywhere. 4. Your exercise 
is not correct, copy it. 5. Whose gloves have you ? I have 
mine and yours. 6. Why did the boy shout so loud? 7. To 
whom were you writing the long letter yesterday ? 8. I have 
black eyes, but yours are blue. 9. In what year did Goethe's 
'Faust' appear? 10. Waiter, please bring me the vinegar 
and the pepper. 11. This lead-pencil is mine, where is 



yours? \2. Your aunt and mine are neighbours. 13. The 
professor seemed not to be at home, for his windows and 
shutters were not open. 14. I should write to him, if he 
wrote to me. 15. I was writing to my mother and Charles 
was writing to his when the postman brought us the letters. 


1. Seit wann sind Sie schon zu Hause geblieben ? 2. Was 
machten die Schafer, als wir vom Berge herabstiegen ? 3. 
Wann bestieg die Konigin Victoria den Thron ? 4. Was 
fur Tinte haben Sie ? 5. Fur wen ist dieser lange lirief ? 
6. Welches sind die Namen der Monate ? 


REMARKS. -STRONC VERBS: jojiefecn AND fcdjtcn MODELS. 


Table of Adjective Endings. 

I. Strong. 



N— er 

G. —eg (en) 
D. —em 
A. —en 


— e 
— er 
— er 
— e 


-cl (en) 
— em 



M. F. N. 

— c 
— er 

— c 

Observe : -f n for -eg in Gen. Sing. 
Masc. and Neuter before strong substs. 

II. Weak. 





M. F.N 


— e 

— e 







— en 



— en 

— c 

— c 


Observe: Persistent -n, 

except Norn. Sing, of all 

genders, and Ace. Sing. 


and N 









M vsc. 

I- KM. 


M. F. N 

Nom. — cr 

— c 



Gen. — cu 


— en 


Dat. — cil 




Ace. — en 

— e 

— es 


[§§ mi- 

Observe: Same as Weak (II), except Nom. Sing. Masc. and Nom. 
Ace. Sing. Neuter. 


General Remarks on Adjectives. 

1. Participles used attributively are employed and declined 
as Adjectives, as : odiebtet 3>ater, beloved father ; ba-3 iueinenbe 
$inb, the weeping child ; meine geehrte -Stutter, my honoured 

2. Adjectives and Participles used as Substantives vary 
their declension according to the rules for Adjective Declen- 
sion, but are spelt with capital letters, as : ber $ranfe, the 
sick man, patient ; Fern, bie ^ranfe, the sick woman ; Plur. bie 
ftranfen; cin $ranfer, a sick man, patient; pi. ®ranfc, sick 
people, patients. 

Remarks. — 1. Many words, the English equivalentsof which 
are Substantives only, are Adjectives in German, as : ber 
Jrembe, the stranger, foreigner, PI. bic $rembcn, but ein ^rem= 
ber, PI. grembc ; ber 9tetfenbc, the traveller, cin Sieifcnber, etc. 
These Adjective-Substantives, when Masc. and preceded by 
the Definite Article, have the same inflection as the Weak 

2. Names of languages from Adjectives are not declined 
when used without the article, as : 

2Ba3 iff bieS auf 3)eutjd) ? What is this in German ? 


3. Adjectives of colour used substantively are indeclinable, 
or add -g in the Gen. Sing., as : ba£ ©rim, be§ ©rim(3). 

4. If the Substantive is not expressed, the Adjective 
shows by its ending the gender, number and case, as : 

@tn fleincr Warm unb ein grower, 
A little man and a tall one. 

Note. — The English ' one ' is in these cases not to be translated 
into German. 

5. If a Substantive is preceded by a succession of Adjec- 
tives, they all follow the same form, as : guter, alter, rotcr 
■JBein ; ber gutc, altc, rote 2Bem ; etne§ gutctt, rotcn 2Betne§. 

6. Adjectives whose stem ends in -t\, -ett, -cr, as : ebel, 
noble ; golbcn, golden ; fjetfer, hoarse, drop -c of the stem 
when inflected ; those in -el, -cr may drop -e of the termina- 
tion instead, unless the termination is -c, -cr, or -c£, as : 
ba§ golbnc 33auer ; ber eblen or ebctn $xau ; bem betfrcn or 
hetfern ©anger. 

7. The Adjective bod), high, drops t when inflected, as : 
ber bofce 23aum, the high tree. 

8. Adjectives can generally be used without change as ad- 
verbs, as : lufttg, merry, merrily ; angenehm, agreeable, agree- 
ably ; gut, good, well. 

9. Adjectives (so-called) in -cr from names of places are 
indeclinable, as : bte 2onboncr 3eitung, the London newspaper; 
hamburger <3d)iffe, Hamburg ships ; ein ^artfer §anbfc6uB, 
a Paris glove. 

Note. — These adjectives correspond to the English use of the 
proper names without inflection. They are really substantives in the 
Gen. Plur., thus: bie Souboner ,3ritiuifl is strictly bic^cituug tier I'onDuticr, 

the newspaper of the Londotiers. Hence they are spelt with a capital 



IS§ I 22 

10. After personal pronouns, the Adjective follows the strong 
declension except in the Dat. Sing, and Nom. (and some- 
times Ace.) Plur., as: 

(for) me, poor man ; you good people ; us little children, 
mir armen SWannc ; ibr gutcn Seute ; un£ f letnc(n) ®inber. 

ii. The Indefinite Pronouns (see Less. XXVII) etroa3, 
mditS, bid, are Substantives, and therefore not determinative 
words, and the following adjective has the strong declension, 
as : etlua§ ©utC0, something good ; mcfot<S Slngenebmes, nothing 

Observe : The Adjective is here used as substantive, and 
therefore spelt with a capital. 

12. After the Indefinite Numerals in the Plural (see 
Less. XXIX) atte, all; einige (etltcbe), some; mancbe, many; 
mcbrere, several ; fo!d)e, such ; bide, many ; fttentge, few, the 
Adjective may have either the weak or the strong ending. 

13. After the interrogative h)eld)e in the plural, the strong 
declension is also found in the adjective ; and the exclama- 
tory lueld) is generally uninflected before an adjective, which 
then always has the strong form, as : 

SBBeld) groftcg SSergniigen ! What (a) great pleasure ! 

123. Strong 

Verbs : 

fdjicfecn Model. 



P. Part. 

Germ. Model: 




E?igl. Analogy : 




Ablaut : 




(bcr)brieften, vex 



fliefjen (N.), flow 



gicftcn, pour 



























"4] STRONG VERBS: fdjicfiCH MODEL. 1 5 I 

glimmen, glow 

Himmen (W.N. A.), climb 

frtecfreit (N.), creep 

geniefjen, enjoy 

riecfien, smell (tr. and intr.) 

(er)fd)aflen (W. N.), sound, resoun 1 

faufen, drink (of beasts) 

fdjiefcen, shoot 

fcfrliefjen, lock, shut 

fieben (W.), boil (intr.) 

fpriefcen (N.), sprout 

triefen (N.), drip 

Remarks. — i. Observe, as under the bevfjen Model (§ 118, 
Rem. i, 2) the doubling of consonants and the interchange 
of jj and ff ; also the change of b into it (as in leiben, fcfynei= 
ben, ib. Rem. 1). 

2. 9t&d)en, 'to avenge,' is weak but has also P. Part. geroc&cn. 

3. ©aufen has also fimfft, fiiuft in the Pres. Indie. 2. 3. Sing. 

4. The simple verb fdjaffen is usually weak (fc&aflte, ge= 

5. In fieben the weak P. Part, (gefiebet) is rare. 

124. Strong Verbs : fcrijtcn Model. 

2.3. S. Pr. Ind. _ _ _ 

Infin. ^ t Impf. P. Part. 

2. S. Imper. 

Germ. Model: fecfjten fiefctft ficfrt ficfit foefct gefocftten 

Engl. Analogy : wanting 

Ablaut: C t 


fecfyten, fight fid^tft, fid)t, ftcfot fod)t gefod)ten 

flecfcten, weave, twine ftic&tft, flicfet, fltcfrt flocfot gefIod>ten 

152 LESSON XXIV. [§124 

(er)ldf$en (N.), be- (erltfcfjeft) erlifrf?t erlofd) erlofcben 

come extinguished (erltfcb) 

melfen (W.), milk (mil! ft, milft, mill) molf gemolfen 

quellcn, gush forth (quilfft, quitlt, quelle) quoit gequolleit 

febme^en (N.), melt (fcbmiljeft) fcbmtl&t fcbmolj gefcbmoljen 

(intr.) (fcbmtlg) 

fcbluetten (N.), swell (febtotftft) fujtuiUt fd>ott gcfcbtDoaert 

Remarks. — 1. Rare forms are enclosed in ( ). 

2. The simple verb lofcbcn, ' to extinguish ' (tr.), is weak 
(lofd)te, gelbfcbt), as are also its separable compounds, e. g., 

3. ©cbmelgen (intr.) has also the forms (fcbmelgeft), fcbmelgt 

4. ©cbmeljen, ' to smelt ' and fdjtoetten, ' to cause to swell ' 
(trans.), are weak. 


extinguish, put out, au3'lofcben snow, ber ©cbnee 

water (flowers, etc.), begteften eight, ad)t 

prescribe, werfdjreiben celebrated, famous, beriibmt 

flow past, tooru'berftiefjen blind, bliub 

close, shut, ju'fcbltejjen healthy, healthful, gefunb 

exhibition, bie Slus'ftettung dear, lieb 

health, bie ©efunbbett Limburg (adj.), Stmburger 

drink, beverage, ba3 ©etrdnf dead, tot 

cow, bie $ub,* Toronto (adj.), £orontoer 

maid, maid-servant,bte2ftagb* thereon, baran 

mid-day, noon, ber -JRtttag past, by, bomber 

pain, ber ©cbmerft 

Itlioms : 1. To go past the house, am £>auf( ooriibrrgehen. 
2. In German, auf T*eutfd) or im Tcutfoijf 11. 

§124] strong: verbs fedjte.i model. 153 


A. 1. 2Bte roitrben Ste biefe 2Borter cwf 2)eutfdj fcbreiben? 
2. ^d; fyabz meinen 33rief gefdfyloffen unb toerbe ifm jetjt nadj ber 
$oft bringen. 3. 2)e3 SRorgenS fteigen bie lleinen 33bgel gum £>im= 
mel auf unb fingcn luftig. 4. SBeld; grofjeS $8ergnitgen, gute ©e^ 
funb^cit $u geniejjen! 5. ©in fteiner (Strom ftofj lufttg an unferem 
£>aufe~boriiber. 6. 3)er $u% be<S ilranfen ift gefd)tootlen unb er 
leibet febr baran. 7. Unfer geefyrter ^rofeffor ift feit acbt ^a^ren 
tot. 8. SDer £>oftor bat bem $ranfen guten, alien, roten SBein 
berfcfyrieben. 9. SDie geitungen erjablen biel bon ber £orontoer 
2lu§fteHung. 10. 3)er Sfcgen quoll bom ^inimel unb lofdjte ba§ 
glimmenbe $euer au§. 11. Unfere Solbaten fcbloffen bie Stabts 
tfyore unb focbten tapfer gegen ben $einb. 12. 35ie Sftagbe fyaben 
bie $ube gemolfen unb jetjt begiejjen fie bie Slumen. 13. 33itte, 
fdrtoeigt, ifyr guten Seute, benn bie ^ranfen leiben je£t grofje 
(Scbmerjen. 14. SBiirbe ber Sefyrer bofe toerben, toenn ber (Scfyuler 
feine 2Iufgabe gerriffe? 15. 3)er Scbafer bat bem Steifenben ben 
2Beg nadj ber (Stabt getoiefen. 16. 2Burbe e§ lyfynen bie SReife 
berleiben, toenn id) guriidbliebe? 17. Qahen Sie bie brdd;tigen 
33Iumen gefeben, bie loir bem ^ranfen fd^iden ? 18. ©er 6d)nee 
fdjmolg unb ba§ SSaffer troff toon ben .^jaufern, al§ bie (Sonne 
gegen 9Jlittag toarm fcr)ien. 19. ®er SBlinbe, ber neben un§ 
toofynt, floc^t jtoei $orbe fiir meine Aflutter. 20. 2)er junge unb 
ber alte $rembe, bie im SBalbe jagten, baben biele SBbgel ge= 
fcfyoffen. 21. 3Son mem finb bie Slumen begoffen toorben? 
(Sie fmb bom ©artner begoffen toorben. 

B. 1. The golden slipper was too small for Cinderella's 
sisters. 2. Paris gloves and Limburg cheese are famous every- 
where. 3. The huntsman shot a hare and brought it home. 
4. Our neighbours are not at home, for their doors and 
windows are closed. 5. I do not believe every story I hear. 
(i. Please, dear mother, tell us little children something new 
and pretty. 7. If Charles tears his new book, his mother 

154 LESSON XXV. [§§124- 

will be very angry. 8. He seemed not to hear what I said 
to him. 9. These flowers are for the patients in the hospitals. 

10. (The) green is agreeable for those who have weak eyes. 

11. The horse is drinking the water which we have brought 
him. 12. Pure fresh water is a healthful beverage. 13. A 
week ago I was at (in) a concert, where this singer {/.) sang. 
14. When the weather becomes cold, the dogs like to creep 
behind the stove. 15. The travellers enjoyed the beauty of 
the landscape, when they were ascending the high mountain. 
16. Please tell me how this word is written in German. 


1. Haben Sie Ihren Brief schon geschlossen? 2. Wie 
lange ist Ihr geehrter Professor schon tot ? 3. Was hat der 
Doktor der Kranken verschrieben ? 4. Weshalb wurde der 
Lehrer bose ? 5. Wer hat diese Vogel geschossen ? 6. Was 
hat der Jager mit dem Hasen gemacht, welchen er im Walde 
geschossen hat ? 



fricrcn model. 
125. Comparison of Adjectives. 

In German, as in English, the degrees of comparison are 
formed by adding to the Positive : 

-er to form the Comparative, and 
-(c)fi " " " Superlative, as : 

neu, new neucr, newer neu(e)ft, newest 

reicb, rich reicfccr, richer reicbfi, richest 

angenebm, agreeable cmgencr/mcr, more agreeable 
angenebmft, most agreeable 


Remarks. — i. Monosyllabic adjectives with a, 0, U (not 
Oil) generally take Umlaut (but with many exceptions, given 
in App. K.), as : 

lang longer langft 

furj liirjer fiirjeft 

2. The syllables -cr, (c)fi are added to every adjective, 
without regard to its length, as in the case of angenehm (given 
above, but see § 161, note). 

3. Adjectives used attributively in the Comparative or 
Superlative degree are declined, and add the usual endings 
after the syllables -er, -efi respectively, as : 

ber retcfrere 9Jlcmn ein retcfeerer SRann 

mein dlteftcS &letb liebfter $reunb 

4. Participles are compared like adjectives, as : 

geliebt, beloved geliebter geliebteft 

5. -c of the Superlative ending is retained only after b, t 
or a sibilant (f, fdj, 3, ft, \), as : alt, Superl. dltcfi ; but grofe 
always has Superl. grojjt. 

5. Adjectives in -t, -cl, -Ctl, -cr drop e of the stem in the 
Comparative, as : trdge, trdger, trdgft ; ebel, ebler, ebclft. 

126. The Comparative. 

1. ' Than ' = als after the Comparative. 

2. The compound form with mebr (Engl, 'more') is never 
(except with the adjectives given in § 161) used in German 
(as it is in Engl, with polysyllabic adjectives), unless when two 
adjectives (i. e., two qualities of the same object) are being 
compared, as : . 

@r iff mcljr fcbtoad? al§ franf, 

He is more (i. e., rather) weak than ill. 

I56 LESSON XXV. [§§126 

3. Comparison of equality : 

I am (just) as rich as he, 
%d) bin (eben) fo reid) tote er. 

4. ' The . . . the ' before comparatives = \t, befto or uilt 
fo — je (DCftO or um fo), as : 

The longer the nights, the shorter the days, 

$c (befto) longer bie 3^dd)te, jc (befto) furjer bie Stage. 

5. When the comparative is declined, the omission of c of 
the stem takes place just as in Adjectives in — er, as : 

ben reia?er(e)n s 3Jtann, etc. 

Note. — The syllable -er may occur three times successively at the 
end of the same adjective, viz. : 1 ° as part of the stem, e. g., heifer, hoarse; 
2 as inflection of comparison, e. g., hei[(e)rer, hoarser; 3 as ending of 
strong adjective declension, e. g., eitt beif(e)reret ©anger, a hoarser 

127. The Superlative. 

1. The Superlative is not used, even as Predicate, in the 
undeclined form, but : 

{a) If the substantive is expressed, or if the substantive of 
the preceding clause can be supplied, the (weak) adjective 
form with definite article is used, as : 

This river is the broadest in America (i. e., the broad- 
est river), SDiefer $lufj iff ber brciteftc in 2lmerifa (ber 

The days in June are the longest (days) in the whole 
year, SDie Stage im $um finb bie (attgfteit (Stage, under- 
stood) im gangen 3>abre. 

This earthquake was the most? severe that we have 
had, SDiefe§ ©rbbeben i[t boS fi.cjtia.ftc, roelcbeS totr 
gebabt baben. 


* ' />) If no substantive can be supplied, the adverbial form 
pi -eded by am is used, as : 

The lake is broader than the river, but the sea is the 
broadest (observe not ' the broadest lake, river or 
sea '), £>er ©ee tft breiter aU ber $Iuf$, aber bie (See ift om 

The days are longest (i. e., ' at the longest,' not 'the 
longest days') in June, ^m ^unt finb bie £age am 

The earthquake was most severe on Monday, %m 
9)iontag roar ba3 ©rbbeben am Ijcftigftcn (not 'the 
severest earthquake '). 

Note. — The superlative may be strengthened by prefixing allct-, 
as : baS aUerbef tigfte, am allerbr ftigften. 

2. In the preceding examples, the superlative ascribes a 
quality to the object in the highest degree in comparison 
(expressed or implied) with, or relatively to, a number of 
other objects, and is hence called the Relative Superlative. 
But the English superlative with most often merely ascribes 
the quality in an eminently high degree, without instituting 
any comparison. When so used, it is called the Absolute 
Superlative, as: 

Your father was most kind (i. e. = 'exceedingly kind,' 
not = 'kindly/') 

The Absolute Superlative is rendered in German by an ad- 
verb of eminence, such as fefor, very ; boebft, dufjerft, exceed- 
ingly, prefixed to the adjective in the positive, as : 

^br SSater roar fcljr (f)iirf)ft, aufeerft) gittig, 
Your father was most (very, exceedingly, extremely) 

I58 LESSON XXV. |i;*i 127 

3. The superlative is commonly used in German of two ob- 
jects (which is not admissible in Engl.), as : 

2)er (grflfjere or) jjriifetc Don biefen jtoet .tnaben, 
The taller of these two boys. 

128. Comparison of Adverbs. 

Adverbs are compared like adjectives, the superlative form 
being that with am, as : 

angenefym, agreeably angener/mer, more agreeably 
am artgenebmfkn, most agreeably 

129. Irregular Comparison. 

bcft (different root) 
bod)ft (drops c in Compar.) 
ncidjft (nearest, next; in- 
serts c in Super/.) 
biel, much mcljr mcift (different root) 

roenig, little (of quantity) miltber miltbeft (different root) 

Notes. — 1. 9)?ehr is used as adverb of quantity only. For the Subst. 
mchrcreS, PI- mefjrerc 'some, several,' see §§ 152, 175. 
2. SBcnig also has the regular forms manger, luenigft. 

130. Defective Comparison. 

The following Comparatives and Superlatives are formed 
from adverbs, etc. (some of which are obsolete) : 

(aufjen, without, adv.) aujjer, outer aufjerft, outermost 

utmost, extreme 

. r , , .. , , , ( ebeft, soonest 

(ebe, before, conj.) (eber, sooner, adv.) < ' ' 

(binten, behind, adv.) btnter, hinder binterft, hindmost 

(innen, within, adv.) inner, inner tnnerft, innermost 

gut, good 


fyod), high 


nab(e), near 





(lafj, late, obsolete) 
(mittel, middle) 
(nib, below, obsolete) 
(oben, above, adv.) 
(unten, below, adv.) 

(bom, before, adv.) 

mtttler, middle 
nieber, lower 
obcr, upper 
unter, lower 

oorbcr, fore 

letjt, latest, last 
mittelft, middle 
nieberft, lowest 
oberft, uppermost 
unterft, lowest, 

toorberft, foremost 

131. Strong Verbs : fricrcn Model. 

Infin. Impf. P. Part. 

Germ. Model: fricren fror gefroren 

Engl. Analogy : freeze froze frozen 

Ablaut: it, etc. 6 5 

Note. — The long is what distinguishes this Model from the fcfaiefjert 
Model (§ 123). 


A. (Infin. 

biegen, bend 

bteten, bid, offer 

fltegen (N.), fly (on wings) 

flieben (N.), flee (escape) 

frieren (N. A.), freeze, be cold 

beben, lift, raise 

(er)ftefen, (er)fiiren, choose 

Itigen, lie (tell a falsehood) 

(ber)lteren, lose 

fcbieben, shove, push 

fcfytooren, swear 

(be)triigen, deceive, cheat 

hriegen, weigh, have weight (intr.) 

jieljen (N. A.), pull (tr.) ; move (intr 

Remarks. — 1. Siegen, bicten, 
also the forms (now used only in 

if, u.) 











bob, bub 










fcbtoor, fcbtour 






'•) S°8 


fltegen, fhefyen, 

jiefyen, have 

poetry) with cu 

for ic in the 

1 60 



2. and 3. Sing. Ties. Intl. and 2. Sing. Imper., as: bdigft, 
bcugt, bcug ; flcudfft, flcudi ; aeudjft, jcud). 

2. 3Biegcn, to rock, is weak (ttncgtc, gctciegt). 

3. Observe the change of () into a, in jieljcn, gog, gcjogen. 

.#. (Infin. c, ft.) 

fcberen, shear fcbor gefd)oren 

toeben (W.), weave toob getooben 

todgen, weigh (trans.) toog getoogen 

(be)ft)egen, induce, persuade betoog betoogen 

Remark. — 53eh)egen, 'to move (set in motion)' is weak 
(beroegte, beroegt). 


to offer, an'bieten 

abolish, annul, cancel, auf'= 

put off, delay, postpone, auf = 

remove (neut), au§'gieben 
prefer, bor'^icbcn (dat. of pers.) 
fly away, toeg'fliegen 
roof, ba3 2)ad) 
colour, bie $arbe 
hunger, ber §unger 
cook, ber 

Idioms : 1. I prefer gold to silver, 
2. I like the winter in 
©anaba gcrn. 

metal, ba§ gjtetall' 

red (subst.), ba<5 9i0t 

sparrow, ber (Sperling 

part, portion, ber Steil 

shore, bank, ba§ lifer 

on that account, therefore, 

yet, still (in spite of all), bod) 
straight, gerabe (adj.) 
exactly, just, gerabe (adv.) 
as soon as, fobalb 

3d) licbc bad (<5olb bent ZHbtr oor. 
Canada, 3d) babe ben SBinter In 


A. 1. @in (Sperling in ber .<r>anb tft beffer al€ jtoei auf betn 
%&foz. 2. SRarie iff jitnger ate Soutfe, aber fie tft bod) grower. 

§ i3i] strong verbs: frievcn MODEL. 161 

3. hunger ift ber befte $od). 4. 3)er junge ©eneral 33. ift em 
tabfrerer §elb ate fein SSater. 5. iDte s Jteifenben fcftoben bag 
Soot bom lifer unb ruberten iiber ben fthife- ti. 9Iufgefd)oben ift 
nid)t aufgefyoben. 7. 2BeId)e£ bon btefen -JJtabcfren ift ba§ grofcte ? 
8. !ye feober ein SSogel fliegt, je fleiner fcbeint er ju roerben. 9. $)er 
$rembe r)at mir mebr fur mein §au3 angeboten al3 ©ie, aber id) 
gtaube nicbt, baft er fo gut bejablen roiirbe. 10. ^e fleifjiger h)ir 
finb, befto mebr Iernen roir. 11. ^m ©ommer fyabe id) bag 2anb 
ganj gem, aber im SSinter jiebe id) bie ©tabt bor. 12. 3Jiir Un* 
gliicflidjen ift ber ftujj erfroren, al§ icb nad; §aufe ritt. 13. ©0= 
balb roir unfer §au3 berfauft fatten, ^ogen roir au§. 14. 21I§ id) 
auf bem Sanbe roar, roog id; mebr al§ id) je|t roiege. 15. @3 ift 
roabr, baft bie reid)ften £eute nid)t immer bie gliidlicbften finb. 
16. $)er Stegen, roe(d)er un§ bie SRetfe berleibet t)at, roar mebr 
nii^lid) ate angenebm. 17. S)ie Gutter bob bie ©tutfe bon bem 
®IaS auf, roeld)e£ ibr unartigeS $inb auf bie @rbe gefd)miffen 
l)atte. 18. 25tefer $nabe bat feine ©Item betrogen, unb beSbalb 
ift er unglticflid). 19. $rieren ©ie, £err $rofeffor? ^e^t 
nid)t, aber id) fror, al§ id) auf ber ©trafje roar. 20. £)er ^dger 
bat ben 3Soget gefd)offen, gerabe aU r er auf ben 35aum flog. 
21. 33on roem rourbe ^f>r §au3 gefauft? 22. 3Son cinem 
ftremben, ber feit bierjelm £agen bei meinem better auf 33e= 
fud) ift. 

B. ] . Lead is a heavy metal, but gold is the heaviest. 
2. This painter is not so famous as his father, but his pictures 
are just as fine. 3. George lost his parents when he was 
still very young. 4. Those students have lost a great deal of 
time, but now they are studying more industriously. 5. The 
bird flew away, just as the huntsman was on the point of 
shooting it. 6. When is the weather coldest in Canada ? In 
the month of January it is coldest. 7. Which bird flies 
fastest ? 8. The useful is better than the beautiful. 9. What 
kind of a dog has the huntsman lost ? 10. Iron is heavy, lead 

1 62 LESSON XXVI [§§132- 

is heavier, but gold is heaviest of all. 11. Green is a more 
agreeable colour for the eyes than red. 12. If the stick is 
too long, cut a piece of it off. 13. The upper part of the 
city of Quebec is much finer than the lower. 14. The 
weather seems to be warmer to-day, but it froze (perf.) yester- 
day. 15. When I was younger, I weighed more than my 
brother, but now he weighs more than I. 16. The upper 
part of the city of Quebec was built earlier than the lower 


1. 1st der junge General ein tapferer Mann? 2. Ziehen 
Sie das Land der Stadt vor ? 3. Weshalb ist der Knabe so 
traurig ? 4. Wann hat der Jager den Vogel geschossen ? 
5. Welche Studenten lernen am meisten ? 6. Welches ist 
besser, reich und unglucklich oder arm und gliicklich (zu) 
sein ? 



fingcn model. 

132. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

The Demonstrative Pronouns are : 

1. tier, bie, bog, that 

2. biefcr, bicfe, bicfeg, this, that 

3. jener, jetlC, jeneg, that, yonder 

4. berjemge, bicjenige, bagjenige, that 

5. bcr namUaje, bie namttdje,, bag nomltojc, the same 

6. bcrfefb(ig)c, btciclb iflje, baSjeUifige), the same 


7. folder), fold|(e), foltf)(CS), such, such a 

8. bcsgleidjen, bcrglcidjcn, of that kind (of those kinds) 
Remark. — These may all be used either as Substantive 

or Adjective Pronouns, except be3gletd)en (see § 139, 1, 

133. 1. 2>er, tit, bo8, used adjectively (i. e., before a 
substantive), is declined like the Definite Article (which is 
merely the demonstrative adjective weakened and un- 
emphasized), as : 

3)cr' Mann, that man. $)er 9Jtcmn', the man'. 

2. When used substantively it is declined thus : 

Singular. Plural. 














bercr (beren) 











Note. — The form beren (Gen. PI.) is only used as = 'of them,' as: 
How many children have you ? I have seven of them. 
2Bie tnele flinber habeit ©if ? 3d) l)abc fcerett fieben. 

134. 2)icfcr and jcncr both follow the biefer Model (see 
§ 6), but bifS is used for btefes? in the Neuter Nom. and Ace. 
Sing, when used substantively, as : 

$ie3 ift metn 23ud), @r batte bic8 rticftt gebort, 
This is my book. He had not heard this. 

bieffr = this (the nearer of two objects, hence also =) 

the former; 
jtntr = that, yonder (the more remote of two objects, 

hence also =) the latter, as : 

$tcfer 33aum ift grofj, aber jencr ift grower, 
This tree is large, but that (one) is larger. 



[§§ 134- 

3lCttcr 33aum, yonder tree (pointed out as remote). 

$arl unb SBttyelm finb Sriiber; btcfcr ift fleifetg, jcncr ift 
tvdgc, Charles and William are brothers ; the latter 
is diligent, the former is idle. 

135. 1. 2>crjettigC is declined in both parts, like the Defi- 
nite Article followed by the adjective form jenig with weak 
endings, thus : 

Singular. Plural. 


Norn, bcrjenige bicjenigc baSjemgc biejenigcn 
Gen. bcSjenigcn bcrjenigcn beSjenigen berjenigen 
etc. etc. etc. etc. 

2. 2>cr or bcrjenige is used : 

(a) before a genitive case, as : 

2>d) babe 3&ren £ut unb ben(jemgen) %foxt% Sruberg, 
I have your hat and that of your brother (your 

Note. — The demonstrative may also be omitted in this construction, 
as in English ; or the simple ber may be used. 

(b) before a relative clause, as : 

2>cr(jeni(ic) , rocldjcr jufrieben ift, ift glucflid), 
He who is contented, is happy. 

$>ic(jemgc) grew ift am fd)onften, meldje gut ift, 
That woman is most beautiful, who is good. 

3>br £>au§ unb ba9( jeutgc), toorin roir roobnen, 
Your house and that in which we live. 

Note. — In sentences like the first, where ber(jenigc) is used substantively, 
the demonstrative and relative together may be replaced by the compound 
relative VOtX, thus : 

2Ber jufrieben ift, ift glucflid). 


136. $crfclDC (berfelbtge) = ' the same,' as : the same 
hat, bcrfcfbc £ut ; and is declined like berjenige, in two parts, 
written as one word, thus : 

Singular. Plural. 


Nom. berfelbc bicfelbc boSfelbc bicfelben 
Gen. belfelben bcrfelben bcSfelben bcrfelbcn 
etc. etc. etc. etc. 

(For examples of its use see § 143, 2-4, below). 
Note. — ©etbig is sometimes used without article, with strong end- 
ings: felbtger, -t, -t§. 

137. t)tt niimlidjc sometimes replaces berfelbe. 

138. 1. Sold), when used alone, follows thebtefer Model, 
as : foldjct 2Bein, such wine ; foIcfycS 93rot, such bread. 

2. After ein, it follows the mixed declension of adjectives, 
as : 

Nom. cin folcbcr -Skin, such a wine 

Gen. eine§ folcbett 2Betne3, of such a wine, etc. 

3. Before ein, fold) is always, and before an adjective, gen- 
erally, uninflected, as : 

<§old) cin SBetn ; fold) gutcr 2Bein, or folc&cr gutc 2Betn. 

Note. — The adjective has the strong endings when fold) is uninflected, 
otherwise it has the weak endings, except in the plur., where it some- 
times has the strong. 

2. ©old) with cin is often replaced by fo, as : 

@o ein SBein ; ein fo guter SBeirt. 

139. 1 . ^CiSgletcb, en is used as an indeclinable neuter sub- 
stantive (never as adjective), thus: 

3>cb batte bcSgleicben nie gebort, 

I had never heard that sort of thing (anything of 
that kind). 

1 66 LESSON XXVI. [§§ 139- 

Note. — ©e^flleidjen is also used adverbially, = 'in the same way, 

2. $frglctd)cn is used both substantively (referring to a 
fem. or plur. noun) and adjectively. In the latter case it is 
invariable, standing before substantives of any gender and 
number, as : 

$crgletd)en SBetn, $crgleid)en 2Betne, 

Wine of that sort. Wines of that sort. 

Note. -The phrase: unb bcrflleidjen mehv (abbrev. u. bgt. rrt.) is used 
for unb jo inciter (u. f. ro.) = et catera. 

General Remarks on Demonstrative Pronouns. 

140. The English ' that ' is rendered in German : 

1. As Demonstrative Pronoun : 

(a) Most generally by bcr or btcfcr, when there is no 

contrast with any other object, thus : 
That man, bcr' 9Rcmn or bicfcr Mann. 

(b) By bcr or {Jcrjfitigc before a genitive case or a 

relative clause (see § 135, 2, above). 

(c) By jener, when the object is distinctly pointed out 

as remote (= yon, yonder), or as more remote 
than another, thus : 

3cnct ©aunt, That tree (over yonder). 

2)iefe3 £mu§ unb jcttcS, This house and that one. 

2. As Relative by bcr or tflcldjer (see § 95), thus : 

The book that I have, 2)a§ SBud), bag (ttJcldjcS) id) babe. 

3. As Conjunction by baft, thus : 

I shall tell your father that you are diligent, 
$>rf) toerbe beinem Safer fagen, baft bu fleijji-g bt[t. 

141. The neuter pronouns baS, bicf(c«), jcitcg are used 
(like c0, see § 39, 1, and tucldjcS, § 82, Rem. 2) before the verb 


'to be,' representing the real subject, which follows the verb, 
and with which the verb agrees, as : 

2>0§ ift mein 33ruber, That is my brother. 

2)icf(c8) ift $bre <5djtoefter, This is your sister. 

3?tte§ fittb feme SBiidjer, Those are his books. 

142. 2>CT and jcitcr, when referring to inanimate objects, 
are often replaced by the adverb ba(r), ' there,' before pre- 
positions (compare § 38, Rem. 5) and biefer by Ijter, as : 

3$ fyaht mcfytS bomit ju ifmn, 
I have nothing to do with that (therewith). 
permit mup tdt> fcfeltefjen, 
With this (herewith) I must close. 
Note. — This substitution is not made before a relative, as : 
3(f) bacfjte an Da8 [not baran), roos @ie fagten, 
I was thinking of that which (what) you were saying. 

143. Use of Demonstratives to replace 

Personal Pronouns. 

1. The neuter gen. befjctt replaces that of the neuter pers. 
pron. (feiner) referring to things, as : 

3>dj> ertnnre midj bcffcn md)t, 

I do not recollect it (feiner = him, of him). 

2. The genitive of bcr and that of bcrjcll'C are frequently 
used to replace the possessive adjective of the 3. person, in 
order to avoid ambiguity, as : 

SDer ©raf tear mit fcincm (be§ ©rafen) ^aget unb beffen 
(be3 3«gcr§) §unben (or mit ben £>unben bcsfclbcn) auf 
ber ^agb, The Count was at the hunt with his (the 
Count's) huntsman and his (the huntsman's) dogs. 
Note. — SDiit fcineit §unbeit would mean ' with the Count's dogs.' 

3. ^crfclbe is used in other cases also to prevent ambiguity 
(also bicfer in the same way), as : 

1 68 



9)?em 33ruber tft bet metnem $reunbe, unb berfelbe (or bicfer) 

adjitet itjn fer;r ; or : er (metn SBruber) acbtet bcnjdbcn febr, 
My brother is at my friend's, and he (the latter, the 
friend) esteems him (my brother) very much; or: he 
(my brother) esteems him (my friend) very much. 
4. 2>erfcHie also replaces the personal pronouns, to prevent 
repetitions like tbn — ^bnen, <Sie — fie, etc., as : 

SMefer 2Bein tft gut, id) farm ^bnen bcnjdbcn (for Ujn 
£$(jncn) empfeblen, This wine is good, I can recommend 
it to you. 


Strong Verbs : fingen Model. 



P. Part. 

Germ. Model: 

fin gen 



Engl. Analogy: 









btnbcn, bind 



bringen (N.), press 



finben, find 



fltngen, ring, sound 



(ge)lingen (N.), succeed 




with dat. of pers.) 

ringen, wring (the hands, 




fd)Itngcn, twine ; swallow 




fcbrotnben (N.), vanish 



fcbhnrtgen, swing 



ftngen, sing 



finfen, sink 



fprtngen (N. A.), spring, 




trtnfen, drink (of human beings) 



rotnben, wind 



jroingen, force 



144] STRONG VERBS : filtgetl MODEL. 1 69 


to press in, penetrate, tin'- on board, am 23orb 

escape, entfliefyen [bringen grammar, bie ©ramma'ttf 

invent, erfinben dealer, ber ipanbler 

remember, fid^ erinnern (-f-gen. lion, ber Sbtoe 

of thing) diver, ber £aud)er 

drown, be drowned, ertrinfen telephone, ba§ Xelebfyon' 

spring upon, Io§'fprtngen (auf clever, geftbicft 

-f- ace.) prudent, cautious, bor'ftd)ttg 

mean, suppose, meinen unfortunately, leiber 

oblige, berbtnben below, unterbalb (+ gen.) 

vanish, berfd)minben never yet, nod) nie 


A. 1. 3)te§ ift metn Setter au§ Montreal; fennen ©ie tfm? 
2. ^atoobl, biefen fenne id) gang gut, aber nid)t ben, ber mir geftern 
ben Srief gebrad)t bat. 3. ©in bofer $nabe fd)roang fid) auf ben 
3lbfelbaum tm ©arten fetne§ ^iad)bar§ unb fd)mif} bie $bfel auf 
bie 6rbe. 4. ^n biefem $elbe b,aben bie SBauern fd)on ba§ ©rag 
gefd)mtten, aber in jenem merben fie e3 erft morgen fd)neiben. 
5. „?tebet bie, bie eud) baffen." 6. !^ene§ ftnb meine §unbe, aber 
bte§ ftnb biejenigen, meld>e ber ^ager bor afyt Stagen berloren fyat, 
unb bie id) gefunben i)ah^. 7. ©rinnern ©ie fid) beffen, roa§ id) 
5#nen bom alien ©d)Iofe am Ufer be§ ©ee§ erjdblt I)abe ? 8. 35 e m 
roiirbe id) leinen %t) aler leifyen ; b e r roiirbe nie bejpbjen. 9. iDie 
©d)afer trieben tfjre £erben iiber benfelben 23erg auf roeld)en mir 
ftiegen. 10. £)er Sfleifenbe ftieg bom ^ferbe unb banb baSfelbe an 
einen fleinen 33aum. 11. $a§ ©d)iff ftiefe an einen ^elfen, ba3 
SBaffer brang ein, unb ba3 ©d)iff fanf. 12. %fy babe mid) be= 
fltffen, Satein ju lernen, aber e§ ift mir nid)t gelungen. 13. 3)er 
Some mar gerabe im 33egriffe auf ben SRetfenben loSnifbrtngen, al§ 
ber %aa,ex tyn fd)ofc. 14. fennen ©ie §errn 53eU ? 2Beld)en £errn 
33ett meinen ©ie? 15. 'Denjenigen, ber ba§ £eleblron erfunben 

170 LESSON XXVI. [§§144- 

bat. 16. 2Ba3 ift au§ meiner beutfcben ©rammatit getoorben? 
©ie fd^etnt ganj berfcfytounben &u fein. 17. 2)aS finb fcfyone 
(grbbeeren ; too baben ©ie biefelben gefauft ? 18. ©ie finb fcfybn, 
nicbtrDabr? ©old) pracfytige 23eeren finben ©ie nicbt bei jeb'em 
§anbler. 19. ©0 beifje3 SBetter baben h)tr nocb. nidEjt gebabt. 
20. 2BaS tourbe bir gcanttoortet, al3 bu nad) bem ®ranfen frag= 
teft? 21. SRan fagte mir, er fei ein Inenig beffer. 

B. 1. The patient is just as weak to-day as he was yester- 
day. 2. Such happy days I have never yet passed ! 3. Where 
do you generally pass the winter ? 4. Where is my pen ? 
Have you found it ? 5. This is my neighbour of whom you 
have already heard so much. 6. The ship has sunk, and 
the people who were on board have been drowned. 7. I 
was looking for my coat, but found my father's. 8. I should 
be very much obliged to you, if you sang me a beautiful song. 
9. Which is poorer, he who has no money, or he who has no 
friends? 10. How should we escape if the boat sank? 
11. Charles has already finished (the) learning (of) his lesson ; 
he is cleverer than I thought. 12. The diver that jumped 
from the bridge has unfortunately been drowned. 13. It 
will have been a good lesson for us, if it makes us more 
prudent in future. 14. Is that a new song ? No, it is the 
same that I sang a week ago at your house. 15. The St. 
Lawrence River is the broadest in Canada ; below the city of 
Quebec it is broadest. 16. The patient is better to-day ; he 
will be allowed to go out to-morrow. 


1. Was ist aus dem Taucher geworden ? 2. 1st Karl ge- 
schickter als Johann ? 3. Was hat der bose Knabe gemacht ? 
4. Ist der Reisende dem Lowen entflohen ? 5. Ist es Ihnen 
gelungen, Latein zu lernen ? 6. Wessen Hunde sind das ? 





ljclfen MODELS. 

145. Indefinite Pronouns. 

The Indefinite Pronouns are : 
(a) Substantive : 

1. Wfln (indecl.), one, they, people (Fr. on) 

2. jebmitann, everybody, everyone 

«> : MMgM w j somebody, anybody of persons 

( some one, any one [ only 

4 ntmtiitb \ n °body, n o one, no person 
< not anybody, etc. 

5. ftttms, something, anything 

6. 1ti(^t9 / nothing, not anything 

7. eiltfr, one, some one 

8. fetltft, no one, none 

of things 

(biefer Mod- 
el) persons 
and things 

(b) Adjective (also used substantively) : 

1. rittige, ttUdjC (plur.), some, a few, 


2. jei(ttcb)er (jegUdjer), each (one), every 


3. monger, many (a one) 

4. mcljrerc (pi.), several 

5. biel, much, pi. bielc, many 

6. toenig, little, pi. mange, few 

7. tuclrfjcr, some 

Remark. — The Indefinite Pronominal Adjectives are also 
used as Indefinite Numeral Adjectives (see Less. XXIX). 

(biefer Mod- 
► el) persons 
and things 

172 LESSON XXVII. [§§ 146- 

146. 9Wotl (spelt with small letter and one it, to distinguish 
it from ber 5Jiann, the man, from which it is derived) is the 
Indefinite Personal Pronoun, and is used to make a state- 
ment without specifying any particular person. It is equivalent 
to Engl. ' one, they, we, you (indef.), people,' etc., (French on), 
or to the impersonal use of the passive voice, as : 

Slon fagt, One says ; they, people say ; or it is said. 

Wan farm DI unb 3Saffer md)t jufammen mtfd)en, 
One (we, you) cannot mix oil and water. 

Remarks. — i. One's self (refl.) = fid) ; one's = feilt 
(poss. adj.), as : 

SWon fc&amt ftdj fcincr fte&Ier, 
One is ashamed of one's faults. 

2. 9Jlan cannot be replaced by any other pronoun, as : 

9ttan rotrb miibe, roenrt mon (not er) p lange arbeitet, 
A man (one) gets tired, when he works too long. 

147. ^ebcrmonn is used in the Sing, only ; it takes -$ in 
Gen., but is otherwise uninflected, as : 

3cbermnnn0 ©ad)e tft niemanbeS <Bafy, 
Everybody's business is nobody's business. 

S)ie Sibel ift em 33ud) fiir jcbcrmann (ace), 
The Bible is a book for everybody. 

148. Stmaitb and its negative nttmattb are used in the 
Sing, only, and are declined thus : 

Nom. jemmtb niemanb 

Gen. jemanbeS niemanbei 

( jemanbetn ( niemanbem 

a ' ( iemanb(en) { niemanb(cn) 
Ace. jeirtanb(cn) niemanb(cn) 


Note. — The uninflected forms are preferable for the Dat. and Ace, as : 
Sffiir haben nicmant) (ace.) getabett, We have blamed nobody. 
SBerben »5ic e§ jjemanb (dat.) fagen ? Shall you tell it to anybody? 

149. 1. ($ttoH8 is sometimes abbreviated to tool, as : 
$}d) U)itl bir todS fagen, I will tell you something. 

2. After cttoas and nid)tg, an adjective has the strong 
neuter ending -eg (see § 122, Rem. 11, above). 

3. (Sttodg and tlidjtS are also used as Indefinite Numerals 
(see Less. XXIX, § 168). 

1 50. (Sitter (bief er Model), ' one, some one, any one,' is used : 

1. In the Nom. Sing. Masc. = man. 

2. To supply the missing cases of man, as : 

@§ tbut cittern (dat.) leib, bon feinen greunben ju febetben. 
One is sorry to part from one's friends. 

3. Before a substantive, as : 

(Sitter tnetner greunbe (toon meinen $reunben), 

One of my friends. 

(Sitt(c)g Don bief en 93ud)ern, One of these books. 

4. To represent a preceding substantive, as : 

£aben ©ie ein 33ud) ? %a, id) babe ein(e)«, 
Have you a book ? Yes, I have one. 
Note. — The t may be dropped in the ending of the Nom. and Ace. Neut. 

151. Reiner (biefer Model) is the negative of einer, and 
is used : 

1. As equivalent to niemanb. 

2. Before a substantive, as : 

Reiner ton meinen greunben, 
None (not One) of my friends. 

3. To represent a preceding substantive, as : 
§aben ©ie ein 93ud) ? 9?ein, id) lj>abe fein(e)8. 

Note. — Like einer, it may drop e in the Nom. and Ace. Neuter 

174 lesson xxvn. [§§152- 

152. ($inige (etlid)f), income, = ' some, a few, several,' as : 
(Shtigc uon mcinen ^reunben, Some (a few) of my friends. 
9)lcf)WC biefer SBiidSer, Several of these books. 

153. $tbtr, jebmeber, jeglicber (bkfcr Model) or ein jeber, 
etc. (def. art. -j- adj. with mixed declension) are used, 
especially in the Masc, for jebermann, as : 

SDie 53ibel ift ein 33ucb fur jcbtn. 
((Sin) jcbcr ift feine3 Qlticfes ^djmieb, 
Every man (one) is the architect (lit. smith) of his own 

154. 9J}attd)Cr, ' many a one, many a person ' (biefer Model), 
is used to express indefinite plurality, as : 

9Rand)Cr benft, Many a one (person) thinks. 

155. S&rfdjer (biefer Model) is used for ' some,' referring 
to a preceding substantive, as : 

Robert ©ie Srot ? %<x, id) fyabe mel<J)f8. 

156. For titrl and tottttg see Less. XXIX, § 176. 

157. When the Engl, 'anybody, anyone, anything,' = 
'anybody, etc., at all' (indefinite and general), they are 
rendered by irgenb jemanb, irgenb etner, irgenb etroaS, as : 

Anybody (at all) will tell you, where I live, 

$rgenb jemanb (or etner) rotrb ^bnen fagen, mo id; toobne. 

^d) bin mit irgenb etroaS jufrieben, 

I am contented with anything (at all). 

158. Strong Verbs : jfltnnen Model. 



P. Part. 

Germ. Model: 
Engl. Analogy : 

Ablaut : 








fdbtoinvmen (N. A.), swim fdbtoamm H; ,. qefcbtoommen 

( f cbtooi — 

159] strong verbs: fpinnen model. 175 


(Note. — The Impf. Subj. is also given, on account of variations 
occurring. ) 

(be)gmnen, begin begann begonne begonnert 

rinnen (N.), flow rann rdnne geronnen 

( fcfytoamme 


ftnnen, think fann fanne gefonnen 

r ( fbanne 

fbmnen, spin fbann j Z^ mt gefbonnen 

(ge)tt>tnnen, win, gain getoann -j ° .. getoonnen 

Note. — Observe the subjunctive forms with vowel of P. Part. -(- Um- 
laut, instead of vowel of Impf. Ind. 

159. Strong Verbs: fjclfcn Model. 

Pr. Ind. 2. x. Sing. ) T _ _ _ 

Infin. _ t J ... b I Impf. Subj. P. Part. 
Pr. Imper.2.Sing. 1 

Germ. Model: belfen btlfft, btlft, btlf half biilfe gebolfen 

Engl. Analogy : wanting. 

Ablaut: C t a Morit d 


(Note. — The 2. 3. sing. Pres. Ind., 2. sing. Imper., and Impf. Subj. are 
also given.) 

bergen, hide birgft, birgt, birg barg barge geborgen 

Mu„(N.), (Ktftc(t/bit(t/Ktft) m |JJ*J 9e6orften 

(ber)berben (N.), berbtrbft, etc. berbarb berbiirbe berborben 

spoil (intr.) 

brefc&en, thrash brtfdbeft, etc. j b ™'^ br5fd)e } 9 ebro ^ en 
gelten, be worth giltft, gilt, gilt gait galte gegoltcn 




rotrft, toirb, roerbe . 
hritfft, etc. ttmrf 



belfen, help bilfft, etc. half biilfe gebolfen 

fcbelten, scold f cbiltft, fcbilt, fct?ilt fcbalt fcbalte gefajolten 

fterben, (N.), die ftirbft, etc. ftarb ftiirbe geftorben 

toerben, woo tturbft, etc. roarb roiirbe geroorben 

loerben (N.), be- ..... L ( toarb 

toerfen, throw 

Remarks. — 1. Most of these verbs have b or it in the 
Impf. Subj. instead of ii, which cannot be distinguished in 
sound from the c of the Pres. Ind. ; thus fterbe and ft&rbe 
would sound alike. 

2. SSerberben, when trans., is both strong and weak (ber= 
berbte, oerberbt). 

3. -JBerben has roarb or tourbe in the sing. ; rourben only in 
the plur. (see § 19). 

4. The Imperative never has the final -e in these verbs, 
except roerbe. 

5. Observe the omission of (e)t of 3. sing. Pres. Ind. in 
the verbs with stem in -t, -t. 


to be or do (of health), ftcb 

reflect, deliberate, ficb be* 

accomplish, letften 
remain over, be left, ii'brig 

hide, conceal, oerbergen 
requite, reward, bergelten 
complete, finish, botfen'ben 
throw away, roeg'roerfen 

run away, vanish, $errinnen 
the conduct, bag 33etragen 
poet, ber Shatter 
barley, bie ©erfte 
oats, ber §afer 
sailor, ber Sftatrofe 
musician, ber 9Jhiftfer 
need, necessity, bie 92ot * 
dove, pigeon, bie £aube 
plate, ber better 
loss, ber SSerluff * 

§i59l STRONG VERBS : fyelfen MODEL. 1 77 

embarrassment, perplexity, thereto, baju' 

bie SiBerle'genfyeit no longer, ntcfyt mebr 

wheat, ber SSeijcn as, rote 
evil, bofe 

Idiom : I like the country, ^rt) bin cin Jrtunft bom £attbt. 

^4. 1. 28er ju toiel rebet, leiftet loenig. 2. 5Derjenige, roel<Jber 
ju oiel rebet, leiftet toentg. 3. 2)ie§ finb meine ©dEmbe, aber jeneS 
finb (bie) $jb,re(n). 4. ffier jebermannS ^reunb ift, ift niemanbeS 
ftreunb. 5. (Sin guter Gfyrift oergilt SBofe^ mit ©utem. 6. @S 
ift fo eben jemanb fyier getoefen. 7. SBelcfye^ toon biefen 33ans 
bern jieb, en <Sie oor, ba§ rote ober ba3 blaue? 8.*2Ben fud^ft 
bu? £$ f u $ e bi e arme ^amilie, beren 23ater geftorben ift. 
9. Sjahen <Sie f cfyon ^b,ren SSeijen gebrofcben ? Wlan brifdjt b, eute 
ben §afer unb bie ©erfte, aber man toirb erft morgen ben SBeijen 
brefcfyen. 10. @§ ift ein SSerluft ftir ba§ ganje Sanb, toenn ein 
grower unb guter -iJJcann ftirbt. 11. 2>er grofte $nabe fcbamt ficb 
fetneS 33etragen§ unb be§balb oerbirgt er fein ©eftcht. 12. „2Bie 
getoonnen, fo jerronnen," ba§ ift, man berliert leicfct, toa§ man 
leid)t geroinnt. 13. 2)te ©rbbeeren, toelche tcb geftern !aufte, finb 
berborben. 14. -Uton bilft gem einem, ber ficb felbft fyilft. 15. 
§iermit fcbicfe id) £#nen ba§ ©elb, toeIcf>e3 ©ie fo freunbltcb 
getoefen finb, mir ju leifyen. 16. <5inb <Sie ein $reunb bom 
©cbtoimmen ? !ye$t ™fy mefyr, aber icb fchtoamm gem, aU icb 
jiinger toar. 17. 2)er Unglucflicfye befann ficb lange, fcfyritt 
aber enblich an ben 9tanb be§ 33oote§ unb forang in§ 2Baffer. 
18. SJft er ertrunfen ? ^etn, er toon ben ?D?atrofen gerettet. 

B. 1. Good morning, Mr. Bell, how are you to-day? 2. 
Have you any money ? Yes, to be sure, I have some, but not 
enough for my journey. 3. Where is the tree to which the 
traveller tied his horse ? 4. People take cold easily when they 
are tired. 5. Schiller and Beethoven were Germans, the 


latter was a great musician, the former a great poet. (i. Mr. 
A. is a lazy man ; he would not work at all, if necessity 
did not force him to it. 7. We found the money we lost a 
week ago. 8. Many a one begins what he will never finish. 
9. Mary, my child, throw that apple away ; it is spoilt. 10. 
Have you shot many pigeons ? We have shot only a few. 
11. Except my brother and me nobody is at home. 12. The 
mother is scolding, because her naughty child has thrown a 
plate upon the ground. 13. Where is the River St. Lawrence 
broadest? 14. When the children had drunk, the cat drank 
the milk which remained over (was left). 15. The women 
on (an) the shore screamed and wrung their hands, when the 
boat sank in which their husbands were. 16. Has the money 
which was lost been found ? 


1. Wann wird man den Hafer dreschen ? 2. Warum ver- 
birgt der bose Knabe sein Gesicht ? 3. Wem hilft man gern ? 
4. Sind Sie ein Freund vom Jagen ? 5. Was fur ein Mann 
ist Herr Bell ? <>. Weshalb schilt die Frau ? 


160. Adjectives used as Attributes only. 
The following classes of adjectives are not used as predicates : 

1. Derivatives in -en, -Wit (denoting material), as; golben, of gold, 
golden; filbcrrt, of silver. These, are replaced in the predicate by the 
substantive with Don, as : 

£>icfc Ubr ift boil <Silbcv, This watch is of silver. 

2. Many in -ifdj and -lid), as: biebifd), thievish; ticrifd), bestial; heud)= 
levifd), hypocritical ; ttiglid), daily ; jdbrttd), annual ; rrjirf(id), actual, real. 

3. Those in -tg from adverbs of time and place, as: bentig, of to-day; 
biejtg, of this place. 

162] adjectives used as predicates only. 1 79 

161. Adjectives used as Predicates only. 
The following classes of adjectives are not used as attributes : 

1. Those that are really nouns (though spelt with a small letter), such 
as: (ingft, afraid; feint), hostile; freunb, friendly ; leib, sorry; not, needful; 
niifce, useful ; fd)iilb, guilty. 

2. The following among others : 

berett, ready getroft, confident 

etngcbenf, mindful gernahr, aware 

gar, cooked, done (of food) gram, averse 

gang unb gabe, current (of money, etc.) irrc, astray, wrong 
tciltjaft, partaking 
Notb. — Both these classes of adjectives are incapable of comparison in the ordinary 
way, and form the comparative and superlative by prefixing mtfjr and am mci jtcn respec- 
tively, as : 

(ir rourbe meinetn SBruber immer mt$r flrom, He grew more and more averse to my 

55a§ tfjat mir am meifttn leib, I was most sorry for that {relative superl.). 

162. Remarks on certain Pronouns. 

1. The pronouns rocr, roa # 8 are frequently followed by the demonstrative 
ber in the after clause, and always so when the latter (the seeming ante- 
cedent) is in a different case from that of the relative, as : 

2Bcr bat, ftem roirb gegeben, To him that hath shall be (is) given. 

2. The neuter pronouns e§, ba$, U>a8, jebeS, alieg are often used in the 
Nom. and Ace. Sing, in reference to a number of persons or things, espe- 
cially if of different gender, as: 

SDtiinner, SBciber, Sirtber, alleg fcfirie urn Jpilfe, fo laut tS fonnte, 
Men, women, children, all cried for help as loud as they could; 
gviil) iibt fid), toa§ ein 9Jkifter roerben tt>iU, 
Those practice early, who would become masters. 
Notb. — Observe that the verb is singular. 

3. 9BaS is sometimes used for luarum ? (' why ? '), as : 
2Bo8 ttieinft bu ? Why dost thou weep ? 

4. The relative adverb rote ('as ') after fold) ein or fo ein ('such a ! ) is 
usually followed by a personal pronoun, agreeing in gender and number 
with the antecedent, as : 

©old) (fo) ein SWaiui, (or ein SUiann) rtue mir ihn nie gefannt batten, 
Such a man as we had never known. 
Notb. — The demonstrative fold) or fo is often omitted, as indicated in the above example. 





foremen model. 


163. Cardinals. 



1. etnS ; ein(er), -e, -(ft) 



: crftc 

2. jioei 




3. brei 




4. bier 




5. fiinf 




6. ferfjg 




7. fieben 




8. ad)t 




9. neun 




10. jebn 

10th. . 



11. elf 




12. jtoblf 




13. breijefjn 




14. bierjeljn 




15. fimfeebn or funfgebn 



funf= or fiinfjebnte 

16. fed^^e^n 




17. ficige^n 




18. acbtjebn 




19. neunjefen 




20. $ttian$ig 




21. cin unto jtoan^g 



cin unb jtoangtgfte 

22. jttiei unb jtoanjig 



jtoet unb jtoanjigfte 

30. breifetg 




40. bterjig 




50. funfag or fiinfjig 



funfjtgfte or funf= 





60. fecfoig 

60th. ber fed^igfte 

70. fteb(en)jig 

70th. „ fieb(en)jtgfte 

80. ad?tjig 

80th. ., acbt^igfte 

90. neunjig 

90th. „ neunjigfte 

100. fyunbert 

100th. „ bunbertfte 

101. b, unbert (unb) etn§ 

101st. „ fyunbert unb crfk 

123. bunbert (unb) brei unb 

123rd. „ fyunbert (unb) brri 


unb jroangigftc 


200. jtoei bunbcrt 

300. brei bunbert 

1000. taufenb 

1001. taufenb unb einS 

1036. taufenb (unb) fed)§ unb breifjig 

1887 { tau f enb ( unb ) a< 
1 or adjtjeljnfyunt 

§t b, unbert (unb) fieben unb adjtjtg 

ert fieben unb adbtgig 

10,000. gefyn taufenb 

100,000. ^unbert taufenb 

1,000,000. eine MKon' 

2,567,849. jtoet SKiaionen, 

fiinf i) unbert (unb) fieben unb 

fed}jig taufenb, ad)t Ijunbert (unb) neun unb 


Interrogative Ordinal: ber uncbiclfk ? which (in order)? 
what day of the month? (See § 166, 3, Note 2). 

165. Remarks on the Cardinal Numerals. 
1. (Sitt only is declined throughout, thus : 

(a) Before a substantive after the tnein Model (§ 8), like 
the Indefinite Article, which is the same word un- 
emphasized, as : 

(Sin 7 3Jiann, one man ; ein -iDlann', a man. 

l82 LESSON XXVIII. [§165 

Note. — The numeral cin is sometimes printed with a capital, or spaced 
out (— Engl, italics) to distinguish it from the Article, as : 
2Bif Ijrtbcil (gin' (e i tt) 53urf), We have one book. 
2lMr l)abcii cin 93ud)', We have a book. 

(p) Used substantively (see also § 150, above) without 
article, after btefer Model (§ 6), as : 

©incr Don metnen Jreunben, One of my friends. 
Unfer cirtcr, One of us (of our sort). 

(r) After an article or other determinative word, like an 
adjective, as : 

SDer etnc 33ruber, The one brother. 

9fletn eincr <Sd)ub, (The) one of my shoes. 

Note. — With the definite article it may be used substantively 
also, as : 

titt cine unb ber anbere, (The) one and the other ; 
and even in the plural (= some, one party), as : 

£te eincn fasten bieS, bie anbern jeneS, 

Some (the one party) said this, others (the other party) that. 

(</) 6tnS is the form used in counting. 

2. $ttm and brri may have -cr in the Gen. and -en in the 
Dat. when not accompanied by any article, etc., as : 

Slug jtoeier ober bretcr Beugen 9ftunb fommt bte 9Sabrbett, 
Out of the mouth of two or three witnesses cometh 
the truth. 

Wan fann nicbt atoeicn £>erren btenert, 
One cannot serve two masters. 
Note. — The Gen. -tt is necessary to show the case, but may be re- 
placed by boil; but the Dat. -Clt before a substantive is rare, the -n of 
the substantive sufficiently showing the case. 

3. ©Ctbc = ' both,' refers to two objects taken together, 
and is declined like an adjective in the Plur. : N. betbc, 
G. beiber, etc. ; bte betben ; metne beiben ©ruber. It often 


replaces jroei after determinative words, as in the last example. 
The neuter sing, form beibcS is also found, as : 
SeibcS if% roafyr, Both (things) are true. 

Notes.— i. Both of us = loir bcibe(n) (we two). 

2. ' Both ' as conjunction = fott>of)l. etc. (See Less. XL.) 

4. Other cardinals are not declined unless used substan 
tively (see next section). 

5. The numbers from 13 to 19 are formed by adding -jeljlt 
(Engl, -teen) to the units (but fecfejebn drops -8). 

6. The multiples of ten (20 — 90) add -jig to the units, 
jtoonjig, bretfjig being irregular, and fecbjig dropping -g. 

7. The units always precede the tens in compound numbers 
from 21 upwards, both being joined by the conjunction unb 
'and ' ; hence 25 = fiinf Ultb jroanjig (Engl. ' five and twenty '); 
156 = bunbert fecfy§ unb funfjtg, etc. 

8. gmttbert and Joufcilb are generally used without em be- 
fore them, and the conjunction unb may be omitted after 

9. 'One by one, two by two,' etc. = jc etner, jc jtoet (or 
je jtoet unb jtoei), etc. 

10. The Cardinals may be used as substantives: 

(a) With a substantive understood (as simple numbers 
only), with -e in Nom. Ace, -ett in Dat., as : 

3ltte biere, All fours. 

W\i fedjfen, With [a coach and] six [horses]. 

(b) As feminine substantives, of the spots on dice, etc., 
or of the figures 1, 2, 3, etc., see § 80, 2, (c), with 
plur. in -en, as : 

2)te (Sinfi, the one-spot, figure one, plur. (Stnfen. 

184 LESSON XXVIII. [*?§ 165- 

(c) .S^unbcrt and Staufenb are used as collective sub- 
stantives, declined after the £mnb Model, § 21, (b), 
as : 

^m erften £>unbcri, In the first hundred. 
£aufenbe toon 9J?enfd)en, Thousands of men. 

(d) 3Jiittion is a fern, subst. of the weak declension. 

166. Remarks on Ordinal Numerals. 

1. The Ordinals are formed from the Cardinals by adding: 

(a) Up to 19, -te, except ber erfie, britte, ad)tc. 

(b) From 20 upwards, —fie, which in compound numbers 
is added to the last component only. 

Note. — 2)cr unucre is the older ordinal for 'second ' 

2. The ordinals after proper names (of sovereigns, etc.) are 
spelt with a capital letter, and must (with the article) be de- 
clined throughout, the proper name being undeclined, as : 

®arl ber @rjtc, Charles the First. 

©eorg bc8 SSierten, Of George the Fourth, etc. 
Note. — The Roman Numerals I., II., etc., after names of sovereigns 
must always be read as def. art. -f- ord. num. in the proper case. Thus: 
§einvid) IV. = §cinrid) ber SBierte (Nom.) ; or ,'peutrid) ben SBicrten 
(Ace. ) ; but : ber £hron £einridj IV. = ber SEhron £>eiiirid) bc8 SBierten 
(Gen.); untcr §einvid) IV. = unter §einrtcb bent SBicrten. 

3. The ordinals are used adjectively before the names of 
the months, as : 

Xer ad^ermte Stuguft', The 18th [of] August. 

21m jmei unb jmanjigften £>um, On the 2 2d [of] June. 

Notes. — 1. The figures 1, 2, etc., before the months are to be read 
as ordinals, thus : 

%m 1. 3anuar = am erften Samtar. 

Toronto, (b.) 25.(ftcn) 2lpvi( = Toronto, ben (ace. of time, see 
§ 184, 1 ) fiinf unb gwaujigfien Styril 

167] strong verbs: fprecben model. 185 

2. ' What day of the month is it ? ' 

®er totebielj?e if! beutc ? or : ben imeDtclftcn Ijabcn mix beute ? 

' It is the fifth,' 

(58 if! beutc ber fiinfte, or: 2Bir baben fyeute ben fiinftcn. 

167. Strong Verbs: jjjredjcn Model. 

Pr. Ind. 2. x. Sing. 1 _ „ _ 

Infin. . , » I Impf. P. Part. 

" IMPER. 2. " J 

*" I fte^Ien [tifbjft, ftic&It, fttcbl fto^I geftoblen 

Engl. Analogy : speak wanting 

spake spoken 

Ablaut: t X, it 

LIST A. (t, a, 0.) 

brecben (N. A.), break brid)ft, etc. 



neljmen, take ntimnft, etc. 



(er)fcbretfen (N.), be erfc&rttfft, etc. 




fprecben, speak fpncbft, etc. 



fted)en, sting (trans.) fticbft, etc. 



treffen, hit triffft, trifft, triff 



Remarks. — 1. (Sjrfcbrecfen, to frighten (trans.), is weak (er= 
fdjrerfte, erfebreeft). 

2. Observe the dropping of () and doubling of m in nebmen, 
and the single consonant in the Imperfect of erfebrecfen 
and treffen. 

LISTB. (ic, a, 0.) 
(The Imperf. Subj. is also given.) 

(ge)bdren, bear, gebterft, etc. gebar gebare geboren 

bring forth 
(be)febjen, com- befiebjft, etc. befab.1 befbbje befofylen 


1 86 



(ettty)feblen, re- 

empftefylft, etc. 
(tiefylft, etc. 

fteblen, steal 

Also : 

fommen (N.), J fommft, fonunt 
come j fommft, toimnt 

empfa^t cmpfo^le empfofylen 

»> & 

fomm fam lame gefommen 

Remarks. — 1. The simple verb fefylen, to be wanting, to 
make a mistake, is weak (feblte, gefetjlt). 

2. fommen drops one m in Impf. 

3. All verbs of this Model (A. and B.j drop the final -c of 
the 2. sing. Imper. 

to add, abbieren 

arrive (at), an'fommen (in -(- 

obtain, get, befommen 
divide, bioibieren 
celebrate, feiern 
multiply, multtyltcieren 
subtract, fubtrabieren 
happen upon, meet with, 

care, attention, bie 2(d)t 
railway-station, ber 33abnl)of * 
holidays, bie $erien (pi.) 
fishing, bag $ifd)en 
prison, ba§ ©efangnte 

hunting, ba§ ^agen 

James, %atob 

mile (German), league, bie 

minute, bie Minute 
government, reign, bie Ste* 

Reformation, bie Reformation' 
second (of time), bie Sefunbe 
voyage, bie ©eereife 
far, roeit 
about, ungeftifyr 
twice, jroeimal 
as far as, bt3 ju (dat.) 

Idioms: 1. He was born twenty-five years ago, ffir ifl ©or funf unfc 
(tooting 3nhr«n gcborcn. 

2. Please take another apple (i. e., yet one more), 99fttc, neb= 
men Zie nod) ctiicn 2Ipfel. 

3. Take care, Rebmen ®fe ft'cb in Udn. 

§167] strong verbs: fpredbcn model. 187 


A. 1 . 2Bic alt finb ©ie ? ^d; bin in meincm neun unb groan* 
jigften ^a^re. 2. £)iefe3 3abr befamen Voir am acbt unb groan* 
jigften ^uni gerien. 3. ^eber 5ftonat aufjcr bem gebruar fyat 
entroeber breifeig ober ein unb breifjig Stage. 4. £>en bier unb 
jtoanjigften 9Jki toar id) bei metnem 33ater auf SBefucb, benn an 
biefem Sage feiern h)ir ben ©eburt§tag ber $bnigin. 5. ®arl ber 
@rfte toon ©nglanb roar ber 33ater ®arl II. unb ^afob II. 6. £)a3 
toar eine fa) Ied)te 9?admcbt, nidjt toabr ? Unfere Gutter erfdbraf, 
al§ ©ie biefelbe bbrte. 7. ©en fiinf unb gtoangigften trafen toir 
§errn Sell auf bem SBabnbofe, gerabe al3 er im Segrtffe mar ah* 
jureifen. 8. ^n ber ©tabt 2onbon ftnb mebr al§ brei SRiUionen 
@intoobner. 9. 3)ie einen emtofablen ibm ju bleiben, bie anbern 
abjureifen. 10. SBie toeit ift e§ toon bier bis gum nacfyften 5Dorfe? 
Ungefabr fiinf unb gtoangig englifcbe 3Jieilen. 11. @r nabm bie 
$ifcbe je gtoet au$ bem ®orbe unb legte biefelben auf ben £ifcb. 
12. £>a§ @i3 bricfyt, nebmen ©ie fid; in 2ldn\ 13. ^unberte toon 
5Renfcben fyabm todfyrenb be§ SrbbebenS ba3 Seben berloren. 14. 
Unter ber Slegierung i^einrid; VIII. begann bie Reformation in 
(Snglanb. 15. Sfteine beiben 33riiber reiften am fiinf unb groan* 
gigften ^uni toon Sioerfcool ah unb famen erft am acfytgebnten ^ult 
in Quebec an. 16. 3Sann fommt ^br ©eburtstag? 2tm ein 
unb gtoangigftcn -ftobember. 17. $)ie Stegierung §einricb VIII. 
toar eine ber berubmteften in ber ®efcbicr)te ©nglanb<§. 18. 2113 
toir einen ©oagiergang marten, fydbm toir mebrcre unferer $reunbe 
angetroffen. 19. SSon roem ift $r/nen geraten toorben, eine ©ee= 
reife gu mad)cn? @3 ift mir bon mebreren &rgten geraten roorben. 

B. 1. One general commands thousands (dat.) of soldiers. 
2. Mary has broken her pen, but she has taken Louisa's. 3. 
The ice is breaking ; take care, Fred. 4. This is my lead- 
pencil, not William's. 5. You have taken only one apple, please 
take another. I J. When do we celebrate the Queen's Birthday ? 
On the 24th of May. 7. What day of the month is it to-day? 

1 88 LESSON XXVIII. [§§167- 

To-day is the 31st of March. 8. The thief was thrown into 
(the) prison, because he had stolen five hundred dollars. 
9. Which do you prefer, (the) hunting or (the) fishing? 
I like both. 10. A bee stings, but a dog or a cat bites. 
11. The days are longest in the month of June, and shortest 
towards Christmas. 12. When our neighbours were at church, 
a thief went (fommen) into the house and stole several hundred 
dollars. 13. In the year eighteen hundred and eighty-seven 
Queen Victoria celebrated the fiftieth year of her reign. 14. 
The eldest son of the Queen of England was born the ninth of 
November one thousand eight hundred and forty-one. 15. Tell 
me how much thirty-two and eighty-eight make. 16. There 
are sixty seconds in a minute, sixty minutes in an hour, 
twenty-four hours in a day, seven days in a week, four weeks 
in a month, and twelve months in a year. 17. Would you make 
a voyage to Europe if you were advised to do so ? 18. Yes, 
I should like very much to make a voyage to Europe. 

Read in German: 2 mat 11 ift 22, 3 mat 12 if* 36, 4 mat 8 ift 32, 5 mat 
9 ift 45, 6 mat 7 ift 42, 7X10 ift 70, 8X11 ift 88, 9X12 ift 108, 10X10 ift 
100, 11X11 ift 121, 12X12 ift 144. Stbbtert 2,342, 25,891 unb 989,346. 
©ubtvatjievt 27,763 Don 31,551. afluttipliciert 591 mit 478. 2)ibibiert 
2,581,640 mit 61. 


1. Wie weit ist es von Hamilton nach Toronto ? 2. Wann 
sind die Tage am kiirzesten ? 3. Wie viel macht das, wenn 
man 337 mit 2 multipliciert ? 4. Wie viele Tage sind in einem 
Jahre ? 5. Wann bekommt ihr Ferien ? 6. Wessen Bleistift 
haben Sie ? 




168. Indefinite Numerals. 
The Indefinite Numerals are : 

1. oU, all 

2. gatlj, whole, all 

3. jeber, ~\ 

4. jcbmcticr, > each (bicfcr Model) 

5. jtgtirfjcr, ) 

6. fchl, none, not one 

' . f .2. ' r some, a few 

8. ttlity,) 

9. mandjc, many 

10. meljrcrc, several 

11. tiiel, much (pi. many) 

12. toenig, little (pi. few) 

13. ettOOS, some \ 

14. gcnug, enough j- (indeclinable) 

15. meljr, more ) 

Remark. — All these, except all and gang, are used as In- 
definite Pronouns (see Less. XXVII). 

169. 1. &fl expresses number as well as quantity, and 
denotes that every individual part of a whole is present. 

2. When declined, it follows the biefer Model, whether 
used with or without a substantive, as : 

aUer £afe ; atle 2Irbett toar toergeblid) ; aHeg 33rot ; 

all [the] cheese ; all labour was useless ; all [the] bread. 

3. Unless used substantively, it always precedes the deter- 
minative word, and then generally remains uninflected in the 
sing., and often in the plur., as : 

I90 LESSON XXIX. [§§169- 

9111 mcin (Mclb, All my money. 
2111(c) meinc $reunbe, All my friends. 

4. When used substantively and preceded by a determin- 
ative word, it still follows the strong declension, as : 

2)iefe§ (bag) afieg, All this (that). 
Set bem attem, With all that. 

5. It is not (as in English) followed by the definite article, 
but may be followed by the demonstrative bcr, bic, ba<S, as : 

2Wcg ©elb, All [the] money. 
3HI(eg) b ©elb, All that money. 
Slttc 9Jtenfcfeen, All [the] men. 
2ltte bic 9ttenfd)en, All those men. 

170. 1. ©ait} expresses quantity, not number, and repre- 
sents an object as complete and undivided, without reference 
to its parts. When therefore the Engl. ' all ' = ' whole ' it 
must be rendered by gatt}, not by all, as : 

I have been working all (the whole) day long, 
%$ \}Ohi ben gondii Stag gearbettet. 

2. ©ait} is declined like an adjective, and always follows 
the determinative word, as : 

3)er ganjc Stag, The whole day. 

SKein ganjeg ©igentum, [The] whole [of] my property. 

3. Before names' of countries and places it may remain un- 
inflected, if unaccompanied by an article, etc., as : 

All (the whole of) America does not belong to the 
United States, ©oil.j (or bag ganje) Slmertfa gebort 
nid)t ju ben SSereinigten Staaten. — But: 

2>ic ganjc ©cbtuetj, All Switzerland. 

171. 1. $cbcr (biefer Model) is used to denote each indi- 
vidual belonging to a whole, as : 

^cber 55aum bat X'tfte, Every tree has branches. 


2. It is sometimes preceded by ein, and then follows the 
mixed adjective declension. £>ebiueber and jeglioher are less 
common forms, used in the same way. 

1 72. ftein is the negative of ein. 

173. 1. (Sintgc (plur., biefer Model) = 'some, a few,' 
denotes a small number taken collectively, and is used with- 
out article, as : 

dinige 3SogeI fonnen ntcfct fingen, Some birds cannot 

3Sor eiltigen ^abren, A few years ago. 

2. It is used in the sing, only before names of materials to 
denote a limited quantity, as : 

^jd> fyabe einigeg ©elb, I have some money (but not 

3. (Stltffjc is a less usual word with the same meaning and 

Note. — gin Boar ' a pair, couple ' (with small ty) is also used in the 
sense of ' a few,' the ein being then indeclinable, as : 
aJiit ein paar X&alern, With a few dollars. 

174. HJlattdjer (biefer Model), 'many(a;,' denotes indefinite 
plurality, as : 

9Rund)cr Sogel fann nicfit fingen, 
Many a bird cannot sing. 

$sd) babz mandjeS Ungliicf gebabt, 
I have had many a misfortune. 

lUiaudjc Seute glauben, Many people believe. 
It may remain uninflected, especially before an adj., as : 
yRcmtytv gutc, or mancb, guter 9ttann. 

175. STOc^rerc =' several, a few,' taken individually, as: 
SRcljrcre Seute rourben franf, Several people became ill. 

192 LESSON XXIX. [§§ 176- 

1 7«. JBicl and ttJCitifl, in the sing., are inflected (biefer 
Model) when they denote number, and uninflected when they 
denote quantity, as : 

Seme ntdbt tnelcg, fonbern titel, Do not learn many 
(a great number of) things, but much (a large 
quantity} . 

They are usually, though not always, declined in the plural. 

Note. — The Engl. ' little ' = ' small ' is rendered by tlcin. 

177. (StltJB§ is used before names of material, etc., in 
the sing., like evnigeS (see § 173, 2, above), of a small quan- 
tity, as : 

(vtttJttS 33rot, Some bread (but not much). 

178. ©CltUQ may precede or follow its substantive, as : 

©elb gemtg, or genug ©elb, money enough. 

Note. — As adverb, it always folloxvs its adjective, as : 

2)a« 53artb ift Tticfct lang gettug, The ribbon is not long enough. 

179. 9Wefjr is the comparative of Diet, and is inde- 
clinable, as : 

%&l babe meljr $reunbe al3 er, 
I have more friends than he. 

180. The Engl, 'some, any' are generally omitted be- 
fore substantives, unless a small quantity {some, but not mucli) 
is denoted (see § 157, above). In answer to a question, without 
a substantive, they are rendered by eimge§ (sing.), ctnige 
(plur.) or toelcb (sing, or plur.), not by ettoal (which = ' some- 
thing'), as: 

£aben ©te ©elb? %fy fyabt ciniges (roeIdbe§). 
§aben ©te ^reunbe? 3d) fyahz ctnige (toelcbe). 



Germ. Model: 

Engl. Analogy 



Strong Verbs: cffcn Model. 

T Pres. Ind. 2. -?. Sing. ) . 

Infin. _ z. 1 Impf. 

Imper. 2. Sing. ) 

cff en iffeft, tfet, tfj fife 



i, ic 



bitten, beg, ask bitteft, btttet, bitte 

effcn, eat (of man) iff eft, ifjt, ifj 
freff en, eat(of beasts) friffeft, frifjt, frif? 


gt(e)bft, gi(e)bt, gi(e)b gab 

bergiffeft, toergifjt, ber; bergafj 

liefeft, Iteft, lie£ lag 

liegft, liegt, Iiegn lag 

miffeft, mtf$t, mtf$ mafj 

genefeft, geneft, genefe genaS 





P. Part. 


geben, give 
(ber)gcffen, forget 

lefen, gather ; read 

liegen, lie down 

meffen, measure 

(ge)nefen (N.), re- 
cover (from illness) 

(ge)fd)eben (N.), 
happen (impers.) 

feben, see fier/ft, fiefyt, fiefy 

fi^cn,sit fifceft, fifct,ftfc(e) 

treten (N. A.), tread trittft, tritt, tritt 

(toefen, N., obsolete), — — — 
to be 

Observe. — 1. The changes from ff to ft ; also 
the Impf. is retained through that whole tense, the 
ing long, as : toir aften, id) afte. 

2. That genefen does not change c into ic. 







gefd)af> gefd^efyen 


that ft of 
vowel be- 

194 LESSON XXIX. [§181 

3. The change in ftt3en of i} into ft and ff. 

4. That the long c of the root is changed into ic, the short 
C into short i. 

5. The inserted q in the P. Part, of effcn (gcflcffen). 

6. The doubling of t in 2. sing., etc., of trctcn, and omission 
of final -t in 3. sing, (tritt). 


to experience, feel, cnrpftnben telegraph, bcr Selegrapb/ 

intend, contemplate, bor'= misfortune, bag Ungliicf 

I)aben world, bie 2Belt 

absence, bie 2Ibrocfenbeit pardon, bie SBcrjetbung 

Francis, $ranj thin, burnt 

century, ba§ ^afyrfmn'bert almost, nearly, beinafye, faft 

cherry, bie $irfd)e immediately, (fo)gleitf) 

province, bie ^rototnj' lately, not long ago, neulid) 

romance, novel, ber 9ioman' late, tycit 

swallow, bie <3cl)roalbe while, toafyrenb 

Idioms: 1. There is, there was, etc. (general statement), ei gitbt, ti gab, 
etc. (obj. in ace. see Less. XXXVII). 
3. To cut. one's hand, fid) in bie Qanb idmcibcit (lit., to cut 
one's self into the hand). 

3. To bed pardon, urn 3Ser$eihunq bitten. 

4. To speak to (with), fpreri)en + ace. of person. 


A. 1. 2)a§ gange 2anb etrtyfmbet ben SSerluft etne§ guten unb 
groften -IRanneS. 2. (£§ gtebt fcr)bne 2}6get, roeld)e gar nicfyi fingen. 
3. 23ttte, geben ©te mir nod) einen Stealer ; id) l)abe nid)t ©elb 
genug. 4. $pt ©eorg ben 2tyfel, ben er gefauft fyat, ober ben= 
jenigen, n>eld;en id) tbm gegeben fyabt? 5. $)er $rembe trat mir 
auf ben $uft, aber gleidt) bat er mid) urn SSerjeibung. 6. 28ab,renb 
£$rer 2lbfr>efenl)eit ftnb mefyrere Scute gefommen, urn ©ie ju 

§i8lj STRONG VERBS . effcn MODEL. 1 95 

fbrecben. 7. ©eorg fagte mir neulid), bafj er $rit} bor einigcn 
Sodden gefeben fyabe. 8. s Jttmm bic^ in 2td)t, bag @ig, roorauf 
bu trittft, ift fefjr biinn. 9. Igd) bitte urn SBerjetbung, baft id) fo 
fbcit gefommen bin. 10. 2Benn bu meinen Dnfel fiefjft, fo fage 
ifym, bitte, bafc id) borfyabe, il>n ju befud)cn. 11. @g liegt ein 
Ionian toon ©ir 2Balter ©cott auf bem Stfd)e ; tefen ©ie ben= 
felben? 12. ©ag ift gefcber/en? SReine fleine ©d)roefter ift auf 
©lag getreten unb bat fid) in ben gaife gefd)nitten. 13. ®iefeg 
Unglud gefcbab, in ben ^erien, unb fie genag fe^>r langfam, roeU 
bag better fo fyeifj roar. 14. (Sine ©cbroalbe mad)tfeinen ©om= 
mer. 15. @in %kx frifjt unb fduft, abcr ein 5Renfd) ifjt unb 
trinft. 16. £)urd) ben Stelegrabfyen bort faft bic ganj;e 2Bclt in 
bier unb jroan^ig ©tunben bon bem, toa$ in trgenb ein em Sanbe 
gefcbiebt. 17. 21I§ ein 9ieid)er aug feinem £aufe fam, bat ir)n 
ein Slrmer um ein roenig ©elb, aber er gab bem 2Irmen feing. 
18. 2)ag ^Sferb beg 9teifenben fraft ein roenig ftcu unb £afer, 
rodbrenb fein §err bag -XRittaggeffen im ©aftbaufe af$. 19. 3)ag 
®inb bat fd)on afleg 58rob unb tfleifa) gegcffen, eg bat aud) atte 
5ftild) getrunfen, bie im ©lafe mar. 20. @incm Stigner roxrb 
nid)t geglaubt, felbft menn er bie 5Bah,rbctt fbrid^t. 

B. \ . The whole of England is not so large as the Pro- 
vince of Manitoba. 2. Henry VIII. of England, Francis I. 
of France, and Charles V. of Germany were the greatest 
monarchs of the i6th century. 3. Where did you find the 
money ? It lay in the grass. 4. Every summer the birds 
eat the cherries in our garden. 5. The sick man lay seven 
weeks in the hospital, but he has now recovered. 6. The 
rich (man) gave the poor (man), who sat before the house, some 
money. 7. This youth has read all the books in the library 
of his father, but unfortunately he forgets just as fast (as) 
he reads. 8. Napoleon I. died on the 5th May 1821 ; he was 
52 years old. 9. Have you forgotten what I told you two 
months ago ? 10. During the rain we sat under a tree and 

LESSON XXX. [§§182- 

told stories. 1 1 . One forgets easily what one reads too quickly. 
12. If you have more paper than you need, please give me 
some. 13. Nineteen hundred years ago the Romans pos- 
sessed almost the whole world. 14. Many young people 
read hundreds of novels, and forget after some time almost 
all they have read. 15. Twenty-five years ago our neighbour 
possessed only a few hundred dollars, but now he is one of 
the richest men in the city. l(j. Speak the truth, whether you 
are believed or not. 


1. Giebt es in Amerika Vogel, die nicht singen ? 2. 1st 
jemand wahrend meiner Abwesenheit gekommen ? 3. Was 
haben Sie meinem Onkel gesagt, als er hier war ? 4. Was 
sagen Sie vom Lesen der Romane ? 5. Welchen Apfel iszt 
Georg? 6. 1st das Telephon eine neue Erfindung? 



verbs: fdjlagcn model. 

182. Derivative Numerals. 

From the Cardinal and Indefinite Numerals are formed the 
following Derivative Numerals : 

(a) By adding -mai, adverbs denoting ' so many times,' 
as : einmal, once ; biermol, four times ; etnunbs 
gtoansigmnl, twenty-one times ; mancfemal, many a 

Notes. — 1. SKol is neuter, hence jcbcKnml, each time; and with 
Indef. Numerals sometimes adds -g, as: rjiclnial(g), mchnnalg. 


2. Gin'mal ='on one (single) occasion,' as: 

3d) Ijnbe ibn nur einmal gefefjen, I have seen him only once. 
Ginmal' (eiutfinalS, einjt) = 'once upon a time,' as: 
G$ roar etnmor cut ftdnig, etc. (Grimm.) 

3. Widjt etn'mol, ' not once,' as : 

Gr tft nid)t cin'mal biev ncroeien, He has not been here once. 
9?id)t einmal (or nidjt mol'), 'i 10t even,' as : 

Gr iff nidjt (ein)mor t)ier geroeien, He has not even been here. 

(£) By adding -faif) or ftiltifl, adjectives denoting 'so 
many fold,' as : etnfad), simple ; jroeifudj (jhriefad)), 
twofold, double ; tnerfttd) (-faltig), quadruple ; biel= 
fad), manmo*)fac&, manifold. 

Note. — Ginfdlttg = 'foolish, silly.' 

(r) By adding — let to the gen. fern. sing, or plur., indecli- 
nable adjectives denoting 'of so many kinds,' as: 
emeriti, of one kind ; bretcrlci, of three kinds ; 
toiderlci, mand)crlci, of many kinds, etc. 

Note. — G8 ift mir einerlei = 'It is (all) the same to me.' 

183. From the Ordinals are formed : 

(a) By adding -1, the fractional Numerals, as : ein 1)nt= 
tel = h ; bas ^iertel, the quarter ; bret B^anu^ftel 
= 3 /2o, etc. 

Notes. — i. These are substantives formed from the ordinal -(- Xeii 
(= part), and are therefore neuter, thus : 

Taz Xvittet = baS britte Xeil, 'the third part," etc. 

2. 'Half as substantive = Bie ftulftc ; as adjective or adverb = I) ( 
which is declined like emit} (see § 170, 2), as : 

3d) fjabc oie &iVte meines Gigentumfc uerlorcn, 
I have lost half (of) my property. 
1)er ftnabc wat baib tot, ale man ibti fanb, 
The boy was half dead when he was f' 

mX LESSON XXX. I§§ 183 

galb SBaffjington, or bad Ijalbc SBaftington, 
(The) half (of) Washington. 
§016 or bad l)albc ^riliifveici), half France; but 
$ie halbe @d)tvjci}, half Switzerland. 

(6) By adding -Ijalb, Mixed Numbers with the Fraction 
'half,' as: brittefjalb =2} ; uiertefyalb 3JieiIen, three 
miles and a half ; fuufteljalb ©lien, four and a half 

Remarks. — 1. Observe that the ordinal is one higher than 
the cardinal of the Engl, idiom ; thus ' two and-a-half ' is a 
number consisting of three parts, of which the first and second 
parts are wholes, but the third is only a half, hence txittl- 

2. 1? = anbertf/alb (not jtoettebalb ; see § 166, 1, Note), as: 

9tnbcrtbalb $lafd)en (pi.), A bottle and a half. 

3. These are invariable adjectives. 

(7) By adding -en?, ordinal adverbs denoting in what 
place or order, as : 

er[tcit6, firstly ; jroettettg, secondly ; brittettB, thirdly, 

184. Expressions of Time. 

1. Both point and duration of time are expressed by the 
Accusative without a preposition, as : 

%tXi erften ^anuar, (On) the first of January. 

(ir lam letjtett Stftontag an, He arrived last Monday. 

%6) roar letjtc 2Hod)e Irani, I was ill last week. 

3d) ft>ar einc gartje 2Boa)e Irani, I was ill (for) a whole 

2. Point of time is also expressed : 


(a) By the preposition ait with the Dat. (always contracted 
with the article), of date, as : 

&m erften ^anuar, On the first of January. 
$fat Sonntag, On Sunday. 

Sfal 9Jiorgen btefes Xage3, On the morning of this 

(&) By the Genitive case, with 3JQ0,, days of the week, or 
divisions of the day, when denoting indefinite time 
or habitual action, as : 

$cg Sagcg, In the day time, by day. 
©onrttagS, On Sundays. 
(2>CS) 2lbenbg, In the evening. 

2. The Time of Day is thus expressed : 

(a) The quarters of the hour, with reference to the 
following hour (not the past hour, as partly in 
English), thus : 

It is a quarter past twelve = @§ tft (em) SStertel ouf 
tini (i. e., one quarter towards, or on the way to, 

It is half past twelve = Gs tft fjalb einS (i. e., half 

It is a quarter to one = Gs tft bret SSiertel ouf etn§ (i. e., 
three quarters towards one). 

(b~) The minutes past by nad), as : G§ tft jtoanjig 5Jitnuten 
nad) jtoei, It is twenty minutes past two. 
The minutes to by bor, as : 3ehn 9Jftnuten toor bret, ten 
minutes to three. 

(c) at = um ; o'clock = Utjr, as : 
Utn etn Uljr, At one o'clock. 

200 LESSON XXX.' (§§184 

Um tin SSiertel ouf fiinf Ubr, At a quarter past four 

@§ tft brci 33iertel auf fiinf (Ufyr), It is a quarter to five 


@6 Ijdt fed)§ (Ufyr) gcfdjlagcn, It has struck six (o'clock). 

Note. — The impersonal Verb 'to be,' in expressing the time of the 
day, is always singular, as in English. 

185. Expressions of Quantity. 

1. A substantive expressing Quantity (Measure, Weight 
or Number), if Masculine or Neuter, regains the form of 
the singular, as : 

SSier unb jroanjig $ofl macfyen $toei ££uft, 24 inches make 

two feet. 
3toei ipfuttb, Two pounds, 
^aufenb SKann, A thousand men. — But : 
3roei ^lafcfcctt (fem.), Two bottles. 
3h)6lf (gHcu (fem.), Twelve yards. 

2. The substantive, the quantity of which is expressed, is 
generally put in apposition with that expressing the quan- 
tity, as : 

3fr>ei 33ud) fattier, Two quires of paper. 

SDrettaufcnb 3Rcmn ^nfotltcric, Three thousand infantry 

$unf ©la3 93icr, Five glasses of beer. 
■JJttt Jtoei %aax ©d)uben (dat.), With two pairs of shoes. 

3. But if a determinative word precedes the substantive 
measured, etc., use the Gen. case, or Don with Dat., as : 

3d) babe fecbS ^funb biefcS guten 3ucfer& (or : toon biefem 
guten Rufox) gefauft. 

1 86] 

strong verbs : fcbjagen model. 


4. The measure (of weight, distance, etc.) is put in the 
accusative, as : 

liefer 33Ier[tift ift nur eincn ^oii lang, 
This lead-pencil is only an inch long. 

3cf> babe einc ganje SJieile (ace.) marfebieri, 
I have been marching a whole mile. 

3)iefe3 ^Safet' miegt ein balbca ^]funb (ace), 
This parcel weighs half-a-pound. 


Germ. Model : 
Engl. Analogy 
Ablaut : 

Strong Verbs: fdjfagen Model. 

Ixfin. Pr. Ind. 2. 3. sing. Impf. P. Part. 

fdjtagen fdblogft, fdjliigt frf)tug gefcblagen 

.■ slay wanting slew slain 

batfen (W. N. A.), bake 
fabrcn (N. A.), ride (in 

a conveyance), drive 
graben, dig 

laben (W.), invite ; load 
fd)affen, create 
fcfylagen, strike 
tragen, carry 
toaebjen (N.), grow 
toafd)en, wash 

Also the irregular : 
fteljen, stand 


btitfft, bdeft 
fdbrft, fdljrt 

grdbft, grdbt 
lobft, Idbt 

febaffft, febafft 
fcbldgft, fcbldgt 
trdgft, tragi 
toaebfeft, h)dd)ft 
rodfcr)eft, todfebt 

ftebft, ftebt 

and the usually weak : 

fragen, ask 

( frdgft, frdgt 
{ fragft, fragt 





Iftanb I 

f™9 j 
fragte j 














Remarks. — i. 33acfen is usually weak in the Impf. (bacfte), 
but strong in the P. Part, (gebacfen). Observe also the single 
f in Impf. 

2. g-abren is conjugated with fetn when intr., with f/aben 
when trans. 

3. ©diaffen 'to work' and (Der)fd)affen 'to procure' are 
weak. Observe the single f in the Impf. 


to set out, depart, leave, ab'= 

rise, auf'fteben 
invite, etn'laben 
understand, uerfteben 
dine, ju s 3Jitttag effen 
go for a drive, fpajteren f ab, ren 
absence, bte 2lb'roefenb ett 
little tree, bag 33dumd)en 
dozen, ba£ SDut/enb 
yard, bte GUe 
multiplication-table, ba£ @in= 

thread, ber Jaben * 
driving, ba§ gabren 
driver, coachman, ber &utf cber 
hole, ba§ 2ocb 
night, bte -ftadbt* 

minute-hand, ber 5Hinuten= 

pound, ba-S ^funb 
post-office, bte ^o[t 
riding, bas 9ietten 
sentence, ber <Sa§ * 
hour-hand, ber Stunbenjetger 
cup, bte Xafje 
tea, ber £f;ee 
clock, watch, bte Ubr 
train, ber $ug * 
two weeks, a fortnight, bier= 

jebn Sage 
then, banrt 
early, friib 

slow, slowly, langfam 
at least, luenigftenS 
first, first of all, juerft 

Idioms: 1. The Boston train, 3>trr Jug J „ ac j) 33oft*>n- 

2. What time (o'clock) is it ? 25$te oiel Ubr if* ti 1 


A. 1. gin bretfacher (yaben bncbt ntcbt tetdjt. 2. SDer^utfcber 
fdbrt fo langfam, bafj rotr nicbt bor bret SBiertel auf jroolf an= 
fommen roerben. 3. ^n ber etnert .*pdlfte ber 23elt tft e3 2ag, 

§ i86] strong verbs : fd)lagen model. 203 

rodbrenb es in ber anbern irmlfte s Jiad)t ift. 4. 28a<§ gtebt e§ fyeute 
9ieue§? 5. 2Be3balb fyaben ©ie mtd) geftern nid)t befud;t? 
(Srfteng roeil es regnete, unb jroeitens^roeil id) felbft 33efud) batte. 
6. 2)u fyaft gut gelefen, lies nod) einen ©at*. 7. 2Bie toiel toiegen 
Sie? ^d) roiege ungefdbr (ntnbert unb fiinfjig ^Bfunb. 8. 2)er 
3ug !ommt urn brei SSiertel auf neun an unb fabrt unt fteben 
5Kinuten nad) jerm ab. 9. £aben ©ie 3&« Ub,r bet ficb? $a, 
aber bie geber ift gebrodjen. 10. ;$d) fyato jroet 2)ut>enb ©lafer 
beftellt, aber fie finb nod) nid>t angefommen. 11. 2Sir baben 
unfere SSettern eingelaben, ludbrenb ber ^erien bterjefm £age bei 
un§ jujubringen. 12. 2Sir effcn im Sommer urn r/alb jroei ju 
9Jtvttag. 13. $>d) tviirbe gem mit ;Jbnen fpajieren fabren, h)enn 
©ie mid) einliiben. 14. £er i^unb oerbarg ben $nod)en in ein 
Sod), roelcbes er b, inter bem Slpfelbaum grub. 15. 35ie 3Jiagb 
ftebt frub (bee) s 3florgens auf, rodfd)t bie &leiber unb bddt 33rot. 
16. ^obann ift ein fel)r einfdltiger &nabt ; er r)at nod) nid)t bas" 
CJinmaleinS gelernt. 17. 2Bie biel Ut)r h>ar e<S, al3 ber 9Rinuten= 
jeiger auf fed)€ unb ber ©tunbenjeiger §roifd)en brei unb bier 
ftanb? 18. Xer Sauer frug ben 9?eifenben, roie toiel Ufyr es~ fei 
(roare), unb biefer jog feine Ubr aus ber ;£afd)e unb fagte ib/tn, eS 
fei balb ems: 19. Stbbiere brei SJiertel, toier ©iebentel, neun 
£>retjebntel unb elf ^roanjigftel ; rote rnel ift (mad)t) bas? 20. £)er 
£unb toiirbe ben ftnaben gleicb beiften, roenn berfelbe ifm fd)liige. 
21. ©eben ©ie jur GJefeUfcbaft ber Jrau 85. ? 22. 3d) bin nid)t 
eingelaben ; mein Sruber limrbe eingelaben, aber id) nid)t. 

B. 1. In six days God created Heaven and earth. 2. The 
patient drank two glasses of wine and three cups of tea yester- 
day. 3. This silly boy has not even understood what I said 
to him. 4. Here is good, strong cloth ; it costs two and a 
half dollars a (the) yard. 5. This tree grows quickly; it is 
at least four times as high as it was three years ago. 6. This 
exercise is very easy; we shall have finished (with) it in half 
an hour. 7. The dealer showed us manv kinds of ribbon, 

204 LESSON XXXI. [§ 187 

red, blue, yellow, etc. 8. Which do you prefer, (the) riding 
or (the) driving ? It is all the same to me. 9. Please tell 
me what time it is ? It is exactly thirteen minutes after eleven. 
10. It is nine o'clock, for the hour-hand is (stands) at (auf) nine 
and the minute-hand at twelve. 11. These three school-boys 
bought themselves a melon, which weighed almost five 
pounds. 12. The coachman drove first to the post-office 
and then to the bank. 13. Between April and September 
the little tree grew a foot and a half. 14. Precisely at five 
o'clock the Boston train left, and at 9.45 we arrived. 15. 
Was this house built before you came here ? 16. Add 31 /4o, 
«/ 61 and %. 


1. Wie viel macht drittehalb, fiinftehalb und neuntehalb ? 
2. Um wie viel Uhr kommt der Zug von Boston an ? 3. Was 
sagte der Reisende, als der Bauer ihn fragte, wie viel Uhr es 
sei? 4. Wie viel Uhr ist es nach IhrerUhr? 5. Wie viele 
Satze hast du schon gelesen ? 6. Ist jemand wahrend meiner 
Abwesenheit gekommen ? 


187. Adverbs. 

Adverbs may be arranged according to their meaning as 
follows, with examples of the simpler and more commonly oc- 
curing ones under each class : 

I. Time. 

(a) Past: neulid), the other day, lately 

bamalS, at that time ijor'geftern, the day before 

ebcn, just, just now yesterday 

ge'ftern, yesterday toother', before 

Si8 7 j 



(b) Present: 
fyeute, to-day 

nun, ) 

(c) Future: 

balb, soon 
fyemacb/, afterwards 
tnorgen, to-morrow 
nad)l)er', afterwards 
nimmer, nevermore 
ii'bermorgen, the day after to- 

(d) Interrogative: 
hxrnn? when? 

(e) General : 
bann, then (past or fut.) 
einft, once upon a time (past) ; 

some day (fut.) 
enblich, at last 
erft, only (not sooner than) 
(fo)gleicb, at once, directly 

'' ' \ in the meanwhile 
unterbeffen, J 

unmer, always, at all times 

je(mal§), ever, at any time 

nie(mabB), never, at no time 

nocfy, still, yet 

oft (male), often 

fcfyon, already 

felten, seldom, rarely 

(a) Demonstrative: 

^ ', <*r r there, in that place 
bafelbft, ) 

(ba)bin, thither, to that place 

bort, there, in that place 

(ba)ber, thence, from that 


bier, here, in this place 

bie(r)ber, hither, to this place 

II. Place and Direction. 

(b) Negative: 
nirgenbS, nowhere 

(c) Interrogative and 
Relative : 
too, where, in what place 
toobin, whither, to what place 
roober, whence, from what 


audb, also, ever 
ctltm, about, nearly 

(d) General: 
ir'genbtoo, anywhere 
liberal!', everywhere 

III. Measure and Degree. 

r nearly, 


206 LESSON XXXI. [§§ 187 

J ., °' \ wholly, altogether . , 
ganjltcfy, I ' b febr, very 

gat, at all, very fo, so 

genug, enough ungcfdbr, about 

gerabe, just, exactly iiberbaupt', generally 

faum, hardly, scarcely, no rote ? how ? 

sooner ju, too 

nocb, still, more jiemlitf, tolerably 

IV. Affirmation. 

\a, yes ; to be sure geftnfi, certainly 

jatoobl, certainly natur'lid), of course 

frcilicb, to be sure, indeed hrirflicfy, to be sure, indeed 

fiirtoabr, truly, really jttmr, it is true, certainly 

V. Negation, 
ncin, no nicfit, not 

VI. Possibility. 

etroa, | h>abrfdjemticb, probably 

toieUeicbt, } perhapS tootf, perhaps 

VII. Necessity. 

aflerbing§, certainly burd&auS/ absolutely, entirely 

VIII. Cause. 

baber, ) roarum, ) wherefore, why 

lb, j (ir 

barum, >- therefore roeobalb, j (interrog. or rel.j 

beSbalb, ) 

Note. — These last, as well as many of the others, are also used as 
Conjunctions. See Less. XL. 

1 88] 



188. Strong Verbs: fallen Model. 

Infin. Pr. Ind. 2. 3. Sing. Impf. P. Part. 

(same as Inf.) 

Germ. Model: fallen faffft, fdllt fid 

Engl. Analogy : fall wanting fell 

Ablaut: a d ic 1 

(Note. — This is only a seeming Ablaut ; see § 192, Rem. 4.) 



blafen, blow 

bldfeft, bldft 



braten, roast (tr. and intr 

.) brdtft, brat 



fatten (N.), fall 

fcillft, fdtlt 



fangen, catch 

fdngft, fdngt 



balten, hold 

tydltft, b.dlt 



bangen, hang 

Ejdngft, fydngt 



bauen, hew 

fyaueft, b,aut 



beifjen, bid ; be called 

beifjeft, fyeifet 



laffen, let 

laijeft, lafet 



lattfen (N. A.), run 

laufft, Iduft 



raten, advise (gov. dat. 

) rdtft, rat 



rufen, call 

rufft, ruft 



fcblafen, sleep 

fcbjdfft, ftf)ldft 



ftofjen, push 

ftofeeft, ftofjt 



Also the irregular : 

geljen (N.), go 

gef>eft, geb,t 



Remarks. — 1. Observe in braten, balten, raten the con- 
tracted forms of the 3. sing. Pres. Ind. 

2. fangen is the strong verb (bieng, gefyangen) and is proper- 
ly intr. (= 'to be suspended); r/Sngen is weak (bdngte, 
gebdngt) and trans., but the distinction is not strictly ob- 

208 LESSON XXXI. [§ 188 

3. Observe that beifjen and ftofsen, having the root vowel 
long, retain fj throughout ; whereas laffen varies according to 
rule, thus : id; laffe, gelaffen, but er laftt, Ucfj, fair liefjen. 


to begin, commence, an'fangen man-of-all-work, (farm-) ser- 

receive, get, erbalten vant, bcr ^necbt 

please, gefallen beef, ba<S 9ttnbfleifd7 

leave, leave behind, laffen skate, ber ©cfrUtt'fcbufy 

skate, ©d)Ittt'fd;ub (au'fen skating, ba§ ©cblitt'fcbutjlaufen 

kick, strike, bump, ftofsen bacon, ber <&pz& 

cut down, um'bauen language, bie ©pracbe 

butter, bie Sutter study, ba3 ©tubtum 

play-mate, ber ©eftnele last, preceding, bong 
mouse, bie 9Jiau§* 

Idioms: 1. What is the name of? 2Bie bei#t? 

2. What is your name? 2Bic het#eii <2te ? 

3. My name is Henry, 3d) beffte ^cinrid). 

4. I think highly of him (i. e., esteem, value him highly), 
3d) holtc oiel 0011 ihiu. 

5. How do you do ? (How are you ?) SBie gef>t ti 3b "e 11 ? 

6. He has not been here for a long time, (St if* lange nn1>t 
bier geroefen ((*r if* :iid)t hinge bier geioefen = He has not 
been here long). 


A. 1. gjltt ©beef fdngt man s IRdufe. 2. ®er ®nabt fiel, aU 
er ©cbtittfdmb lief, unb ftiefj ftcb ben ®obf aufS @t§. 3. @in 
fdilafenber $ud)3 fdngt fein £ufm. 4. ^m £erbft bldft ber 2Btnb 
fait, unb bfcift burcfe ben 2Balb. 5. @ffen, trinfen unb fdbfafen, 
bei^t (ift) ba§ leben ! 6. %m 2Btnter fcfyldft man getnobnlid) longer 
aU im ©ommer. 7. Wlan Idfjt jetjt bie $enfter offen, benn ba§ 
SBettcr ift inarm geroorben. 8. $cb. laufe nid)t gem <Sd) littf fyufy, 
aber metne ©efbielen ftnb grofje ^reunbe babon. 9. Die -DJagb 
ging jum Saben unb faufte bret ^funb £l?ee, jto« $funb Sutter, 

§ 188] STRONG VERBS : fallen MODEL. 20g 

jeljn s J$funb fta&zx unb jtoei 'Jlafcbcn s #ier. 10. 2>ort ftanb ber 
33aum, ben ber $ned)t neulid; umgebaucn l>at. 1 1 . ©agen ©ie 
mir, iuofyin ©ie borgeftern gingen, oI§ id; ©ie in ber ^onigSftrafje 
traf. 12. £)er ©djiiler lief? feine 33ud;er ju £>aufe, aber er ift 
gleid; nad; £aufe gclaufen unb bat biefelben gcbolt. 13. 23ortge 
2Bocbe erbielt meine ©cbroefter eincn 33ricf Don ibrcr #reunbtn ; 
faft jebe SBocfee erbalt fie cinen. 14. Dicfelbe febrieb, bafj fie ben 
ganjen 2Binter in Lofton jubringen nn'trbe, ioenn e§ if>r bafelbft 
gefiele. 15. £>er 2Binb blie§ ben £ag fo Ijiefttg, baft ©eorgi $ater 
ibm riet, nidjt aufg 2Baffer ju gefyen. 16. $d) bitte urn )8a- 
geifmng, baft id) ©ie fo lange allein gelaffcn Ijabe. 17. £)a§ 
franfe $inbroiirbe beffer gefcblafen baben, roennbie anbern $inber 
roeniger Sarm gemacbt fatten. 18. 93or jroanjig 2>abren bing ba§ 
33ilb meine§ 3Sater§ an ber 2Banb iiber bem $amin, unb es fyangt 
nod) immer ba. 19. 2Benn er nid)t fo frith gegangen rodre, fo 
r/citte idf> tfyn jum 5Rittag§effen eingelaben. 20. ©uten Sftorgen, 
$rau 33ett ; Vote gebt ee 3>bnen? 21. @§ gefyt mir gang gut ; roie 
gebt e§ $l)rer $amilte? 22. $riebricb II. toon ^reuften rourbe 
griebrtd; ber ©rofte genannt. 

B. 1. My father speaks German almost as well as English. 
2. Good evening, my little friend ; how do you do ? 3. I have 
not seen you for a long time. 4. A cold, cutting wind blew 
through the open window. 5. When I was young, I liked 
to skate. 6. Do you like (to eat) beef ? 7. It was a quarter 
past eight when the concert began. 8. That horse kicks ; 
take care. 9. At what o'clock will you be at home ? I shall 
not be at home before half past ten. 10. When we were 
going home, we met our friends, who were coming out of 
church. 1 1 . What is the name of the long street, which runs 
from King Street towards^natfjfthe north ? 12. My friend, of 
whom I thought so highly, died in his nineteenth year. 13. In 
September we began to learn German, and the study of that 
language pleases us very much. 14. A lost child was crying 


upon the street, and calling after its mother. 15. Some one 
asked it what its name was. 16. The poor child answered 
that its name was William, and that it lived in Frederick- 
Street. 17. I wrote to my cousin a month ago, but I think 
he is angry, for the letter has not yet been answered. 


1. Was ist geschehen, wahrend die Knaben Schlittschuh 
liefen ? 1. Weshalb sind diese Fenster often gelassen worden ? 
3. Was kaufte die Magd auf dem Markte ? 4. Weshalb ist 
der Schiiler so schnell nach Hause gelaufen ? 5. Wann haben 
Sie Nachricht von Ihrem Bruder erhalten ? 6. Sprechen 
Sie Deutsch ? 





189. Formation of Adverbs. 

1. From Adjectives (including most adverbs of manner): 

(a) Most adjectives may be used without change as 
adverbs, as : 

@r Itiuft fanned, He runs quickly. 

(b) By adding -Udj (Engl, -ly), sometimes with Um- 
laut, as : 

freilid), of course, to be sure neulidj, lately, the other day 
giin^id), entirely fcfytoerlid), hardly, scarcely 

ftirjltd), recently 

Also to participles, as : 
fyoffentlitf), it is to be hoped hnffentlid), knowingly 




(< •) By adding -lings, as. 

blinblinge, blindly 

(d) By adding -§, -cng, as : 
anberS, otherwise linfg, to (on) the left 

bercitg, already 
befonberg, especially 

recbtg, to (on) the right 
iibrigcng, moreover 

Also to participles, as : 

eilenbs, hastily 

2. From Substantives, by the use of the genitive case 
(sometimes with article;, to express : 

(a) Time, as : 

abenbg (or beg 2tbenbg), in the 

morgeng 'or beg 5Rorgensj, in 

the morning 

{b) Manner, as : 
flugg. in haste 

nacbtg (or bc§ 9torf>t§), by 
night (anomalous, "ftacbt 
being fern.) 

anfangg, in the beginning 

tetlg, in part 

3. From Prepositions, by adding -en, sometimes with b(a)r- 
prefixed, as : 

aufccn, ) outside, out of 
braufcen, ) doors 

mnen, ) ^, lthi ^ in . doors 
rtnncn, ) 

born(e), before 
obcn, above 
untcn, below 
briiben, over there 

bintcn, behind 

Note. — Prepositions in composition with verbs are really adverb* 
(also the particles ab, ein, empov, meg, uiriicf). 

4. By combination. For these see Part III. 

212 LESSON XXXII. l§§ «9<> 

li>0. Comparison of Adverbs. 

i. Some adverbs are compared, as: 

, \ soon cber nm cbcften 
ctyc, J 

oft, often ofter am bftcften 

gem, willingly Hebcr am liebften {different root) 

J™* 1 ' J well fteffer am beften ( " " ) 

2. Adjectives are used as adverbs in the comparative, as 
in the positive, without change, as : 

@r lauft ftfmcflcr ate fein 33ruber, 

He runs more quickly than his brother. 

3. In the superlative degree, the form with am is used for 

the relative superlative (see §§ 127, 2, and 128), as: 

@r lauft am fajncflflen toon alien, 
He runs most quickly of all. 

4. The absolute superlative (see § 127, 2) is usually formed 
by prefixing an adverb of eminence (such as febr, bod) ft, 
aufjerft, etc.), as: 

@r fdbmbt du^erft fd)bn, 

He writes most (i. e., very) beautifully. 

5. Adverbs from adjectives in -ig, -Ho), -fttlll use the un- 
infected form for the superlative absolute, as : 

@r Itifct freunbltdjft griifeen, 

He desires to be most kindly remembered. 

Also a few monosyllables, as : Itingft, long ago ; bod)fl, 
most highly. 

6. The superlative absolute may also be expressed by auf 
000 (aufs) prefixed to the superlative adjective, to express 
the highest possible degree, as : 




@r beforgt feme ©efrfidfte auf has (auf§) ©eh>iffen(?aftcflc, 
He attends to his business in the most conscientious 
manner (possible). 

7. A few superlative adverbs end in -en3, with special 
meanings, as : 

bocbfteni, at most 
metftcnS, for the most part 
roenigftciiS, at least 
nacbftctts, shortly 
Also the ordinal adverbs, erftene, etc., see § 183, (V). 


Position of Adverbs. 

Adverbs generally precede the word they modify (except 
genug, see § 178, Note). 

For further particulars as to their position in the sentence, 
see § 45, Rule 5. 

102. Table of Classification of Strong Verbs. 












Infin. Impf. 

P. Part. 

2. 3. sing. 
2.s. Imp. 













if, etc. 

1 b 




1 a 












C, etc. 



e, etc. 
















t, te 





same as 













214 XXXII [§§198- 

Remarks. — i. The Umlaut of classes VI., VII. does not 
occur in the Imperative. 

2. The varying vowels of the Imperf. Subj. are given in 
the lists, where necessary. 

3. The English Analogies printed in Italics are incomplete. 

4. The vowel-change of class VII. is not an Ablaut, 
but the result of reduplication. 

5. The lists of the various classes contain only the verbs of 
common occurrence ; all others will be found in App. L. 

193. Distinguish between the verbs of the following 
groups : 

( bitten, beg, ask bat gebetcn 

(a) 1 bcten, pray (intr.) betete gebetct 
( bieten, bid, offer hot geboten 

/ (icgen, lie (be recumbent, intr.) log gelegcr. 

(b) ■} legen, lay (trans.) legtc getegi 

( liigen, lie, tell a falsehood lag gelogcn 

/ gicben, pull (trans. ). move (intr.) jog gegogen 

(c) ) jciben, accuse jicb ge^teben 
( jcigen, show jetgte gejetgt 

194. Remember the irregularities of : 

efjen (P. Part, gegeffen) fteljen, ftano (or ftunb), ge= 

bauen(Impf. bteb) ftanben 

geljen, gina,, gegaitflen jie^en, jog, gejogen 

Also the double forms in the Impf. of : 
beben (r/ub, bobi fdnuoren (fa^rour, fdbroor) 

Note. — There are a few strong P. Parts, from verbs now otherwise 

weak, as: g etna h ten, from mabfen, to grind (impf. mahftc) ; flefofgcn, 
from [at jen, to salt (Impf. ialtfc); gefpatten, from (patten, to split (Impi_ 
fpattcte) ; also some strong participles used only as adjectives, viz. : 




ertyabcn (from erljebnu, exalted, sublime 
bejcfjeibet' | " bejd)eiben), modest 
oerrcorren ( " bctmirren), confused 


to wind up (a clock, etc.), 

pass (an examination), be= 

greet, salute, griifsen 
go (or be) too slow (of a 

clock, etc.), nacb'geb, en 
run after, nacf/laufen (+ dat.) 
cry, rufen 
go (or be) too fast (of a 

clock, etc.), toor'gefyen 
command, ber Sefeb,! 
visit, visitors, ber 33efud) 

examination, bae ©ramen 

kitchen, bie Riicfje 

place, spot, bie ©telle 

employed, busy, befcf/tiftigt 

then (conj.), benn 

hungry, bungrtg 

left, linf 

right, red)t 

salt adj.), gefaljen 

in spite of, trstj (-f-gen.) 

improbable, untt)ahrfd)etnltd) 

like, roie 

Idioms : 1 . I saw your friend to-day ; he wishes to be remembered 
to you, 3d) babe beute 3bren ~$rrunt gefcbcn ; er lii&t 3fe 
2. How do you like Boston ? SBie gefaflt ti 3hneti in Soften ? 


A. 1. ©eht ^x)xt Ubr bor, ober gebt fie nadj? 2. Sie gebt 
ganj ricbtig. 3. £aben Sie ^bxt VO)x aufgejogen? 4. ©in 
Hemes 9Kabd)en fragte, toie toiel \Xi)x es fei. 5. (Jin £>err jog 
fetne Ub,r au3 ber £afcbe unb jetgte fie bem &inbe nut ben 
■JBorten: „<Sage bu mir felbft, hne Diet Ul)r e3 ift." 6. 2Bo ftnb 
beine ©d)toeftern ? Dearie ift oben in ber 33tbttotf) el unb ©opfyie 
ift unten in ber £ucbe. 7. 2fnfang§ toobnten roir nid)t gem in 
biefer ©trcrfje, aber jetjt gefdllt unS biefelbe gang gut. 8. ^db 
glaube, toir toerben einen beifcen ©ommer fyaben; h>a§ meinen 
©ie? 9. 3Me meiften 2eute effen lieber frifd)es Jleifcb alS ge= 

2l6 LESSON XXXI i. [§§ 194- 

faljeneS. 10. Zxo% be3 33efebl§ be§ £6nig3 betete Daniel jeben 
£ag breimal. 1 1 . s )Jleine 3:aute, bic in SBerlin toobnt unb beren 
33ruber ©ie fennen, ift fel?r Iran!. 12. ©rtifeen ©ie freunbltcbft 
$bre ©Item fiir mid), toettn ©ie nacr) ."gaufe fommen. 13. ^offent; 
ltd; hrirb $rit} fein ©jreunen gut befteben, benn er bat aufS getoiffen- 
baftefte ftubtert. 14. (Sr toirb e§ fd^n?erltcf) befter)en, ba er erft 
fcit jtoci £$abrcn in ber ©djule ift. 15. £)er lugt, toclcber 
toiffentlid) eine Untoabrbeit fagt. 16. $d) effe gem gebrateneS 
^linbffeifd), befonberS toenn icr) red^t bungrig bin. 17. SHecbts 
bon ber ©cbule ftetjt eine £ircbe, Iinf§ ftebt ber gjtarft. 18. 2Bir 
baben lieber abenbl 33efudt) aU morgenS, benn morgenS finb toir 
getoobnlid) befebaftigt. 19. SDiefeS $inb roirb nad)ften3 franl 
toerben, benn e§ bat feit brei Stagen faft gar nidjtS gegeffen. 20. 
@3 ftanb friiber eine $ird}e auf ber ©telle too toir ietjt finb, aber 
fie ift fdjon langft t>erfd)tounben. 21. 3Son toem tourbe bie 
®trdje gebaut, toobon ©ie tyred)en? 22. °§ti) toeifs e§ nidjt, e§ ift 
mir nie gefagt toorben. 

B. 1. Please show me the way to the post-office. 2. If 
George is up-stairs, tell him that I am down-stairs. 3. I do not 
like London ; I prefer to live in a smaller city. 4. The pen 
still lies on the book upon which I laid it. 5. Please tell me 
who lives over the way. 6. This boy has been stung by a 
bee. 7. Of all animals the horse runs quickest. 8. Give 
me what you have in your (the) left hand. 9. Lessing died 
on the fifteenth of February 1781. 10. The soldiers ran 
blindly into the battle and fought like lions. 11. The train 
for (nacb) Montreal leaves (ab'fabren) at twelve o'clock at 
night, and arrives in Montreal at ten o'clock in the morning. 
12. A little beggar ran after a gentleman, and asked him for 
some money. 13. 'My father is dead,' cried he, 'my mother 
is dead, and all her children are dead ! ' 14. ' Who are you 
then?' asked the gentleman. 15. What answer was given to 
the beggar by the gentleman, when he was asked for money? 



1. Was wiirden Sie sagen, wenn ich Sie fragte, wie viel 
Uhr es sei? 2. Gefallt Ihnen die Strasze, worin Sie jetzt 
wohnen ? 3. Hat Fritz sein Exanien gut bestanden ? 4. Wo 
ist meine Feder ? 5. Was fur Sprachen haben Sie studiert ? 
6. Glauben Sie, dasz der Herr dem Bettler etwas ge- 
geben hat ? 


195. Idiomatic Uses of Certain Adverbs. 
1. nun, well. 

9lun, e§ tft mir einerlei, 
Well (why), it is all the same to me. 
Note. — jJhllt is here really an interjection, and hence does not throw 
the subject after the verb. 

2. cbcn, just, exactly. 
SDa§ tft cbcn berfelbe s Diann, 
That is the very (exactly the) same man. 

2Btr finb (fo)cbcn cmgefommen, We have just arrived. 
2)a§ farm man cbcn nid)t fagen, One cannot exactly say 


3. gem, licbcr, am (icbftcn. 
$d) effe gem $ifd), I am fond of (eating) fish. 
3d) effe licbcr gifd) aU gleifd), I prefer (eating) fish to 


6r tourbe e§ gem tbun, He would be glad to do it. 
would do it with pleasure. 

9Beld)e ©brad)e fprcdjen 6ie am Hcbftcn ? 
Which language do you prefer (speaking)? 


4. crft, first, only, not before, etc. 
Wan mufj crft benfen, bann fptcd;en, 
One must think first and then speak. 

Weill ©ruber tnirb crft morgen fommen, 

My brother will not come before to-morrow. 

2Bir fatten crft jtoci O.Ueilen marfdiiert, 
We had only marched two miles. 

gjlein 33ruber ift crft ^nxi ^abre alt, 

My brother is only (not more than) two years old. 

5. juctft, first of all; for the first time. 

2)iefe3 <Sd)iff ift juerft (t>or alien anbern) im £afen ange^ 

fommen, This ship arrived in the harbour first 

(i. e., before any other). 
!gd) toerbe juerfi (or crft) jum Sd)neiber, bann jum33ud)= 

banbler geben, I shall go first (of all) to the tailor's, 

then to the bookseller's. 

3d) babe ibn geftern jucrft (sum erften 9Jtal) gefefyen, I 
saw him for the first time yesterday. 

NOTE. — $UCrft refers to time only, as above; crftcilS = ' firstly, in the 
first place,' refers to order only, as in enumerations, thus : 

3d) tomite nidjt fommen, erften?, roeil e8 refmete, jtoettcttS, roeit 
id) rraaf mar, I could not come, first (in the first place) be- 
cause it rained, secondly, because I was ill. 

6. jctjon, already, as early as, etc. 
©inb 2>ie frijon ba? Are you there already? 
3ft 2>br 53ruber fitjan in $ranfreicb getoefen ? 
Has your brother ever been in France ? 

^d) bin fdjon brei Stage in ber ©tabt, 

I have been in the city for the last three days. 

$)a£ ©duff ift fdjon geftern angefommen, 
The ship arrived (as early as) yesterday. 


Qx roirb jrfjon fommen, He will be sure to come (he 
will come, no doubt). 

Note. — @rf)0ll is often, as in the fourth of the above sentences, to be 
left untranslated in English. 

7. nod), y et » stiU, more. 

(a) Of Time: 

©inb ©ic nod) bier? Are you still here? 

%$ bin nod) nie in 3)eutfcr)lanb geroefen, 
I have never yet been in Germany. 

@r tear nod) Dor enter (Stunbe bier, 
He was here only an hour ago. 

9h)d) beute, Even to-day (while it is yet to-day, not 
later than to-day). 
Note. — Observe that nod) precedes the negatives nte, rticht, etc. 

(b) Of Number : 

Ulodj eine Saffe £bee, Another cup of tea. 

Wlofy jroei, Two more. 

9h)d) (ein)mal fo biel, As much again. 

8. bod), yet, after all. 

(a) Adversative : 

@r roirb bod)' fommen, He will come after all (em- 
phasis on bod)). 

@r roirb bod) fommen', He will come, I hope (emphasis 
on fommen). 

feahz id) e§ Syrmen bod) gefagt ! I told you so (did I not 
tell you so ?). 

Note. — Observe that in the last example the verb is at the beginning 
of the principal sentence. 

(b) With Imperatives : 

fommen <Sie bod) herein, Pray come in (urgent). 

220 LESSON XXXIII. [§§ 195" 

(c) In answer to a negative question or statement : 

£aben ©te ibn ntdjt gefefyen? (^a), bod). 
Have you not seen him? Yes, I have. 
3d) babe e§ nidjt getban. ©te fyaben e3 bod) getfyan. 
I did not do it. Yes, you did. 

(For bod) and nod) as Conjunctions, see Less. XL.) 

Note. — 2)od) gives an affirmative answer, where a negative one is 

9. and), also, even, etc. 

9ludj fein 33ater fear gegen tfyn, Even his father was 
against him. 

5JMn 33ruber tear nid)t miibe, unb id) toar oud) nidjt miibe, 
My brother was not tired, and I was not tired either. 

£aben ©te aud) bebacbt', toa§ ©te fagen, Are you sure 
you have considered, what you say ? (emphasis on 

10. toofyt, indeed, etc. 

@r leugnet e§ toofjl, aber e§ t(t bod; toafyr, He denies it 

indeed (to be sure) but yet it is true. 
©te finb tool)l ein grember? I suppose (presume) you 
are a stranger (no doubt you are, etc.). 
Note. — ©ut, not roohl, is the adv. of the adj. gut, good, when modi- 
fying a transitive verb. 

11. jo, yes, to be sure, etc. 
%i)un ©te e§ jo', Be sure to do it, do it by all means 

(emphasis on ja). 
@r tft jo mein Skier', He is my father, you know (em- 
phasis on $8ater). 

12. ttttr. 

(With the Imperative.) 

Stommen ©te nur beretn, Just come in (reassuringly). 


1JM$. Irregular Strong Verbs. 

I. Xbllll, to do, Impf. that, P. Part, getbatt. 

Jfjllt, like Engl, 'did,' is a relic of the old Impf. by re- 
duplication, the old form being tc-ta, i. e., the stem ta- with 
reduplicating syll. it- prefixed, then tc-tc, tct, that. %i)vm 
rejects c of the termination throughout, except in i. Sing. 
Pres. Ind., and in the Pres. Subj. 

II. Imperfect-Present Verbs. 

Pres. Ind. Pres. Imperfect „ „ 

In fin. „. „. „ T „ P. Part, 

i. Sing. i.Plur. Sukj. Ind. Subj. 

roiffen, know rocifj roiffen roiffe roufite roiifjte geraufet 

biirfen, dare barf biirfen biirfe burftc biirfte geburft 

fb'rmen, can fonn fbnnen fbnne fonnte formic gefonnt 

mb'gen, may mog mogen mbge modjte mbcfrte gemocfyt 

miiffen, must mufj miiffen miiffe mufcte miifete gemufrt 

fallen, shall foil follen fofle fottte fotlte gefollt 

III. gBotten, will, Pres. Ind. i. Sing. mill, i. Plur. roollen, 
Pres. Subj. roolle, Impf. Ind. roolltc, Subj. roolltc, P. Part, 

Remarks. — i. Observe the following peculiarities in the 
verbs under II. and III. : 

(a) All have the same vowel (mostly with Umlaut) in 
the Inf. and the Plur. of the Pres. Ind. ; but (except 
follen) a different vowel in the Sing, of the same 

(p) The Impf. Ind. and P. Part, have the weak endings 
-it, -t, but the vowel is without Umlaut ; roiffen 
changes i to u; mogen changes g into dj. 

(r) The Impf. Subj. has Umlaut, except in follen and 

222 LESSON XXXIII, [S 196 

(//) The Sing, of the Pres. Ind. of these Verbs is as 

follows, the Plural being regular: 

1 id) lucifr r id) barf r id) fonn 

nnffen < bu rociftt bitrfcn bu barfft frnnen < bu fonnft 

( cr tocife ( er barf ( cr fonn 

< id) mag r icf> mufj ( id; fofl 

bu maaft miiffen -} bu mufit fnflcn v 

mbgcn bu magft miiffen < bu mitjji fodcn < bu follft 
( cr mag ( er muf$ ( er foil 

( id) mill 
roollen-] bu toittft 
( er mill 

Observe here the different vowel of the Inf. and Indie, (except 
foil); also the want of the person-ending in the 1. and 3. Sing. 
(id), er lucifj, barf, faun, etc., not toeifj-t, barf— 1, fann-t ; com- 
pare Engl, can, may, etc., not can-s, may-s, etc.). 

2. The forms of the Present in the verbs under II. were 
originally Strong- Imperfects (hence their want of person-end- 
ings), which came to be used with a Present meaning; the 
new (weak) Imperfects were formed from these, with vowel- 

3. The Present of tootten was originally a Pres. Subj., used 
as Indie, and therefore also without full person-endings. 

4. The Imperative is wanting in all under II., except 
ratffen, Imper. imffe. 

Notes. — 1. 2Biffen (= Fr. savoir) is used of knowledge, and of things 

only ; fennen (= Fr. connaitre) of acquaintance, of persons and things, thus: 

Sffiiffen i2ic ben 2Bffl? Do you know the road? (i. e., do you 

know which is the right road?) 
Jitcnnetl @ie ben SHJeg? Are you acquainted (familiar) with the 

road ? 
At cuiicil 5te ineinen ^ruberV Do you know my brother? 
SStffcn Sie, tuaS ev ejejagt hat? Do you know what he said ? 


2. All these verbs, except nnffcti, govern another Verb in the Infin. 
without ut (see Less. XI A'), as: 

3>d) barf gefaetl, I am permitted to go. 


to put on (a hat), auf'feijen watch-key, ber Ul)rfd)iuffel 

expression, ber 2(u3'brurf * dwelling-house, ba§ 2Borm= 
French (language), g-ranjo'fif d) bau§ 

building, bag ©ebaube clear(ly), distinct(ly), beutlid) 

commandment, ba§ ©ebot' although, obgleidV 

Idioms : 1. Will you be so kind as to lend nie your pen ? IBolIcii <Zit 
fo gut fein uirt mir 3l)re SJefcer lethen? (lit., will you be so 
kind and, etc. ) 

2. I ana sorry (I regret), @* tjjut mir leib (leib to be treated 
as a separable particle). 

3. What is that in German ? SBtc fteiftt bad auf $eutfd> ? 

4. I do not need to go to school to-day, 3d) braudje heute nicbt 
jur 2ctiulc ]u gebf n. 

5. He knows French, Gr fann i? ranjofifd). 


A. 1. $jcb fann bid) nidht berftefyen; fpricb. bod) beutlicfyer. 
2. $ommen ©ie nur l)erein, roenn ©ie rootten. 3. ^ft e§ 3fy nen 
fd)on gelungen, granjofifd) ju lernen? 4. ^d) roerbe nod) fyeute 
biefe Seftion lernen muffen, unb e§ ift fdjon brei SSiertel auf jeb,n. 
5. -ftod) bor bierjerm £agen liefen roir ©d)Httfd)ub, unb b. eute ift 
ba§ (gig gefdmtoljen. 6. $a§ evfte ©ebot fyeifei (is) : „$u follft 
feine anbern ©otter neben mir b,aben." 7. @§ tfyut mir leib, bafj 
roir erft morgen abreifen ; id) rodre lieber b, eute abgereift. 8. 
Sfnrt e§ ^b^nen nid)t aud) leib, bap" ©ie bis morgen bleiben muff en? 
9. 3Sie i) eiftf ber englifcb, e Slu^brud ' Do you know my friend ? ' 
auf 2)eutfd) ? „$ennen ©ie meinen $reunb ?" 10. SJtein Dnfel unb 
meine £ante finb fd)on geftern angefommen, aber meine SBettern unb 
Gouftnen roerben erft iibermorgen fommen fonnen. 11. SBeifjt 
bu, bafe beine Gutter angefommen ift? 12. $sd) roifl biefen §ut 
nicbt auffetjen, roeil er mir ju lleiit ift. 13. £eute barf id) langer 

224 * LESSON XXXIII. [§§196- 

l;ier bleiben ; id) braud;e nirfit uor jefyn Ul;r ju £>aufe 311 fcin. 
14. gSotten Sie fid; nid;t fefcen? 15. 3* toerbe mcbr ©eft 
r;aben ntiiffen ; id; l;abe nid;t genua, jw 9teife. 16. 3 e wefyr wan 
bat, befto mcbr mill man. 17. SHefeS unartige ilinb meift nicbt, 
h>a§ e^ toiH. 18. !Jd; babe cben gefyort, baft tneine 9ftuttcr Irani 
ift, aberid; roerbe fie nicbt bor morgcn befucfren lonnen. 19. SBolten 
©ie gefatfigft meinen Srief jur ^oft bringen? 20. SSilbelm 
luirb ben ganjen £ag ju §aufe bleiben miiffen, roeil er fid; erfaltet 
bat. 21. 9Jlein SBrubet tyrtd;t gut ©cutfcf), obgleid; er erft in 
in feinem fiebjefynten ^ar;re bag (Stubtum biefer <5pracr)e ange= 
fangen bat. 22. SBoflen <5ie fo gut fein unb mir fagen (mir ju 
fagen), rote biel Ubr e§ ift ? 

^. 1. A stranger wants to speak to (tyrccben 4- ace.) you. 
2. That building was first a bank, then a shop, but it is now 
a dwelling-house. 3. How do you know that ? I know it be- 
cause I have heard it from my father. 4. What shall I do ? 
I have lost all my money. 5. Do you know who has torn 
this book ? 6. No, I do not know who has torn it. 7. Can 
you write the name of that stranger ? 8. Do you know 
German? No, but I know French. 9. Do you know the 
difference between the words ' fennen ' and ' roiffen ' ? 10. I 
had already put on my hat, and was just on the point of going 
out, when the rain began. 11. These two ships set sail (ab- 
fabren) at the same time, but the smaller arrived first. 12. I 
could not wind up my watch yesterday evening ; 1 had no 
watch-key about me. 13. I cannot remain now any longer; 
I must be at home at ten o'clock. 14. I know this street, but 
I do not know the name of it (say : how it is called). 15. A 
brave man is esteemed by everybody. 16. Of what is bread 


1 . Wie heiszt ' I am sorry ' auf Deutsch ? 2. Weshalb 
bleiben Sie heute nicht langer ? 3. Konnen Sie Deutsch ? 




4. Sollte man gegen jedermann freundlich sein ? 5. Wie ge- 
fallt Ihnen Paris ? G. Wie viel Uhr ist es, wenn der Stunden- 
zeiger zwischen vier und fiinf und der Minutenzeiger auf zehn 
steht ? 



197. The Verbs burfcn, fbnncn, mbgen, miiffen, fottcn, 
moflcn (see last Lesson), with the Verb laffett ( Class VII, 
Less. XXXI) are called Modal Auxiliaries, or Auxiliary 
Verbs of Mood, since they are used to form combinations 
equivalent to various Moods. Thus: (ofjct un§ gehen, 'let 
us go,' is really equivalent to an Imperative Mood 1. PI. of 
gehen ; id) fonn geben, ' I can go,' to a Potential Mood, etc. 

198. These Modal Auxiliaries differ from the English 
Auxiliaries can, may, must, shall, will, in having an Infinitive 
and a Past Participle, and in the consequent ability to form 
a complete set of compound tenses, which are wanting in 
the English Verbs, and must therefore be supplied in that 
language by equivalent phrases, as shown in the following 
partial paradigms (see also Less. XXXV). 

fbnnctt, to be able 

Present Indicative. 

biirfcn, to be per- 

mbgen, to like, be 
allowed (may) 

kf> barf, I am per- 
mitted, may 

id) fann, I can, am 

id) mag, 

I like. 

id) burfe, I (may) 
be permitted, 

Present Subjunctive. 

icf> fonne, I (may) 
be able 

id) moge, I (may) 


id) burfte, I was per- 

lesson xxxiv. 

Imperfect Indicative. 

id) fonnte, I could, 
was able 


id; mocbte, I liked, 

Imperfect Subjunctive. 

id) biirftc, I might 
be permitted 

id) fbnntc, I could, 
might be able 

id) mbdjte, I might 

id) \jaU geburft, 
I have been per- 

Perfect Indicative. 

id) babe gefonnt, 
I have been able 

id) fyabe gemoebt, 
I have liked 

Perfect Subjunctive. 

id) babe geburft, 
I (may) have been 

id) babe gefonnt, i id} fyabc gemod)t, 

I (may) have been 

I (may) have liked 

Pluperfect Indicative. 

id; battc geburft, 
I had been per- 

icb, batte gefonnt, 
I had been able 

irii batte gemocrjt, 
I had liked 

id} batte geburft, 
I might have been 

Pluperfect Subjunctive 

id) batte gefonnt, 
I might have been 

id; batte gemoebt, 
I might have liked 

Future Indicative and Subjunctive. 

id) hxrbc burfen, 
I shall be permitted 

id} tnerbc fbnnert, 
I shall be able 

id) toerbe tnogen, 
I shall like 




id) rocrbc geburft fya= 
ben, I shall have 
been permitted 

Future Perfect. 

id) roerbe gefonnt 
baben, I shall 
have been able 

id) ipiirbe biirfen, I 
should be per- 

Simple Conditional. 

id) toiirbc fonnen, I 
should be able 

icb roerbe gemocbt 
r/abcn, I shall 
have liked 

id) roiirbc mogcn, I 
should like 

Compound Conditional. 

id) roiirbc geburft i)a- 
been permitted 

id) roiirbe gefonnt 
baben, I should 
have been able 

icb roiirbc gemod)t 
fyaben, I should 
have liked 

miiffen, to be com- 
pelled (must) 

icb mu£, I am com- 
pelled, must 

foflcit/tobe obliged 

Present Indicative. 

id) foil, bit foflft, 
I am (obliged) to, 
thou shalt 

luoflcn, to be willing 

id) roifl, I will, in- 
tend to, am about 

Present Subjunctive. 

icb muff e, I (may) be 

icb, folic, I (may) be 

idi rrjolle, I (may) 
be willing 

id) mufetc, I was 

Imperfect Indicative. 

id) follte, I was 
(obliged) to, 

tcf> rootfte, I was 



[§§ 198- 


id; miiftte, I might 
be compelled 

id) babz gcmujjt, 
I have been com- 

id) babe gemufjt, 
I (may) have been 

id; folite, I might 
be obliged 

Perfect Indicative 
id) babe gcfollt, 
I have been 

Perfect Subjunctive. 

id; babe gefottt, 
I (may) have been 

id; toottte, I might 
be willing, would 

id) l)abe getootlt, 
I have been wil- 

icb I)abe getooUt, 
I (may) have been 

Pluperfect Indicative. 

id; batte gefofft, 
I had been obliged 

id) batte gemuftt, 
I had been com- 

Pluperfect Subjunctive 

id; batte geinoUt, 
I had been willing 

id) batte gemujjt, 
I might have been 

id; batte gcfollt, 
I might have been 

obliged, ought 

to have 

id; batte gctooUt, 
I might have been 

Future Indicative and Subjunctive. 

id) toerbe imiffen, 
I shall be com- 

icb toerbe gemuftt 
baben, I shall 
have been com- 

id; luerbe foKen, 
I shall be obliged 

Future Perfect. 

id; toerbe gefottt l)a= 
ben, I shall have 
been obliged 

id) toerbe tootlen, 
I shall be willing 

id; toerbe getooflt 
l)abcn, I shall 
have been wil- 




id) tuurbe miiffen, 
I should be com- 

Simple Conditional, 

id; tuiirbe fotten, 
I should be 

id) roiirbe tooHen, 
I should be wil- 

id) toiirbe gemufjt 
baben, I should 
have been com- 

Compound Conditional. 

id) toiirbe getuottt 
l)aben, I should 
have been wil- 

icb hnirbe gefoUt l)cu 
ben, I should have 
been obliged 

199. Further Peculiarities of Modal Auxiliaries. 

1. They govern an Infinitive without ju, as : 

@r mufc geljctl, He must go. 

2. In the compound tenses, when a governed Infin. occurs, 
the weak P. Part, is replaced by the Infinitive (really the old 
strong P. Part, without prefix gc-, which coincides in form 
with the Infin.), as : 

^d) t)dbe gcmuftt, I have been obliged ; — but 

$d) l)abe e§ tljun miifjen, I have been obliged to do it. 

3. In subordinate sentences, their auxiliary of tense does 
not come last, but precedes both the governed infinitive and 
the participle of the Modal Auxiliary, as : 

(Sir fagte, bafc er e§ ljabc tbun miiffen, He said, that he 
had been obliged to do it. 

Note. — The foregoing peculiarities are all shared by the verbs beifteu, 
helfen, rjbren, loffeit, mcichcrt, fehcn ; for other verbs governing an Infin. 
without ni, see Less. XLV. 

4. The shorter (and older) forms of the Conditional (viz. : 
Impf. and Plupf. Subj., see §111) are preferred to the longer 
ones (with rottrbe), thus : 



L§ 199 

Simple Conditional. 
id; bilrftc = I should be permitted 

id; fbnnte = I 

" able 

id; modjte = I 


id; miiftte = I 

" be compelled 

icfcfoflte =1 

" " obliged 

id; toofltc = I 

" " willing 


> Conditional. 

' geburft, biirfen 

'been permitted 

gefonnt, fonnen 

" able 

gemocht, mbgen 

I should have < 


gemufjt, mtiffen 

been compelled 

gefoUt, follen 

" obliged 

, geiuottt, toollen 

^ " willing 


id; fcdtte 

Remarks. — 1. The Engl, auxiliaries also use by prefer- 
ence shorter forms of the Comp. Condit., but differently 
constructed, thus : 

fonnen ) f could ~) 

mogen might 

miiffen I = I < must have done it 

foflcn should 

tooflcn I would 

v J v. 

Observe that the Engl. Verbs have the Modal Auxiliary 
('could,' 'might,' etc.) in the Simple Tense (Impf.), and the 
governed verb (' have done ') in the Compound Tense (Perf . 
Inf.); whereas the Germ. Verbs have the Modal Auxiliary 
(bdtte . . . fonnen, etc.) in the Compound Tense (Plupf. Subj.), 
and the governed verb (tbun) in the Simple Tense (Pres. Inf.). 

2. Distinguish carefully between 'could,' Indie. (= was 
able, fonnte) and ' could,' Conditional (= would be able, 
fbnnte) ; and so with the other verbs, thus : 


Qx fonnte e§ nid)t tfjun = He could not (was not able 
to) do it (Indie). 

Qx fonnte ee tfyun, roenn er toofttt = He could (would 
be able to) do it, if he were willing (Condit.). 


to remain up, sit up, auf'bleiben fellow-creature, neighbour, 
go out, auS'geben ber s Jiad)fte 

thank, banfen (-|- dat.) disaster, baS Un'gludf 

bow to, greet, grufjen (trans.) untruth, falsehood, bie Un'; 
depend, rely (upon), fid) ber= toabrbett 

faff en (auf -f- ace.) over again, nod) (ein)mal' 

moment, ber Sfu'genbltcf whether, if, ob 

railway, bie @i'fenbal)n else, otherwise, fonft 

Idioms 1 1. 'Will you have a cup of tea? N'o, thank you, SBoflru 3t* 
cine Xaffe Sbee ? 3* banfe (3hnen). 

2. In fine weather, 93ei fd)oitem 3Bette r. 

3. I have heard (it) Baid, etc , 3d) babe fagen boren, u. f. ro 


A. 1. <2)u baft beine 2Iufgabe febj fcbledjt gemacbt; bu h)ir(t 
fie geroife nod) (ein)maf macben miifjen. 2. $)arf id) einen 2Iugen= 
blicf 3>l?ren 33leiftift braud)en? ^d) l)abe ben meinen berloren. 3. 
5£Ur mtiffen gleid) jur Schule gel)en, fonft fommen roir ju fpat. 
4. 9Ra:i follte feinen 9idd)ften lieben, mie fid) felbft. 5. SBorige 
2Bocbe bdtte mein 93ater fein §au§ uerfaufen fonnen, aber er b,at 
e§ nid) t gerooHt. 6. ^ettf mocbte er e3 gem toerfaufen, aber me* 
manb roiff e§. 7. $)eine 3Settern (affen bid) freunblid)ft griijjen. 

8. Stiffen ©ie, roie ber §err beifet, ber mid) foeben gegriifet b,at? 

9. 2)u fottft ju beinem SBater geb. en ; er roitf bid) fpred)en. 10. 
$5er £nabe mag fagen, roa3 er rottt ; id) roeifj, bap- er eine Un= 
roar)rr)cit gefagf bat. 11. tOibdjten 3ie nicbt bei biefem fd)bnen 
Setter fpajieren fabren? 12. £jaft bu ben 3"9 bon Buffalo an- 
fommen feben? 13. %a roobl, id) i)abt \v)n anfommen feben, aber 
eg roar niemanb barauf, ben id) fannte. 14. @r bat geburft, aber 

232 LESSON XXXIV. [§§ 199- 

er bat nid)t gerootlt. 15. ^cb fyabt in bet ©tabt fagen bdren, baft 
ein grofcc* Ungliid auf ber (Sifenbabn gefcbeben iff. 16. @r foil 
tton biefem SBaum gefprungen fein, aber id; fann e§ faum gfauben. 
17. $d£) barf nicbt fo tyat aufbleibcn clU mein dlterer Srubcr ; icb 
mufc jeben 2tbenb urn jebn Ufyr ju 33ctte geben. 18. $d) hjiH 
tbun, roa§ ic& fann; barauf fonnen <Sie fief) beilaffen. 19. SSon 
toem rourbe ba§ 33ucb gefebrieben, ba€ ©ie foeben Iafen? 20. 6§ 
tbut mir leib, bafj Sie fo lange auf mid) baben roarten miiffen ; 
id; fonnte meine £>anbfd)ube nicbt finben. 

B. 1. By whom was this picture painted? 2. I should 
like to know what time it is. 3. May you go out, if you 
want to? No, we are obliged to stay at home the whole day. 
4. I^do not like (I like no) tea ; I prefer (the) coffee. 5. Could 
you help me with my lesson ? t>. I should certainly help you 
with it, if I could. 7. He may say, what he will ; it is 
all the same to me. 8. My father could have sold his house 
last year, but now it is impossible, for nobody wants to buy it. 
9. Charles has beaten his dog with a stick ; he should not 
have done that. 10. May I offer you a piece of meat ? No, 
thank you. 11. Have (let) the messenger wait, till I write 
an answer. 12. 1 should like to read this French book, but 
I do not know any French. 13. I am sorry that I have not 
been able to come sooner. 14. He will be obliged to study 
another year, if he does not pass his examination. 15. Sophia 
should not have gone for a walk, since the weather is so 
cold. 16. The horse I wanted to buy was already sold. 


1. Wie heiszt das erste Gebot ? 2. Wissen Sie, ob wir 
morgen zur Schule gehen miissen ? 3. Darf ich Ihnen eine 
Tasse Thee anbieten ? 4. Weshalb haben Sie mir mit meiner 
Aufgabe nicht helfen wollen? 5. Wie lange werden wir auf 
Fritz warten miissen ? (3. Sollte man seinen Nachsten lieben? 




200. The following are the most important of the various 
meanings of the Modal Auxiliaries : 

1. $iirfen denotes permission, as : 

2)arf id) fragen ? May I ask ? 

©ie biirfcn je$t nad) §aufe geben, You may go home 

@r bat ntcfytS fagen burfcn, He has not been permitted 
(allowed) to say anything. 

2. .ftiiniten denotes : 

(a) ability (of persons), as : 

Gr fonnte fd)bn fcbreiben, He could (was able to, 

knew how to) write beautifully. 
3d) Ijotte nicbt fommen foimcn, I could not have (would 

not have been able to) come. 

(b) possibility (of events), as : 

(§3 fttltn fein, It may be (so), it is possible. 

3. SRbgetl denotes : 

(a) preference, liking (of persons), as: 

^d) fllttg biefeS ©ebicbt nicbt, I do not like (care for) 

this poem, 
©r mocfjtc ntd)t arbeiten, He did not like to work. 

3d) l)&tte 3^ ren Sruber fefyen mogcn, I should have 
liked to see your brother. 

Note. — This is the usual meaning in the first person ; also in the 
Impf. (Indie, and Condit.) throughout. 

(b) concession, possibility (in 2. and 3. person only), 
as : 

234 LESSON XXXV. [§ 200 

©r mag geben, He may go (as far as I am concerned), 

or : Let him go. 
2)a3 mag fein, That, may be (for all I know). 

Note. — The Engl. ' may ' denoting permission must be rendered by 
tiirfcn in the first person, as : 

May I accompany you? $arf id) ©ie begteitcti? 

{c) Observe this idiom : 

3d; toerbe morgen auSgefyen, mag e3 regnen ober nid;t, I 
shall go out to-morrow, whether it rains or not. 

4. 9Ruffrn denotes necessity, as : 

Sllle s JJtenfcf>en miifjcn fterben, All men must die. 
@3 mufr ge[tern gefd)eben fein, It must have happened 

2Bir tuerbcn au^cieben miifjcn, We shall be compelled 

(or ' obliged,' or ' shall have ') to go. 
Note. — ' To be obliged, compelled ' after a negative is rendered by 
braudjeii, as : 

I am not obliged to go, 3d) bruudje lltcht ju gef)cn. 

5. Solicit denotes duty or obligation, imposed on the 
subject by the will of another. 

(a) Imposed by the speaker, as : 

$)u foflft nicbt fteblen, Thou shalt not steal. 

(b) Imposed by some person other than, but recognised 
by, the speaker, as : 

3d) fcfl geben, I am to go. 
@r hdtte geben foUctl, He ought to have gone. 
2Ba§ foil gefd;eben ? What is to be done ? 
SBaS foUtc id) tfyun? What was I to do ? 

(c) It also denotes a statement on the part of another 
as to the subject, as : 

@r full febr reicr) fein, He is said to be very rich. 


6. SBoHcn denotes 

(a) the exertion of the will on the part of the subject, as : 
Gr mid nicfjt geborcfien, He will not (refuses to) obey. 

(&) intention or impending action, as : 

@r ttJtfl morgen abretfen, He intends (means) to depart. 
3)a3 @i3 loitt brecfyen, The ice is about to break 
(threatens to break). 

6r toofltc eben geben (= roar eben im 33egriff ju geben), 
He was just on the point of going. 

(c) a statement or claim on the part of the subject, as : 

(Jr loitt in 3nbien geroefen fein, He asserts that he has 
been (pretends to have been) in India. 

7. gaff en is used 

(a) as auxiliary of the Imperative Mood, as : 

t'affcn <5te un§ bier bleiben, Let us remain here. 

(£) to express permission, etc., as : 

Wan bat ben SDieb entfpringen laffcn, The thief has been 
allowed to escape. 

(c) to express the agency of another, as : 

SDer Officer Heft ben ©olbaten bcfhofcn, The officer 
ordered the soldier to be punished. 

2tfd)en^uttels SSater Hcfj ben 2kum umfjaucn, Cinderella's 
father had the tree cut down. 

Note. — The infin. in the former of these examples is rendered by 
the passive infinitive in English, the object of the verb laffen being under- 
stood. Supply the ellipsis as follows : 

2>er Dffiuer hat jemanD (obj. of laffen), ben ©olbatnt (obj. of 

beftrafen), beftvafen laffctt, The officer has ordered somebody to 
punish the soldier. 

(d) reflexively, as : 

236 LESSON XXXV. [§§200 

©r Hefe fid) leidjt bctriigcn, He suffered himself to be 
deceived easily. 

3d? liefe eg mix gefallen, I submitted to it. 

(58 lafjt fid) nid)t leugnen, It cannot be denied. 

201. How to render shall and will. 

1. The Engl. ' shall ' and ' will ' must both be rendered by 
tocrbcit when they express mere futurity, as : 

I shall be drowned and nobody will save me, 
^d) rocrbc ertrtnfen unb niemanb roirb mid) retten. 

2. But if they express more than mere futurity (e. g., 
obligation or determination}, they must be rendered by fallen 
and tooUctt respectively, as : 

I will be drowned and nobody shall save me, 
3d) mill ertrtnfen unb niemanb full mid) retten. 

202. Observe the following parallel idioms : 

Gr Ijat eg ntd)t tljun fiinncn, He has not been able 

to do it. 
Sr fonn eg nid)t gefljan Ijaben, He cannot (possibly) 

have done it. 

©r Ijat eg nid)t tljun, He did not like to 

do it. 
@r mag eg gctljan Ijaben, He may (possibly) have 

done it. 



@r Ijat eg tljun miiffen, He has been obliged to 
(c) \ do it. 

(Sr mufj eg gctljan fjaticn, He must have done it. 

f @r Ijat eg tljun foflcn, He should (ought to) have 
,,. J done it. 

1 Gr foil eg gctljan Ijaben, He is said to have 
done it. 


[ Gr Ijnt eg tljuit ttioflctt, He intended to have 
I done it. 

I @r totfl e§ flctfjttn Ijaben, He pretends (claims) 
[ to have done it. 


to put on, draw on (coat, etc.) Englishman, ber (Sngldnber 

anjicbcn naught, cipher ; zero, bic 9ZuU 

expect, crtuarten shoemaker, bcr ©d;ubmatf)er 

chat, talk, plaubern proverb, ba§ ©pridhmort 

reap, fcbneibcn studying, ba§ ©tubieren 

disturb, interrupt, ftbren lesson, bie ©tunbe 

try, uerfud;en bunch of grapes, bic £raube 

last, continue, rodbren thermometer, ber or ba§ others 
American, ber 2tmerifancr mome'ter 

physician, doctor, ber 2lrjt * overcoat, ber Uberjieber 

beggar-woman, bie SBettlerin as far as, bi§ nad) 

steam-engine, bie ©atinpf; dangerous(ly), gefdbrlitf) 

ttiafcbtne sour, fauer 

Idioms: 1. A doctor hag been sent for, SEWon hat eintn 2lr<t holen 

2. Every other day (every alternate day), ffiinen Sag um 
ten (intern. 

3. Every week, Wile ad)t Sage. 

4. I should think bo! 5>a« follte id) meinen! 

5. In the right way, 2luf Me ridttige 2Beffe (ace). 


A. \.%zx telegraph foil t>on einem 2lmerif aner erfunben roorben 
fern. 2. „2Ber im ©ommer nid)t mag fcftneiben, mu| im ©inter 
hunger leiben/' betftt ein beutfcbeS ©prtcbroort. 3. 2Bottc nur, 
roa§ bu fannft, fo ruirft bu fonnen, roa§ bu roiflft. 4. -ftdcbfte 2Bod)e 
follcn roir einen $ciertag baben, roenn bis ©onnabenb flcifeig ftubiert 
ttrirb. 5. SRarie looQte ibrc Seftion in ciner balbcn ©tunbe lernen, 
aber fie bat e§ nxdjt gefonnt. 6. 9Bir roiirben afle gtiidlicber leben, 
roenn rair immer tbdten, roa§ mir tbun fodten. 7. ^d) toerbe bie 

238 LESSON XXXV. [§§ 202- 

Seftion itie lerncn fbnncn. 8. $u roirft fie lemen ftmnen, menu 
bu eS nur auf bie rid;tige 2l>cife Dcrfud;ft. it. 9J?an barf nirfjt in bcv 
©cbule plaubern; ba§ ftort ben Sebrer unb bie ©cr)iiter. 10. 2Be3= 
balb f>at 2Ifcr)cnputteI^ 93ater ben 33aum umbauen laffen? 11. 
©ollte £>err 33. rodbrenb meiner 2Ibhwfenbeit fommen, fo laffen 
©ie ibn auf 1nicr) marten. 12. 3d; mbd;te nur roiffen, roarum 
@eorg auf fid; marten lafct! 13. %<fy mbd;te ©ie nid^t ftbren, 
aber fagen ©ie mir gefdlfigft, mie bicfcr ©at} auf (Snglifdt) t>ei^t. 
14. ©eorg§ SSater foil gefdr)rlidt) franf fein ; man f^at jroei Str^te 
bolen laffen. 15. $)er 33ogeI motlte cben bom S3aume fliegen, aU 
ber ^ager ibn fcbofe. 16. ©uten 5)^orgen, £err Sraun, mein 
3Sater laftt l^bnen fagen, baft er ©ie beute 9(6enb ertoartet. 17. 
£abe id; ©ie fagen bbren, bafj ©ie jeben £ag eine beutfcr)e ©tunbe 
nebmen? 18. 9tan, id; ner/me einen £ag urn ben anbern eine 
©tunbe. 19. 5ffia§ mid) betrifft, fo mbd;tc id; lieber atte brei £age 
meine ©tunben nefymen. 20. 2)a§ folltc id; meinen, benn ©ie 
toiirben mebr 3 e ^ & um ©tubieren baben. 21. (Sbrlid; rodbrt am 
langften, unb Unrest fcbldgt feinen eigenen £>errn. 

B. 1. Let us take a walk; I cannot work any longer. 2. 
The beggar-woman, who has just asked us for money, says 
that she is (claims to be) a hundred years old. 3. She is not 
quite so old, but she is said to be at least above (iiber -(- ace.) 
ninety years old. 4. The fox said : ' The grapes are sour ; 1 
do not like them.' 5. The fox said the grapes were sour, 
and that he did not like them. fi. Might I ask you how far 
you are going ? As far as Montreal. 7. Should I put on my 
overcoat? 8. I should think so ! The thermometer is (stands) 
below zero. 9. Is it true that this traveller know^ three 
languages? It may be [so], but I do not believe it. 10. If 
you should see little Freddy up-stairs, let him come to me. 
11. By which shoemaker do you have your shoes made ? 12. 
The steam-engine is said to have been invented by an Eng- 
lishman. 13. Lazy boys learn only because they are obliged 


to learn. 14. He must have been very ill, as (ba) he is still 
so weak. 15. This house is said to have cost four thousand 
dollars, but I should not like to give two thousand for it. 16. 
He has not been able to come on account of the storm, 
otherwise he would be here already. 


1. Mochten Sie nicht eine Reise nach Europa machen ? 
2. Gehen Sie alle Tage nach der Stadt, oder nur alle zwei 
Tage ? 3. Was machen Sie, wenn Sie nicht mehr studieren 
konnen ? 4. Wer soil das Telephon erfunden haben ? 5. Hat 
man einen Arzt holen lassen ? 6. Haben Sie das Geld be- 
zahlen miissen ? 



203. The Prefixes of Compound Verbs may be either 
Inseparable or Separable. 

204. A. Inseparable Prefixes. 
Remember : The omission of gc- in the P. Part. 

The prefixes be-, «-, em»-, ent- gc-, tier-, }cr-, tntfe- 
ttlibcr- are always inseparable and unaccented, the principal 
accent falling on the verb. 

Remarks. — 1. The particle mife- varies in usage, as shown 
in the Supplementary Lesson E., § 209, 1, below. 

2. Remarks on the force and meaning of these particles 
are given in Part III. 

205. B. Separable Prefixes. 
Remember: i. The Prefix is separated from the Verb 

only in Simple Tenses and Principal (including Direct 
Interrogative and Imperative) Sentences. 

24O LESSON XXXVI. [§§205- 

2. The gc- of the P. Part, and $u of the Infin. come between 
prefix and verb. 

3. The principal accent is on the prefix. 
20G. The Separable Prefixes are : 

1. The simple prepositional and other adverbs, nb-, 
on-, ouf-, aug- etc. ; ba(r)-, fort-, cmpor-, Ijcr-, (jin-, etc. 

2. The compound adverbs, such as: bobon-, bojU-, etc. ; 
boron-, boroug-, etc. ; cntgcgcn-, cntjroet-, $nrurf- etc. 

Notes. — 1. Observe that these compound adverbs are all accented 
on the second syllable. 

2. The use of the compound prefixes with ()CT- and f|tn- is defined 
in the Supplementary Lesson E., § 210, below. 

Examples of Verbs with Prefixes. 

(</) Simple (3) Inseparable (<r) Separable 

Verbs. Compounds. Compounds. 

, , \ onSqebcn, go out 

gc^cn, go ber fl e*«., P*» away } ^^ g0 back 

reiften, tear jcrretfscn, tear to pieces 

fommen, bcfommen, obtain cntgcgcnfommcn, come 

come to meet 

finbcn, find crfinben, invent ouSftnbcn, nnd out 

Other Separable Prefixes are : 

3. Substantives, forming one idea with the verb, 

(a) as objects of the verb, as : 

odjtgeben, pay attention (attend); bonffagen, return 
thanks (thank); ftttttfinbcn, take place (occur); 
tcilnebmen, take part (interest one's self). 
Note. — The substantives in these combinations are usually spelt 
with a small letter, and written in one word with the verb when they pre- 
cede it. 

(b) with prepositions (= adverbial phrases), as : 


fid) in 8d)t nebmen (refl.), take care (be careful); 
JU fictbc tfyun, injure, hurt ; $n Stanbe bringen, 
complete; ^u <2tonbe fommen, be completed ; im 
Stonbc fein, be able ; jum 93orfrf)cin fommen, make 
one's appearance (appear) ; ju Sllutc fein, feel. 
Remark. — These substantives occupy the same position 
in the sentence as separable prefixes, thus : 
$cb bcibe auf fein 23ctragen arijtgegeben, 
I have observed his conduct, 
^cb fagte ibm fur feine tfrcunblicbfeit banf, 
I thanked him for his kindness. 
Note. — Observe that in the above sentences the simple objects with- 
out preposition (ad)t, ban!) follow the prepositional phrases (nuf fein $c-- 
trogen, fur feine grcunbltchfett), contrary to rule, on account of their 
character as separable prefixes. 

4. Adjectives as prefixes are usually separable, as : 

frctlaffen, set free (liberate); fcftbciltcn, hold fast (de- 
tain) ; fid) loSfagen (refl.), renounce. 

But many are inseparable, of which fuller particulars are 
given in the Supplementary Lesson E., § 212. 

For tiott- as prefix see § 208, below. 

207. C. Double Prefixes. 

1. Separable -f- Separable prefix; these are compound 
adverbs, and both separable (see § 206, 2, above). 

2. Separable -f- Inseparable ; the former alone is se- 
parated, as : 

on'crfennen, acknowledge, id) erfenne on (but see Suppl. 
Less. E., § 213). 

3. Inseparable -f- Separable; both inseparable, as: 

bcauf 'tragen, authorize, tcb bconf tragte ibn, I authorized 
him ; tJCronftalten, arrange, icb DCtonftaltete bteS, I ar- 
ranged this. 

> 4 2 


[§§ 207- 

NOTE. These are really not compound bat derivative verbs, from 
compound nouns ("Muf'trag, 2ui'ftalt) ; hence also the verb (as in the 
former example) is always weak, not strong — beullftVCigtf, brauftrcifjt. 

208. D. Prefixes Separable and Inseparable. 

The prefixes burd)-, Ijinter-, ttber-, nntcr-, um-, ftofl- are 

sometimes separable, sometimes inseparable. They are : 

(a) Separable as long as both prefix and verb retain 
more or less of their literal or concrete meaning ; 

(b) Inseparable when both have lost this meaning, and 
form together one new idea. A compound of the 
same verb and prefix may therefore be both sepa- 
rable and inseparable according to its meaning, 
as in the following examples : 

(a) Separable and Literal. Inseparable and Figurative. 

(Accent on Prefix, Trans, and Intr.) (Accent on Verb, always Trans.) 

burdj'reifcn, pass (travel) 

through, as : 
gr ift geftern bier burd|'gercift, 

He passed through here 


frin'tcrgeben, go behind 

U bcrfc^en (tr. or intr.), cross ; 

jump over, f erry across, as : 
Sr fc^tc rrtit eirtein ©prunge 

iibcr, He jumped over at 
a bound. 
$tibrmann, bittc, fetyen Sie mid) 

iibcf , Ferryman, please ferry 

me across. 

burcbrci'jen, traverse, travel 
over, as : 

Sr bat ba§ ganjc Sanb burd); 
reiff, He has traversed 
(travelled over) the whole 

bmtcrgc^cn, deceive, as: 

Gr fyintcrging' fetnen $reunb, 

He deceived his friend. 
uberfety'cn, translate, as : 

^d) iiberfc^c ein beutfd)e333ud), 
I am translating a Ger- 
man book. 




un'tcrfd)rciben, write under, 

subscribe, as : 
©djrcibcn ©ie 2$ren 9^amcn 

ijier untcr, Subscribe your 

name here. 

Utn'gebcn, go round, as : 
©ie muff en um'gefyen, You must 
go round. 

tiofl'giefjen, pour full, as: 
@r flofj ba§ ©lai dofl, He 
poured the glass full. 

untcrfdjrci'bctt, sign, as : 
3jd) babe ben SBrtef nod) nicbt 
unterfrfpric'ben, I have not 
yet signed the letter. 

umge'ljen, evade, as : 
5)Jan umging' bn§ G5cfc^, They 
evaded the law. 

tooUcn'bcn, complete, as : 
3d) i)abe mcine 2Irbctt boll= 

m'bet, I have completed 

my work. 

Notes. — 1. These separable prepositional prefixes are only rarely 
used with the verbs given above, except as prepositions proper, governing 
a case, as : 

Gr ging (jinter ben Dfen (urn t>a§ §auS), 

He went behind the stove (around the house). 

2. The adverb toicutr is separable, except in hJicfterho'len, repeat (but 
toieTJerholcn, fetch again). 

3. Many compounds with these prefixes are used as inseparable com- 
pounds only ; others ac separable only. 


to meet with, an'treffen 
give up, aufgeben 
cease, stop, auf boren 
open, auf macben 
leave out, omit, au§'laffen 
pronounce, au§'fpred)en 
assist, aid, bet'fteb,en 
go away, fort'gefyen 
come out, fyerauS'fommen 
come in, Ijerem'fommen 

set (of the sun, etc.), un'ters 

read to, bor'lefen (4- dat. of 
leave, berlaffen [pers.) 

promise, »erfpred)en 
present', introduce, uor'ftetten 

(+ ace. and dat.) 
go past, pass by, borbei'gcb, en 
close, shut, ju'mad)en 
come back, juriirf'iommen 

244 LESSON XXXVI. [§208 

collide, ^tfam'mcnftofjcn marriage (-ceremony), bic 
send to, ju'fd)iden (+ dat.) framing 

coffee, bcr ^affcc pale, blctdf) 

Northern Railway, bic 5iorb'= by heart, auS'ftenbig 

cifenbafm since, fcitbcm' (adv. and conj.) 

slave, bcr ©flabc closed, shut (predicate), ju 
even if, rocnn . . . aud) 

Idioms: 1. What is the matter with him I 2Bo3 bat tx'i 

2. He feels ill, 3hm if* f«ltd)t ju 3Ku*c; or: f§ if* ibm jrtjltrfit ?u 

a. To translate Into (Jerman, $118 Icutfrtic itberfttjen. 

4. In tine weather, tBci jdjoncm SBcttrr. 

5. If you please, SOrim irtj bitten barf (lit., If I may ask). 


A. 1. Sergift ntcbt, ba§ genfter jugumad)en, roenn bu ba§ 
gimmcr berlaftt. 2. 2Ba3 man auf fd)iebt, fommt felten $u Stanbe. 
3. ®bnncn ©ie mir fagen, roie biefe§ SSort auf SDeutfd) au3ge= 
fprod)en iuirb? 4. 9Jleine ©cbroeftern famen mir entgegen, aber 
Ieiber baben fie mid) nid)t angetroffen. 5. SSiele baben berfprocben, 
un§ beijufteben, aber nur roenige I)aben un3 roirflid) beigeftanben. 
6. 2Bir finb jetjt mit bem erften £eile be§ $ud)e§ beinabe fertig ; 
ndd)fte 2Bod)e fangen roir an, ben jroeiten £eil ju uberfetjen. 7. 
gtoei 3iige j»nb auf ber ^orbeifenbabn jufammengeftofjen. 8. ^d) 
bbrtc auf ju ftngen, tceil id) beifer rourbe. 9. 9Jtein $ater macbte 
ben SBrief auf unb Ia§ benfelbcn ber $amilie bor. 10. 2Ber ein= 
mal lugt, bem glaubt man nicbt, unb menn er aud) bie 2Babrl)cit 
f^ridbt. 11. £>aben ©ie bie 3citung befommen, bie id) ^bnen au§ 
ber ©tabt jugefebidt fyabz ? 12. ©ffen ©ie geroofmlicb in ber ©tabt 
ju 9)ttttag? 13. %a .uofyl, id} gel)e jeben £ag urn neun Ub,r fort 
unb iomme erft urn fedb§ Ufyr juriid. 14. 9ftancber bat angefangen, 
roa§ er nicbt boUenbet bat. 15. Unfere 9?ad)barn miiffen roof)l 
fort fein, benn affe Sabcn finb bci ifmen ju. 16. ®ommen ©ie 
bod) herein; id) mitf ©ic §errn 33raun borfteflen. 17. ^d) 
banfe bielmalS, aber id) bin ibm fdion oorgeftellt roorben. 18. 33ei 

§ 208] COMPOUND VERBS. 245 

fduMicm 2Better gefyen loir unferm 3Sater entgcgcn, toenn cr nad) 
vuuife fommt. 19. ^yinbet bie Xrauung fibres Setter^ morgen 
ober iibermorgen ftatt? 20. -©often <Sie eine £affe Xljee? ©eben 
Sie mir Ueber eine £affe itaffee. 

B. 1. The Reformation took place in the sixteenth century. 
2. Have you closed all the doors and windows ? 3. What is 
the matter with you ? You look so pale. 4. I do not know ; 
since I have come back, I do not feel at all well. 5. In the 
year 1865 all slaves in the United States were set free. 6. 
Have you opened the letters which have just arrived ? 7. The 
sun sets earlier now, and the weather begins to grow colder. 
8. Mary is learning a poem by heart ; she has already repeated 
it ten times. 9. Have you found out at what o'clock the 
meeting takes place ? 10. Do you know the gentleman who 
has just gone past ? 11. When we were going past the church, 
the people were just coming out. 12. Pay attention to your 
work ; you always leave out words, when you are copying. 
13. Why have you closed the window ? I was beginning to 
catch cold. 14. I have tried to learn this poem, but it is 
too hard for me, and I have given it up at last. 15! Goethe's 
' Faust ' has been translated into English by Bayard Taylor. 
16. The marriage of my brother takes place to-morrow at 
eleven o'clock. 


1. In welchem Jahre wurden die Sklaven in den Ver- 
einigten Staaten freigelassen ? 2. Lernst du gern Gedichte 
auswendig ? 3. Glauben Sie, dass unsere Nachbarn fort sind ? 
4. Kennen Sie den Mann, der am Hause vorbeigeht ? 5. Wer 
hat diesen Brief aufgemacht ? 6. Wie sprechen Sie das Wort 
G-o-e-t-h-e aus ? 



209. The Inseparable Prefix mift-. 
The particle mtjj- is inseparable, but : 

(a) With certain verbs it takes the {JC- of the P. Part, and ill of the 
Infin. after it, as : 

mijj'hanbeln, act amiss mift/gehanbett nufj'jutyanbeln 
With other verbs ntijj- either : 

(b) Has gc- before it, as : 

mifihan'belu, ill-treat P. Part, gcmifi/hcuibelt — or: 

(c) Drops gc- altogether, as : 

mifjfat'len, displease P. Part, mifjfui'len 

Nol"E. — Observe that the principal accent: 

under (a) is on the prefix throughout ; 

" (b) is on the prefix in the P. Part, only, otherwise on the verb; 
" (c) is on the verb throughout. 

210. Use of the Prefixes Ijer- and Ijin- 

1. The particles Ijer (' hither ') and fjin ( ' hence ') are prefixed to verbs, 
both simple and compound, to indicate the direction towards or from 
the speaker respectively, as : 

ttommcn £>ie Ijer, Come here (hither, to me). 
(fichcil @ie f|tn, Go (there) thither (hence, from me). 
Hence, a person standing upstairs would say to one below : 
$ommen ©ic Ijerauf, Come up here (up-stairs); 
but to one up-stairs : 

©ehen 2>\e (jtltuitter, Go down there (down-stairs). 

2. The simple prepositional adverbs uu -, on-, OUf-, QUg-, Ctn-, lUefeer- 
ilbcr-, untcr , Utn-, UOt- are only used with verbs of motion, when the 
compound verb denotes motion in a general way, without specified 
direction, or when it has lost the idea of motion altogether. 


3. (u) When, with au§- and tJOt-, also with 06- in the sense of ' down,* 

the place from which the motion proceeds is implied, but not 
specified, the direction to or from the speaker is further indic- 
ated by prefixing Ijer- and fjin- respectively. 
(b) When, with the remaining prefixes (tttl— , Otlf-/ etc.), the place to 
which the motion is directed is implied, but not specified, (jet- 
or Ijilt- is similarly prefixed. 

4. The following examples will serve to show more clearly the differ- 
ence between verbs with the simple prefixes and those with Ijet- or Ijin-: 

(a) With Simple Prefix : l (/>) With (jet- or fjtn-: 

UtHJgchen, go out (for a walk, on fjtnau£gel)cn, go out (from the 


(jerooi^ichen, draw forth 

Jjerubfteiflen, descend 

{jetanfomrrtfii, come up to, ap- 

fjttuibcrgcfjen, go over, across 


business, etc.) 
tJOriief)CH, prefer 
obftetgcii, dismount 
onfomnien, arrive 

iibetgehen, desert [perish 

lintergehcn, set (of the sun); sink; 

5. When the place from or to which respectively is specified, these words 
are used as prepositions proper, governing a substantive, but may be re- 
peated as adverbial prefixes with (jer or |jin, as : 
Gu gtng au3 bem ^inimer (Ijinaug). 
(Sr ^og ben 23rief au8 ber £afcf)e (tjerauS). 

Notes. — 1. Mb-, meaning ' off, away,' does not require these prefixes, as: 

abrcifen, abgeljen, to depart, go off; — but: binabgeljeii, to go down. 

2. <*in- is replaced, when the place to which is specified, by the preposition in with the 
accusative, as : 

Sr ritt in bin 5taot hiiiem. 

3. Sometimes other prepositions are used to indicate the place from or to which, in which 
case the compound prefix is used, as : 

3d) inerbe nad.) Suropa bjnuberge&en, 1 shall go over to Europe. 
Sr ift 00m $ad)e IjerabgefaHcn, He has fallen down from the roof. 

Other Prefixes. 
211. Verbs derived from compound substantives are treated as 

simple Verbs, as : 

25a« ftvuh/ftucf, the breakfast, frub/ftiicfcit, to breakfast; id) \\W 
ftucftc, gcfviil) ftiicft. 


2)ie §anb'b,abe, the handle, hanb'baben, to handle; Ijenb'habte, 

2)er iKat'idjlag, the counsel, rat'jd)lagen, to take counsel ; rat'^ 

fcbtagtc, gerat'fdilaflt. 

Note.— Observe that all such verbs are weak, as in the case of the last two of the 
above verbs, which are not compounds of Ijabcn or fcfjlagen respectively. 

212. Adjective Prefixes are frequently inseparable, but retain the 
principal accent and require ge- before them in the P. Part., as : 

toeijj'fagen, to prophesy, tocifj'jagte, tjeroetfjfagt ; redjt'fertigert, 
to justify, redjt'ferttgtc, gercdjt'fevtigt ; lieb'fofcn, to caress, lieb'= 
fofte, gelteb'fofl ; 
also the substantive compound : 

lufTroartbetn, to walk for pleasure, gcluft'ruanbett. 

213. Some verbs with Separable -4- Inseparable Prefix are used 
only in constructions which do not require the separation of the former 
particle from the verb ; thus we may say : 

SbrifiuS ift aufevftanbcn, Christ is risen from the dead, — or: 
2118 SbrifhlS OUferftanb, — but instead of : 
Gr erflanb auf, — we say : (Sr flanb bon lien Zottn auf. 
Similarly with auSertefen, tiorentfjatten, and a few others. 

1. Have you answered all the letters ? I have answered all except this 
one. 2. I have asked my sister, if (whether) she is ready, but she has 
not answered. 3. She has gone up-stairs ; perhaps she has not heard. 
4. Let her come down, for I cannot wait for her any longer. 5. I should 
like to speak to your father ; is he at home ? 6. Yes, he is up-stairs in his 
study ; please go up. 7. Some one is shouting in the street ; go out and 
see what is the matter. 8. Are you going out to-day ? I am going out, as 
soon as I have breakfasted. 9. George, go out of the room ; you have 
been behaving badly. 10. Many people say that Mr. B. has acted amiss 
in this affair, but he has justified himself. 11. We started so early yes- 
terday morning that we had no time to breakfast. 12. Several people were 
standing on (auf ) the street before a burning house, and were looking up. 
13. A poor woman with her child was on the point of jumping down. 14. At 
last a fireman went up and saved both [of them]. 15. The boy has abused 
his dog, and therefore he was punished by his father. 16. The dog was 
howling in the street, but some one went out and brought him in. 



Reflexive Verbs. 

214. 1. All Reflexive Verbs are conjugated with (jabcn. 
For an example of their conjugation see § 41, and observe 
the use of fid) as special reflexive of the third person for all 
genders and both numbers. 

2. The reflexive pronoun is introduced as near to the 
beginning of the sentence as possible, sometimes even before 
the subject, when the latter follows the verb and is not a 
pronoun, and especially if the subject has adjuncts, as : 

©eftern bat fid) mein lieber, alter SBater befcbabtgt, 
My dear old father injured himself yesterday. 

215. 1. Any transitive verb may be used reflexively, when 
the action of the verb is on the subject ; but Reflexive Verbs 
proper are : 

(a) Those which are used only reflexively, especially such 
as indicate a state of mind or feeling, as : 

fid? befletfcen (gen.),) apply fid) grdmen (gen., or iiber + 
„ befleijjtgen, ) one's self ace), grieve 

„ begniigen (mit), be con- , „ febdmen (gen., or iiber + 

tented ace), be ashamed 

„ befinnen (gen.), recollect „ febnen (nad)), long (for), 
„ erbarmen (gen.), take pity, yearn 

have mercy „ tmmbern (iiber + ace), be 
„ erfdlten, catch cold astonished 

(£) Those which, though used also as transitive verbs, 
have a special meaning as reflexives, as : 
frcucn (impers.), rejoice (tr.), fiiJjfreuen (gen., or iiber + ace), 
make glad rejoice (intr.), be glad 

250- LESSON XXXVII. [§§215- 

furdjtcn, fear fid| fiird;tcu (oor + dat.), be 

Ijiitcn, protect „ biiten(l>ov H- dat.), beware 

fkflen, place „ fteHcn, pretend 

bcrlofjcn, leave „ berlaffcn (auf + ace), 

rely (upon) 

tuttaflcn, carry (to) „ jutragen (impers.) hap- 

pen, occur 

2. Transitive verbs are often used in English with the direct 
(personal) object unexpressed, e. g., 'change, turn, open, 
spread,' etc. ; such verbs have the object expressed in German 
as the reflexive pronoun, e. g. : 

The weather has changed, 2)as> 2Better bat fid) geanbert. 
The wind is turning to the east, SDer 5Btnb brebt fidj 

nacfo Often. 
The door opened, 3)ie £bur offnete fid). 
The disease was spreading over the whole town, £)te 

$ranfbeit berbreitcte fid) iiber bie ganje ©tabt. 

3. For the use of Reflexive Verbs for the Passive Voice, 
see § 1 14, (b). 

4. From what has been said above, it will be evident that 
Reflexive Verbs are used to a much greater extent in German 
than in English, which indeed has no Reflexive Verbs in the 
strict sense defined above. 

- 216. Government of Reflexive Verbs. 

1. All true reflexives take the reflexive (personal) object 
in the accusative ; the remote object (the thing) is in the 
genitive, or is governed by a preposition, as shown in the 
examples given in § 215, t, above, thus : 


%<S) fcfytime mid) metrics 33etragens, I am ashamed of 
my behaviour. 

©rinnerft bu bid) bcfjcnnidit? Do you not remember it? 

2Bir febnten une nod) unferer Mutter, We longed for 
our mother. 

^d) erbarmte mid) fctncr, I had pity upon him. 

2. Some spurious reflexives have the reflexive (persona/) 

object in the dative, and the thing in the accusative, as : 

^d) fann mir ba§ benfen, I can imagine that. 

3d) btlbete mir btee nur ein, I only imagined this. 

Note. — ©id) )d)tneid)chi takes the dative of the person with a clause 
as direct object, thus : 

3di fdjmcidjeltc mir, baft id) e3 tfyun fbnntc, I flattered myself, 
that I could do it. 

217. Impersonal Verbs. 

Impersonal Verbs Proper are those used only in the 
third person sing., with the neuter pronoun C0 as subject. 

1. Those expressing Natural phenomena, as : 
C0 fd)nett, it snows eg blifet, it lightens 

f0 regnet, it rains cs bonnert, it thunders, etc. 

also with the verbs fein or tuerben, as : 

dS tft (lutrb) tali, toarm, bunfel, etc., It is grows) cold, 
warm, dark, etc. 

<gg i(t (fcblagt) funf, It is (strikes) five. 

2. Those expressing bodily or mental affections 
(a) with accusative of person. 

G§ frtert mid), I am (feel) cold. 

(£3 toerlangt mid; (nad)), I am (feel) desirous. 

Q<s freut midjf, I am glad (it rejoices me). 

@6 rounbert mid), I wonder (it makes me wonder). 

252 LESSON XXXVII. LS*§ «7~ 

G>3 {amtnert mid; (gen.), I pity (it moves me to pity). 

S3 reut mid) (gen.), I repent (it rues me), etc. 
(l>) with Dative of person. 

@§ biinft (beud)t) mir, Methinks. 

S3 gelingt mir, I succeed, etc. 
(c) with fan or roerben (Dative of person), as : 

@3 iff (mirb) mir ubel, mobl (ju SDhite), I feel ill, well 
(it is ill, well to or with me in spirit). 

@§ tft mir lieb, leib, I am glad, sorry (it is dear, sad 
to me). 

Notk. In this class of verbs the subject cS is omitted when the per- 
sonal object precedes the verb, as : mid) nnntbert, etc. 

3. Verbs used impersonally with a special sense, as : 

2Bte fteljt'S mit ^bnen ? How fares it with you ? 
@3 gefjt mir gut, I am well. 
2Ba§ gicfit'S ? What is the matter ? 
2Ba3 fcljlt %i)\Kn ? What ails you ? 
Also fein and roerben, as under 1 and 2, (/), above. 

4. For the impersonal use of the passive voice, see §113. 

Note. — Of the above classes, those alone are strictly impersonal 
which admit only of c8 as subject; others, which are used with other sub- 
jects, but only in the third person (sometimes plur. as well as sing.) are 
properly called unipersonal. 

218. Conjugation of Impersonal Verbs. 

1. Impersonal Verbs form their various tenses, moods, etc., 
in precisely the same way as other verbs, but are used only 
in the third person singular. 

2. Some are weak, others strong, as : 

frieren, to freeze, Impf. e3 fror, gefroren ; fd)neien, to 
snow, Impf. e3 fdmeite, P. Part, gefdmeit. 


3. Most of them are conjugated with baben, as : 
@g (jot gefcbnctt, gefrorcn, etc. ; 

but some take fein, e. g., gclingen, gliicfen, to succeed ; gcfcfceben, 
to happen (compare § 53), as : 

S3 ift gefcbefyen, It has happened. 

219. Government of Impersonal Verbs. 

1. Impersonal Verbs expressing bodily or mental affections, 
etc., take the immediate (personal) object (= Engl, subj.) in 
the Dative or Accusative (see § 217, 2, 3, above). 

2. Those under § 217, 2, (a), denoting a mental affection 
may be used 

(a) impersonally, with the thing {cause of emotion) 
in the genitive, as : 

63 jamtnert mid) fcincr, I pity him (it moves me to 

pity of him). 
@S reuet mid) mcincr ©iinben, I repent (it makes me 

repent) of my sins. 

(b) personally, with the thing (cause of emotion) as 
subject, as . 

%t jammert mid), I pity him (he moves me to pity). 
•UJJevne ©unben reum (pi.) mid), I repent of my sins 
(my sins move me to repentance). 

Remark. — Observe that the English subject is object 
in German, the verb remaining always in the third person, 
as : 

@8 freut mid), I am glad. 

(£§ freut bid), Thou art glad. 

(S§ freut ifjit, He is glad. 

<|g freut unS, We are glad, etc. 

254 LESSON XXXVII. [§220 

220. There is. there ark, etc. 

1. The English there is, there are {70ns, were, lias been, 
will be, etc.) must be rendered in German by c8 flicbt (gnb, 
bat . . . gegeben, luirb . . . geben, etc.), when an indefinite ex- 
istence is expressed, or in general assertions, as : 

($6 gab friiber btele Scute, hxlcfyc glaubtcn, etc., There 
were formerly many people who believed, etc. 

($8 tturb btefe3 J^abr bide SPftaumen fleben, There will 
be a great many plums this year. 

Remarks. — 1. The English subject is object of gicbt in 
German, and is in the accusative, as : 

(S3 gtebt etnen 9toman (ace.) Don SDwfenS, toelcbcr „9afola3 
■Jttcflebty" bcifjt, There is a novel (nom.) by Dickens, 
called ' Nicholas Nickleby.' 

2. The verb (geben) is always in the singular in German, 
being a true impersonal ; and e§ is never omitted, as : 

£)iefe3 $>abr gtebt c8, etc. 

2. There is, etc., must be rendered into German by c8 ifl, 
C8 filtb (e3 1t>nr, etc.), when definite existence is expressed, or 
in particular assertions, as : 

(58 if! ein SSogel in btefcm 33nucr, There is a bird in 

this cage. 
(§8 ftnb gtoet 33ogel auf biefem 33aumc, There are two 

birds on this tree. 

Remarks. — 1. The English subject is also subject {nomi- 
native') in German, as : 

@3 i[t cut 9iomon (nom.) tton 2)icfen§ auf bent %\\§, 
There is a novel (nom.) by Dickens on the table. 

2. The verb (fetn) agrees in number with the real subject, 
and e§ is omitted, unless it begins the sentence, as : 

§220] THERE IS, THERE ARE. 255 

(Silt Sogel tft in biefcm SJaucr, There is a bird, etc. 
Note. — This shows that e«t is the indefinite c$, replacing the real sub- 
ject (sec § 39, i), and not the impersonal es. 


to dress (trans.), an'flciben lightning, bcr 23li£ 

dress (intr.), fid) anlleibcn thirst, ber SDurft 

resolve, decide, fid) cntfd;Iicf$cn lemonade, bic Stmonabc 

explain, erfldren caterpillar, bic 9laupe 

be mistaken, fid? itren sleighing, bie ©diltttenbabn 

turn around (intr.), fid) um'= way, mode, bie SBieife 

breben successful(ly), gliidltcb 

get married, marry (intr.), fid) now-a-days, bcut^utage 

tterbei'raten long (adv.), Idngft 

marry (trans.), bci'ratcn past, borbci 

hurt (wound), berle^en in all ages, ju alien 3 e ^ erl 

Idioms: 1. I feel well, 9R<r if! roohl \u SSRutc. 

2. He has married the daughter of the doctor, <Sr hat ficb 
tnit ber Xodyttr bei 3)oftord eerheirattt. 

3. In this way, ?luf fciefc 95$eifc (ace). 

4. I was hungry (thirsty), 3d) bnttc #ungtr (Durft). 


A. 1. @§ bonncrt, unb id) fiircbte, e§ roirb balb regnen. 2. Urn 
rote mel UBr roirb bet ^bnen ju -JRittag gegeffen? 3. @3 bat 
roabrenb ber -ftacbt gefroren unb beute roerben fair ©cblittfcbub 
laufen fonnen. 4. 2Be§balb bonnert e§, toenn e3 bli^t? S)a3 
lafct fid; nicr/t leicbt erfldren. 5. I^cb l)abe meinen beften £>unb 
toerloren ; fo ein §unb ftnbet fid) nid)t leicbt rmeber. 6. G<3 freut 
un§ febr, bafc §cinrid) fein Gjamen gliidlicb beftanben bat. 7. ^cb 
fiircbte, e§ roirb biefeS 3al)r nur roenige 2ipfel geben ; bic 9taupen 
baben faft alle flatter toon ben SBdumen gefreffen. 8. ©uten 
•Biorgen, igerr 33raun; giebt'3 beute etroa§ -JcmeS? 9. 'DOcetn 
dltefter 33ruber bat fid) berfyeiratet. 10. 5Rit nxm l)at er fid) ber* 
beiratct? 11. 2Jcit ber Xochter bes> Mtor 33. ; erinnern <2ie ficb 

256 LESSON XXXVII. l§§220- 

nicbtibrcr? 12. ©dnneid;cln 6ic fid;, bafc e3 $^nen auf bicfc 
SJBeife gelingen roirb? ©ie baben nid;t ©elb genug. 13. %tf) 
\)abc bid mebr ©elb ati id) braucbe ; id; nriirbe mid} mit bcr .§alfte 
begnitgt babcn. 14. G$ roiirbc mid) gar md;t nnmbcrn, toenn tow 
nod) bcutc 9tegen befamen. 15. 2(l§ id; an bcm £mufc bouibcr= 
ging, offnete fid; bie Xbiir, unb cin alter ft err fam herau§. 
16. 2)id; fricrt; bu foHtcft beincn Uberjicber anjieben. 17. @§ 
toarcn nod) biele Seute auf ber ©trafjc, ati id; nad) §aufe fam. 
18. G§ iiurb bid) balb bcincS SBetragcnS rcuen, rocnn id; mid) nid)t 
irrc ; bu fotfteft bid) fcbamen. 19. ©3 gicbt beutjutage Stboren, 
unb leiber bat e§ ju alien geiten £borcn gegeben. 20. ©iefbnnen 
fid; bcnfen, baft e§ mid) ftmnberte, alS id; mid; umbrebte unb 
meincn tcingft bcrlornen $rcunb bor mir fab. 

i?. 1. Are you afraid when it lightens ? 2. Yes, I am always 
afraid of the lightning. 3. What is the matter with you ? 
You do not look at all well. 4. I do not know what ails me ; 
I do not feel well, perhaps I have caught cold. 5. It has been 
snowing the whole night, and to-day we have fine sleighing. 

6. Have you hurt yourself ? Yes, I have cut my finger. 

7. There are two gentlemen at the door ; do you know them ? 

8. I know one of them, but I cannot remember his name. 

9. I must dress immediately, or else I shall not be ready at 
seven o'clock. 10. If you do not dress more warmly, you will 
catch cold. 11. I am thirsty; please give me a glass of 
lemonade. 12. I am glad that the thunder-storm is past; the 
lightning is dangerous. 13. Do you remember whether he 
was here on the 15th or on the 16th of January ? 14. Have you 
decided to leave (the) town, and to pass the summer in the 
country ? 15. I hear somebody shouting in the street ; what 
is the matter? 


1. Sollte man sich vor dem Donner furchten ? 2. Wie 
lange wohnen Sie schon in dieser Strasze? 3. Stehen Sie 


gewohnlich friih des Morgens auf ? 4. Weshalb hast du die 
Fenster zugemacht ? 5. Wie gefallt es Ihnen in diesem 
Hause ? 6. Wird es dieses Jahr viele Pflaumen geben ? 



221. The Prepositions with 'the Dative only have been 
given in §§46, 51 ; those with the Accusative only in 
§§ 34> 5°; those with Dative or Accusative in § 65. 

Prepositions with the Genitive. 

222. The Prepositions governing the Genitive are chiefly 
nouns used adverbially. The following lines contain the 
principal ones, and will aid the memory : 

Unrocit, mitt el ft, (raft unb roafjrenb, 
I'aut, bcrmbge, ungcadjtet, 
Cb erf) alb unb untcrfmlb, 
^nncrfjnlti unb aufjcrfjalb, 
Sicejcit, jenjeit, fjalbcu, mcani, 
(5tutt, aud) liings, jufoljjc, trotj 
©teben mit bem ©eniiH) ; 
£ocf) ift bier nid)t ju bergeffen, 
35aJ5 bei biefen le^ten brei 
2Iud) bcr $atit> ridt)tig fei. 

223. The meanings of these prepositions are as follows : 

1. ^olb(cn), batber, ) for lhe sake of on account of 

2. toegen, ) 

Remarks. — 1. £>alb(en), balber, always follows the case; 
toegen may follow or precede a noun, but always follows 
a personal pronoun. 

258 LESSON' XXXVIII. [§223 

2. jpnlb is used only in begbalb and ttJCSfyalb ; fyalbett after 
the personal pronouns or substantives with a determinative 
or attributive word ; balbct" after a substantive used alone, as : 

$C0 g-ricbcnS halbcit, For the sake of peace. 
23eifptel>3 fyal&cr, For the sake of example. 

3. The personal pronouns have a special form ending in -t 
before r/alben and luegen, thus : 

metnetr/albcn, for my sake 
unfcrtlncgcn, on our account, etc. 

3. nufjcrfjalb, (on the) outside 5. obcrljdb, above 
of 6. Utttcrfjttlb, below 

4. inncrljalb, (on the) inside of 

Examples : 

Unfcr ©arten iff auftcrfjalb (inncrljalb) bcr <5tabt. 

Our garden is outside (inside) of the town. 

Montreal Kegt untcrljalb bcS Dntario-See^, 
Montreal lies below Lake Ontario. 

Remark. — ^nnerfyalb in expressions of time may be fol- 
lowed by the dative of a substantive without article, as : 
lynncrfyalb jtoct S£agen, Within two days. 

7. fraft, by virtue of 9. (bcr)mittclft, ) by means 

8. lout, in accordance with 10. bcrmogc, ) of 

1 1 . jufolgC, in consequence of 

Remark. — gufolge governs the genitive when it precedes 
its case, but the dative when it follows, as : 

Gr tfwt bte§ gufolge mcincs ^cfcbls, or metnem 33efc(;Ic 
jufolgc, He did this in consequence of my order. 

12. biegfeit, on this side 13. jntjeii, on that (the other) 



Remark. — 25iesfeit and jettfeit are prepositions (governing a 
noun ) ; bieefettg and jenfeitg adverbs (without a case), as : 

^scb tvo&ne bicSfcit, er jenfett be8 fttuffeS, I live on this, 
he on that (the other) side of the river, — but : 

2Bir roobnen beibc nabc am gfluffe ; id; bic^fcttg, ct jcn= 
feitg, We both live near the river ; I on this, he on 
the other side. 

14. ftatt, Oltfltttt, instead of 

Remark. — 2tnftatt is sometimes divided, thus : 

9(ttftatt mcine§ ©ruber*, Instead of my brother, — or : 
9ln meirteS 33ruber§ <&iatt, (In my brother's stead). 

15. Uttgcadjtet, notwithstand- 16. troty, in spite of 

Remarks. — 1. Ungearf}tet may precede or follow its case. 

2. %xoi$ governs the dative in the phrase tvotjbcm, ' in spite 
of that,' and with the men n ing of ' as well as,' as : 

3)icfer SXnabc rcitct hot) cincm 9J?anne, This boy rides 
as well as a man. 
17. toti^rcnb, during 18. Ittltgg, ) a] 

19. entiang, J 
Remarks. — 1. ficings also governs the dative, and always 
precedes its case, as : 

2dng§ bes Ufcrg, or bem lifer, Along the shore. 
2. ©ntlang governs the genitive when it precedes its case; 
but it more commonly follows its case, and governs the aeeu- 
sative, as : 

©r ging ben o^ufc entlttttg, He went along the river. 
To these may be added : 
2<>. lUtflefidjte, in presence of 22. am . . . toifleu, for the sake 
21. inmittcn, in the midst of of 

26o LESSON XXXVIII. l§§«3" 

Remarks. — i. Um . . . milieu takes the case between urn and 
milieu, as : 

Um mcittce JBtttcrS milieu, For my father's sake. 
2. The personal pronouns have the same forms with um . . . 
milieu as with foalbcn and, thus : 
um feinetrotlfen, for his sake 
um Jbrenuillen, for your sake, etc. 

23. unfern, ) not far from 

24. unttjcit, ) 

224. General Remarks on Prepositions. 

i. An Adverb of direction is frequently placed after an 
accusative, like a preposition after its case, as : 
$Ctt 33erg fjittauf, Up the mountain. 
2. (a) Some prepositions may govern a substantive clause 
with bdfj, as : 

Gbre 23ater unb -Stutter, ouf bafe c3 bir roohl gebe, 
Honour father and mother, that it may go well with thee. 
Notes. — i. Such arc auf, nnfjcr (also used with tofttn), bitf, ol)nc, 
(on)ftott, umieadjtet, rodhienb. 

2. SBttf, itUfleadjtet, rocifjvciib are also used as conjunctions without baft. 

(b) Um, ohne, and (cm)ftatt may govern an infinitive 
with ju, as : 

Gr fcim geftern, um bid; ju befudjen, 

He came yesterday (in order) to visit you. 

$d) fann nie baran benfen, oljnc 511 ladjen, 

I can never think of that without laughing. 

SDiefer s 3Jiann foUte arbeiten, onftott \\\ bettcltt y 

This man ought to work, instead of begging. 

Remark. — But if the subject of the infinitive clause is 
different from that of the sentence on which it depends, bnfj 
must be used, as : 


^d) fonntc nid;t borbetgefyen, o^tie bo§ cr mid; fab, (not 
ofyne mid; 311 f cb, en), I could not pass by without his 
seeing me. 

3. Prepositions may govern adverbs, as : nad; oben, up- 
ward ; nad; binten, to the rear ; auf immer, forever ; bon fern, 
from afar ; and the compounds with ba(r)- and h)o(r)- (see 
§ 38, Rem. 5 ; 83, 3 ; 96, 7). 

4. A substantive governed by a preposition may be followed 
by an adverb, for nearer definition, as: 

9iad) einer 9iid;tung ljin, In one direction. 

JBon alien ©eiten Ijer, From all sides. 

@r ritt Winter bem $einbe Ijcr, He rode in pursuit of 

the foe. 
Um bets £>au§ Ijcritm, Round (about) the house. 
SBon nun Ott, From henceforth. 
©on 3>ugenb auf, From youth up. 


to observe, remark, bemerfen (the) little Red (Riding) 
elect, erm&r/len (+ ju) Hood, ba<8 9totfabbd;cn 

permit, allow, ertauben umbrella, ber Slegenfcbirm 

inquire (about), [id; erhmbigen drop, ber ^ropfen 

(+ nacb) drunkard, ber Xrunfenbolb 

go about, around, berum'geb, en will, testament, ba3 Xeftamcnt' 

ring (a small bell), flingeln stairs, staircase, bie ^rebpe 

go for a walk, fpajteren geben deceased, ber (bie; 33erftorbene 

divide, teiten warning, bie 2Barnung 

let (of houses, etc.), bermieten living, leben'big 

go away, roeggeben loose, slack, lo3 

the opposite, ba3 ©e'gentcil in_time, punctually, red;f ; 
custom, habit, bie ©emobnfyeit jetttg 

microscope, ba§ 9JJifroftob' except that, aufjer baft 

262 LESSON XXXVIII. [§224 

Idiom*: I. For all I care, Wciiictlutgrn. 

S. Tli is house is for sale, 2)icfc3 §nti0 ift ]tt ticrfaufetl (lit, to be 

:',. He was elected mayor, <fr luuruc jnm itturflmnciftcr crtuahlt (lit., 

to or lor a, etc.. |ttn \u cittern). 

4. I have been lure lor a treek, x \rti Din fcit arfit Infltn b,ter. 

5. To laugh (at), make sport (of), Sirt) initio marijnt (itbrr + ace). 
<;. What is the matter 1 2Bno ift Ua'i 

7. There Is a rini? (at the door, ete.), (?S flittflclt. 


A. 1. 2)a3 £au§, iueld;e§ 511 bcrfaufen ift, ftcb/t aufeerfyalb bcr 
Stabt, nicbt toeit bom 2ee. 2. 28enn e3 nur innerbalb bcr ©tabt 
fttinbe, fo loiirbc id) gem taufenb £r)aler mer)r bafiir geben. 3. 
©efattt e3 3b,nen beffer bicsfeit be§ ^UtffeS ju mofmen, ober jcnfeit^V 

4. £rotj beS ©turmce fain ba3 3d;iff recb^eitig in 9Jem g)orf an. 

5. £)iefer Xrunfenbolb bat urn feiner $amilte mitten bag £rinfen 
aufgegefcen. <>. Gr fiird) tete, bafj feinc Sorme bie fd;Ied;te ©emotm^ 
t)ett lerncn mod;ten. 7. £>er fyungrige 3Bolf ging meb,rmal<S urn bad 
£>au§ unb fucfyte !Wotiabbd;en. 8. SSermittelft feine§ grofjen Ginfluffes 
bet ben Mcicben fyat fid; £>err 31. jum 33iirgermeifter ertuafylen laffen. 

9. <5eit mann molmen ©ie in biefer ©trafce? €>eit brei lyafyren. 

10. Urn mcinetmiu'en mitt er nid;t mit mir ger)en ; bietteid;t miirbe 
er urn ^r/retmitten ger)en. 11. ^ft ®eotg oben? 2>a, er ift foeben 
bie Streppe l;inaufgegangen. 12. iaffen Sie un§ lieber nad) oben 
gef;en ; c3 mirb unS beffer gefatten oben ju filjen al§ unten. 13. G3 
r)at bor einigen 9)ttnuten geflingelt; met- roar ba? 14. ©3 roar 
jemanb, bcr fid; erfunbigen tuoltte, ob biefeS $au<o ]u bermieten 
fei. 15. SDem Xeftamente ^ufolge rourbe ba§ Gigentum unter bie 
beiben Sbrme beg 93erftorbcnen geteilt. 16. 9Neinetroegen mag 
er ger)en, fobalb e§ ifym gefatft. 17. Slufjer. bafi ©corg ein roenig 
grower ift, bcmcri't man gar t'cinen Unterfcbieb ^roifd)en ben beiben 
23riibern. 18. £>err £>. tft einer mciner beften Jreunbe; er ger)t 
faft nie am §aufc boriiber ofyne berein,mfommen. 19. Unroeit ber 
<Stabt ii ftel;t bae $au3, mortn id; geboren bin. 

§224] PREPOSITIONS. 263 

B. 1. I shall take my stick instead of my umbrella; I am 
not afraid of the rain. 2. Have you been taking a walk 
along the shore? Yes, in spite of the bad road. 3. Not far 
from the school I let my new knife fall into the snow, and 
could not find it again. 4. Do you know what was the 
matter ? I heard a great noise down-stairs. 5. I do not know 
(it), but I shall inquire, (i. Were you allowed (perf.) to stay? 
No, we had (perf.) on the contrary to go away again immedi- 
ately. 7. We have been here since yesterday, and we must wait 
three days more for the ship. 8. One part of the city lies on 
this side, the other on that side of a broad river. 9. I do 
not think much of this gentleman ; he would do anything for 
money. 10. By means of a microscope living animals can be 
seen in a drop of water. 11. Inconsequence of this bad 
news we must be back inside of a week. 12. Should we make 
sport of other people? 13. No, that is a bad habit. 
14. Yonder is the river; on this side stands my house, on 
that side his. 15. Notwithstanding the warning of his father 
the youth often went on the water in bad weather. 16. In- 
stead of taking the large boat he always took the small one. 


1. Weshalb hat der Trunkenbold das Trinken aufgegeben? 
2. Auf welche Weise hat sich Herr B. zum Biirgermeister 
erwahlen lassen ? 3. Haben Sie klingeln horen ? Wer war 
da? 4. Wo sind Sie geboren, und in welchem Jahre? 
5. Fiirchten Sie, es konnte regnen ? 6. Kannst du mir sagen, 
was auf der Strasze los war ? 

264 LESSON XXXIX. [§§225- 


225. Prepositions vary more, perhaps, as to idiomatic usage 
in dilTerent languages than any other part of speech. Their 
proper use must be acquired chiefly by practice and memory, 
but below are given the German equivalents, in various 
idioms, of the most commonly occurring English Prepositions, 
more particularly in cases where the usage of the two lan- 
guages differs. 

226. About. 

(a) In the sense of ' around ' = uin, as : 

<5te toerfammelten fid; urn ibn, They assembled about 

(b) Of time = uitgffaljr um (urn alone = ' at ' ; see § 227, 
{b) 1, below), as : 

Umicfiifjr um ^ebn Ubr, About ten o'clock. 
ttngcfiiljr um 2Betbnad)ten, About Christmas. 

(c) In the sense of ' nearly ' (of number) = tttOtt, UUgCs 
ftiljr (adverbs), as : 

@r hat etroa (ungcfiiljr) taufenb Stealer iibrig, He has 
about a thousand dollars left. 

{d) In the sense of ' with,' ' about ' (the pcrsofi) = fiet, as : 

^jch fyabe fein ©elb bet mir, I have no money with 
me, about me. 

227. At. 

(a) Of locality : 

1. = in, when the action, etc., is withi?i a building, etc., 
as : 

%n ber ©cbule, in ber 5ltrd;e, im Sweater, im £onjert, 
At school, at church, at the theatre, at the concert. 


2. = an, when the action, etc., is adjacent to the object 
of the preposition, as : 

9fot tfenfter, on bcr 3:biir, am £ifd)e, At the window, at 
the door, at the table (but feci Xijdjc, at table). 

3. = auf, when the action is on the siirface, or on an 
elevation, as : 

2luf bem 9ftarfte, ouf bem Salle-, auf bcr $oft, ouf bcr 
Uniberfvtat, auf bem ©cbloffc, At market, at the ball, 
at the post-office, at the university, at the castle. 

4. = iii or in with proper names of towns (also with 
§au§, 'home '), etc., as : 

gu (in) $ari3, At Paris. 
$U §oufe, At home. 

(bj Of time: 

1. = mn (most usually), as : 

Unt fyalb bier llbr, At half past 3 o'clock. 
Um Dftern, At Easter. 

2. = $U, with 3ett and ©tunbe, as : 
$nr redjten 3eit, At the right time. 
$U biefer ©tunbe, At this hour. 

NOTE. — Um with the ace. is also admissible with these words. 

3. = bet, as : 

SBci £age3cmbrud), At day-break. 
(c) Of price = }n, as : 

liefer gucfer rotrb ju jjtoei lljalern ba3 1$funb uevlauft, 
This sugar is sold at two dollars a pound. 

228. By. 

\a) Expressing the personal agent after the passive voice = 

tiUll, as: 

3>a3 Ainb roirb ton fetnen Gltern geliebt, The child is 

loved by its parents. 

266 LESSON XXXIX. |SS 228- 

(b) Of a part of the body, etc. = bet, as : 

(Sr nabm bag &inb bet ber §anb, He took the child by 
the hand. 
(/) Unclassified : 

©Ct £id)t, By candle-light. 

©Ct 9ta«$t, By night. 

Wit (Setoalt, By force. 

9Wit ber Gifenbafm, By the railway. 

gu 2anb, JU 2Baffer, By land, by water. 

229. For. 

Rendered usually by fiir, but : 

(a) Of purpose = :u {never fiir), as : 

T>te§ ift fdumce SSettct }um Spaycrcngchcn, This is fine 
weather for taking a walk. 

(Sr reift jum SSergnitgen, He travels for pleasure. 
(£) Of time : 

1 . Past = f ctt, as : 

<Scit eincm donate, For a month (past). 

2. Future = ttllf -f- ace, as : 

%d) rocrbc ouf einigc %aQt Derretfen, I shall go away for 
a few days. 

3. Duration = ace. without preposition, as : 

(Sr tear einctt ganjett 5Ronat bier, He was here for a 
whole month. 

(c) Of cause = attfj, as : 

Gr that c* au0 %wc6)t, He did it for fear. 

(d) Unclassified : 

four's (i'rjie, For the present. 

3um erftcti (jtoeiten, etc.) 9JlaI, For the first (second, 
etc.) time. 


3um ©e&urtStage, ^u SBetynadjjten, For (as) a birth- 
day-present, for a Christmas-present. 

230. I11. 

Rendered usually by in, but : 
(a) = ouf, as : 

In the street, 9(uf bcr <5traf$e. 

In the country, Wuf ban £anbe. 

In this manner, $faf bicfe SEBeife ace.). 

In German, 9tuf Teuifd). 
(J>) = Ulltcr, as : 

llntcr Glifabetbs Stegierung, In Elizabeth's reign. 

(0 = 3 U > as : 

^U 2&agen, In a carriage. 

231. Of. 

(a) by the genitive without preposition, to express the 
relation of the possessive case, as : 

3>r 3i>il(e unfevi SBatatf, The will of our father (i. e., 
our father's will). 

(0) = twit : 

1. After verbs, etc., as: 

3d) fprccbe boil thin, I speak of him. 

2. Between titles and names of places, as : 

Tic ftonigtn Hon Gnglanb, The Queen of England. 

3. After numerals and other partitives, as : 

Sitter Hon rnemen ^reunben, One of my friends. 
SDer dltcfte Don tnetnen SJriibern, The eldest of my 

4. Replacing a genitive plural without article, as : 

Gr iff bcr SSatet boil bier .Unaben, He is the father of 
four boys. 

268 LESSON XXXIX. [§§231- 

5. To avoid a succession of several genitives, as : 
$)te grau Dom Setter meinei Dnfcls, The wife of my 
uncle's cousin. 

(c) Of cause, when the cause is a disease = ail, as : 

(iv ftarfj an ber (Sclera, He died of the cholera. 

(d) Of place, with names of battles; 

1. = Jjci^ if named after a town, Tillage, etc., as : 
2)ie ©d;lacftt net Set^ig, The battle of Leipzig. 

2. = on, if named after a river, as : 

SDie <5d)Iad)t on ber 2tlma, The battle of the Alma. 

(e) Unclassified : 

SJlangel an ©elb, Want of money. 
giebe jum Gelbe, Love of money. 
2Ba3 foil OU0 mtr loerben ? What is to become of me ? 

232. On. 

Rendered usually by auf, but : 

(a) Of time or date = Ace. without preposition, or = an 
-J- Dat., as : 

$cn (or am) jtuolften ^anuav, On the twelfth of January. 

(l>) Of modes of progression = ju, as : 

$U ^ferbe, On horseback. 

#U gufce, On foot. 
(c) Of situation, on a river, sea, etc. : 

1. When it means on the water = auf, as : 

SSiele ©cftiffe fasten auf bem £>ubfon, Many ships ply on 
the Hudson ; — but : 

2. When it means on the shore = an, as : 

vmmtlton liefjt am £)ntario=(5ee, Hamilton lies on Lake 


(d) Unclassified : 

9WH gleifc, On purpose. 

93ct biefer Gklegenbctt, On this occasion. 

Ulltcr (or mtt) btefcv 93ebmgung, On this condition. 

3lm SBegriffc, On the point of. 

233. To. 

(a) When replacing the indirect object = Dative without 
preposition, as : 

3$ babe mcincr ©cbroeftcr etn 33ucf) gcgeben, I have given 
a book to my sister (i. e., my sister a book). 

(6) Of motion or direction to persons = ju, as : 

$d) toil! 311 mcinem Stater geben, I will go to my father. 

(c) Of motion to places : 

1. With proper names of countries, towns, etc. = nod), as : 

^cb, gebe nod) $art§, nodj £)cutfcblanb, I am going to 
Paris, to Germany. 

2. With common nouns (i) = in, on, or ouf respectively, 
with the Accusative, in various idioms, where these 
prepositions with the Dative = 'at' (see § 227, 
(a), above), as : 

3n bic 8d;ule, ®trcbe, ittS Sweater, $onjert u. f. ro. geben, 
To go to school, church, the theatre, concert, etc. 

9ln§ ^enfter, on bic 2Tbur geben, 
To go to the window, door. 

9luf ben Tlaxtt, S M, ouf bic $oft, Umberfttat gc^cn, 
To go to market, to the ball, post-office, university. 

(ii) Frequently = ju, which may usually replace the 
prepositions in the above idioms also, as : 

6r ift ntr Stabt, $ur ^irdbe u. f. ro. gegangen, 
He has gone to town, church, etc. 

27O LESSON XXXIX. [§234 

234. With. 

Observe the following Idioms: 

33on gan^cm VKr^en, With all my heart. 

@r jittcrt tior ftdlte, He trembles with cold (cause). 

3)a3 tft bci un§ nid)t <5itte, That is not the custom with 

(= among) us. 
3n biefer 2lbficbt, With this intention. 

Remark. — For the proper use of prepositions after partic- 
ular adjectives and verbs, see Less. XLIX. 


to intend, gebenfen account, bill, bie 9tcd)mmg 

be^enough, suffice, binrctcbcn dressing-gown, ber©d)lafrocf* 

bring with (one), mtt'bringcn evil, ba§ Ubel 

sign, unterjcidVnen relative, ber SBertoanbte 

bring back, ^uriicibringen treaty, ber 33ertrag* 

excursion, pleasure-trip, ber root, bie Sisurjel 

2lu3flug* this evening, bcutc 2lbenb 

harvesting, ba§ ©rnten thorough(-ly), griuiblid; 

favour, ber ©efallen fortunately, glucfHcbertoeife 

Louis, Lewis, Subrotg possible, mogltd) 

measles, bie -Jftafcrn ( L P L ) absent (on a journey), berreift 

Idioms: 1. To be accustomed, lit Wttool)iit)fit hubtn (+ infin. with ju). 

2. In the 111 ill rile of summer, Widen im Summer. 

3. To take a pleasure-trip (excursion), (Hntn Wueflun, moffitn. 

4. It looks like rain, 60 fie h t nod) Wcflcn am. 

5. Two or three, 3 toci oi0 " rei - 

6. He sprang out of the window, (fr forann, jutn JJtnfttr iJ'nniu 
(point of ingress or exit denoted by in + dat.). 

Note: It is customary, in referring to the relatives of the person addressed, to prefix 
frerr, Tfrnu or 7Sr<iu[cin, as the case may be, but this is not done in speaking of one's own 
relatives, thus: 

2Bie flebt cs %1)Ttm jptrrn SBater ? — But UKcin Cater ift iians roofil. 

§234] PREPOSITIONS. 271 


A. 1 . 2luf roeldje 3Beifc I;aben Sic bic franjbfifd;e ©brad;e fo 
gut gclcrnt ? 2. %d) fyabe suerft bic ©rammatif griinbltd; ftubicrt, 
unb bann fwbe id; anbcrtfmlb ^ab,re in grantrcid; $ugcbrad;t. 
3. 2Bie tange blcibt £<$r fterr 23ater nod; fort? @r fommt crft 
iibermorgen nad; §aufe. 4. 2Sa§ gebenfft bu fyeute Stbenb ju 
tbmn? $cr) roeifs c£ nicr)t ; fiir'S @rfte mufj id; meine Hufgaben 
mad;cn. 5. 2Bo l;aft bu ben r;iibfd;en ©djlafrocf befommcn? $d; 
fwbe ifm jum ©eburtstage befommcn, unb jtefye it)n r)cute jum crften 
9Jtale an. 6. @§ flingelt ; roer ift an ber £r)ur? @§ ift jemanb, 
ber ben §errn fbrecfyen mitt, aber er ift bei £ifcr)e unb tcif^t fid; 
nicbt ftoren. 7. SDu fttjeft am $enfter ; fter) bod; einmal jum 
$enfter b/inau§, unb bu roirft tt)n btetfcicfyt fefyen fonnen. 8. $u 
tr>ctd;cr $eit lebte SRoltere '? @r lebte unter ber 9tegicrung Subiuig 
XIV. Don granlreid;. 9. ^ft el moglid), ju berfelben $eit bon 
eine t <5ad)t gu fbred;en unb an eine an b ere ju benfen? 10. 2)ie 
Siebe jum ©elbe ift bie SBurjel aHe3 UbelS. 11. Unfer §au§ 
ftefyt am ©t. 2oren3=$Iuf$, unb bon ben genftern fteb/t man bie 
2)ambffd;iffc borbeigef;en. 12. SBiflft bu mir beinc ©rammatif 
lei(;en? $a mob, I, mit ber 53ebingung, bafj bu biefelbe Dor 
morgen juriidbringft. 13. ^ft £err 23. ju $aufe? 5?ein, cr ift 
auf brei 2Bod;cn berreift. 14. 33ei £age§anbrud; fingen bic 
SBogel am fd;bnften. 15. 3lIIe ^enfter unb £r;uren merben be§ 
•ftad)t§ au§ $urd;t bor ©ieben bei un% jugcfd;toffen. 16. 2Be§r/alb 
finb bie ®inbcr nicr)t jur ©dmle gegangcn? 17. @<3 finb mefyrere 
^inber in ber ©d;ule, bie an ben 3Jiafern gelitten r/abcn, unb bie 
Gutter fiird;tet fid; bor biefer $ranfr,eit. 18. SRetfen ©ie Ueber 
ju Sanb ober ju Staffer ? $m ©ommer §ieb, e id; e§ bor, §u Staffer 
ju reifen. 19. 9Hein SBater fyatte bie ©eroofynfyeit, un£ $inber urn 
fid; ju berfammeln unb un§ @efd;id;ten §u erjafylen. 20. bitten 
im ©ommer, unb bann roieber urn 2Beilmad;tcn, ger/e id; aufS 
Sanb, urn rnemc SBerroanbtcn ju befud;cn. 21. SSorigen ©ommer 
bticb id; mcbj aU bicrjcbn !Jagc bci benfelben. 

272 LESSON XXXIX. [9§»34- 

B. 1 . Good morning ; you have come just at the right time ; 
I was on the point of going to your house (say : going to 
you). 2. There is a ring at the door ; go to the door and see 
who is there. 3. When you go to the market, do not forget 
to go to the post also. 4. Do you intend to take a pleasure- 
trip this summer ? Yes, I intend to leave the town for three 
or four weeks. 5. Last summer we stayed away only a week. 
6. Does it not look like rain ? 7. Yes, I am afraid it might 
rain, but fortunately I have brought my umbrella with [me]. 
8. Have you any money about you ? I should like to pay 
this bill, and have left my purse at home. 9. I have about 
seven dollars and a half with me ; would that be enough (suf- 
fice) ? 10. Would you do me the favour to lend me the half 
of it (babon) for two or three days? 11. What magnificent 
weather for harvesting ; it has not rained for two weeks 
[past]. 12. Is the servant going to (the) market ? No, she 
was at (the) market (already) two hours ago. 13. The battle 
of Waterloo took place on the i8th of June in the year 1815. 

14. Some months afterwards the treaty of Paris was signed. 

15. When (at what time) and in what war did the battle of 
the Alma take place ? 16. It took place in the year 1855, 
during the war between England and Russia. 


1. Wann gedenken Sie die Stadt zu verlassen ? 2. Wo 
steht das Haus Ihres Herrn Vaters ? 3. Auf welche Weise 
gedenken Sie diesen Sommer zuzubringen ? 4. Wollen Sie 
einmal' zu mir kommen und den Nachmittag bei mir 
zubringen? 5. Es hat geklingelt; wer ist da? 6. Was fiir 
Wetter bekommen wir heute Abend ? 




235. Conjunctions are either : 

A. Coordinating, or those which connect sentences of 
the same rank or order (principal with principal, or dependent 
with dependent), or : 

B. Subordinating, or those which connect one sentence 
with another, on which it depends, or to which it is sub- 

A. Coordinating Conjunctions. 

236. I. Conjunctions Proper. — The Coordinating 
Conjunctions proper merely connect sentences without affect- 
ing their structure. They are : , , 

Ultb, and {general connective) ottcilt, ! . 

Obcr, or {general disjunctive) m §, [ * ( adversatwe "> 

bcmt, for {causative) foitbmi, J 

Remarks. — 1 . <2onbcrn is used after negative sentences only, 
and introduces a sentence correcting or contradicting the state- 
ment contained in the preceding sentence, in whole or in 
part, as : 

%$ bin md|t frcmf, fonbcrn gang gefunb, 

I am not ill but (on the contrary) quite well. 

But if there is no inconsistency or contradiction between 
the two statements, after is used, as : 

Gr bat e§ nid)t getfyan, abet er hnrb es> tbun, 
He has not yet done it, but he will do it. 

2. %btx does not necessarily begin the sentence and often 
comes after the verb. When abcr does not begin the sen- 
tence, it has rather the sense of ' however,' as : 



m 236 

$a$ bofe Sffieib abcr ging bor ben Spiegel, 

The wicked woman, however, went to the mirror. 

Note. — When there is any other conjunction present, nber seldom 
begins the sentence. 

237. II. Adverbial Conjunctions. — Many adverbs and 
adverbial phrases have the function of conjunctions, when 
they are used to express the relation between sentences, 
rather than to modify any particular member of the sentence 
in which they occur. 

The principal coordinating adverbial conjunctions are : 

(MO), also, too 

aufjcrbcm, besides 
bann, then 
fogat, even 

► connective (related to uttb) 

bennbdj, \ 
bod), [■ still 
jcbod), ) 

bentt, unless 

inbeffcit, however 
fonft, else, otherwise 
ttioljl, indeed 
Jluor, it is true, to be sure 



> (related to 






bcstucgcii, J ( causative (related to bcnit) 







alio, so, thus 
ebcnfo, just as 
bcfto, > 

fr ) 



► comparative 

H, ) 

. . r inasmuch as, as far as — restrictive 

tnfotoeit, j 

untcrbcffcn, ) ... 1 

• w rr r meanwhile 

inbcfien, ) 

. ' , . > time 

oarauf, afterwards 

fcttbettl, since then 

Remarks. — 1. Unlike the conjunctions proper, these adver- 
bial conjunctions, if they introduce a sentence, throw the 
subject after the verb ; but they may also follow the verb, 
thus : 

Gr iff franf ; bcffeminflcadjtet roirb er fommen (or : cr 
toirb bcfjcmtnticndjict fommen), He is ill ; neverthe- 
less he will come. 

@3 regnete, borum (babcr, be§roegen) fonnte id) (or : to) 
fonnte barum, etc.) nid)t ausgeben. 

2. %Ufl) and J0p,ar, when they refer specially to the subject 
or any other member of the clause preceding the verb, do 
not throw the subject after the verb, as : 

8ud) fetn 2>ater tear jugegen, His father, too, was 

Sogar feinen ^einben \)<\i er bergeben, He has pardoned 
even his enemies. 

3. The verb often comes first in a sentence with bocb, to 
express a strong affirmation, as : 

£)obc icb es bod) gefagt, Did I not say so ? 

2y6 LESSON XL. [§§238- 

238. III. Correlative Conjunctions. These are : 
enttocbcr . . . ober, either ... or) ... 

. - . , > disjunctive 

iDCOCr . . . nod), neither . . . nor ) 

nidjt nut . . . fonbmt aud), ) not only . . . ) 

c J. t* ii a ri*i r connective 

fotooljl . . . q18 aud|, ) but a'so ) 

niOjt fotooljl . . . aU, not so much ... as 

6alb . . . balb, now . . . now (again), at one time . . . 

at another 
tctls . . . tctlg, partly . . . partly 
cincrfettg . . . OUbcrfcite, on the one hand ... on the 


Remark. — The last three are adverbial conjunctions, and 
either follow the verb, or throw the subject after it, unless 
they modify a particular member of the sentence (compare 
§ 237, Remarks 1, 2, above). 

239. B. Subordinating Conjunctions. 

1. Sentences introduced by subordinating conjunctions 
are always dependent, and therefore have the verb last (see 
§ 3 2 )- 

2. Some of these also are adverbial, but, as this distinction 
does not affect the construction, they are not separately 

3. The principal subordinating conjunctions are as follows: 

id) Introducing substantive clause : 

baft, that 

0D, if, whether 

(b) Introducing adverbial clause : 

ale, \ \ hie (baft), until 

ba, \ when [time cljc (bafe), 1 Wrt „ \ 


[time c$c (bafe), I before 
) bettor, J 




while, whilst 

tnbcfj'cn, ^ 

nntcrbcff'cn, [ 

toiiljrcnb (baft), J 

fcit(bctn), since 
fob alb , as soon as 
fo langc, as long as 
(fo)toic, as soon as 
toic, how — maimer 

benn, than 

tok, } than ' as 

tntotcfmt , inasmuch as 

JC Itadjbcm', according as 

bo, since 

bttfj, that 

toctl, because 

bofj, that 

ouf baft, ) . , . 

' ' /in order that 

urn baft, j 

bamit', in order that 

tocnn, if 
aU ob, I 
ols tocnn, } 

fall*, ) • 

, > in case 
toofcrn, j 

obglcidj, tocnn glctdj, 
obi'ttjon, tocnn jdjon. 
ob nurf), tocnn and), 
ungcadjict (baft), 

tocnn . . . ntfljt, if not, unless 

' time 

> degree 



> although 


27$ LESSON XL. [§§ *39 

Remarks. — i. ilOcnn and ob take the subjunctive when 
the verb of the principal clause is in the inipf., plupf., or 
conditional, as : 

%d) toiirbc lommen, toenn id; tuobl genug toarc, I should 
come, if 1 were well enough. 

%d) ttuijjtc nid;t, ob cr gefommen luiirc (fci), I did not 
know, whether he had come. 

2. JlBciUt may be omitted in conditional sentences ; the 
verb then begins the clause, as in the question order (compare 
§ 59). This construction is much more common than in 
English, and is generally used when the dependent clause, 
containing the condition, precedes the principal clause, con- 
taining the consequence, as : 

gnittc idj ©elb, fo nnirbe id) $reunbe baben, If I had 
(had I) money, I should have friends. 

Note. — The particle fo should not be omitted in the latter clause 
when the former is without ruciltl. 

3. In the compound conjunctions obfllctd), 0&fd)01l, oblUOhl, 
etc., the two parts may be separated, and the latter part 
placed after the subject, as : 

©bglctd) (obfrfioil, etc.) er fremf Wax, etc. ; or : 
Ob er gleid) Iran! Wax, Although he was ill. 
Note. — With trjenn the particles fltctd), etc , always follow the subject. 

4. The ob or roenn may also be omitted in these conjunc- 
tions and in aU 00, o(8 ttJCnn (' as if ') ; the verb then begins 
the sentence, or immediately follows a\%, as : 

%\i er glcttf) ixani, Although he is ill. 

@g febeint mtr, aU ob (toenn) id; ©ie irgenbtoo gefefyen 

Ijattc ; or : aU Ijhttc id), etc., It seems to me, as if 

I had seen you somewhere. 

240] INTEKJIiCTIONS. _'/ ) 

24:0. Interjections. 

i. Interjections proper are not, strictly speaking, mem- 
bers of the sentence, and consist of sounds expressing 
either : 

(a) Independent outbursts of natural feeling, as : o, olj, 
of various emotions ; at), l)Ci, (jcifa, jltd)lje (hurrah), 
joy; ei, (jtt, pot}, surprise; ad), CM, pain; Jjfui (fie), 
disgust ; halj, contempt ; or 

(b) Intimations of will, as: p\i, fdj (hush), enjoining 
silence ; Ijc, Ijcfca', 1)0, Jjaflolj, 1)0001), to call attention. 

2. Various parts of speech, and even whole phrases, are 
employed interjectionally, as : bed, hail ; tt>eb, woe (subst.) 
bod), hurrah ; brato, bravo ; leiber, alas ; fort, toeg, away 
(adverbs); gottlob, thank God; also in oaths and adjurations. 

3. Akin to Interjections are imitations of natural sounds, 
as : Ijtti, ljujd), whizz ; JJtjf, Jiaff, puff, shot ; bttUJ, fall ; 
$ lulling, splash. 

4. (a) The Interjections 0, odj, Jlfut, are sometimes fol- 

lowed by a genitive, as : 
O ! (acb ! pfut !) bcr ©djanbe ! Oh ! (ah ! fie !) what 
disgrace ; 
or by tiber -f- accusative, as : 

^Pflti ! tibcr bid) $eigen ! Fie on thee for a coward ! 

(&) The substantives used interjectionally, as under 2, 
above, are sometimes followed by a dative, as : 
Sfiklj tnir ! Woe's me ! 
£eil bem ftfinigc ! Hail to the king ! 


to call for, abfyolen wear (intr.), fid) tragen 

go in, bjneingefyen prepare, bor'bemten 

2SO LESSON XL. l§ 240 

lay up, lay by, jurudlcvjcn to be to blame (for), fd;ulb 

old age, bay 2lltcr (adj.) fcin (an + dat.) 

joy, delight, bie $reube cheap, billig 

Lord, ber .'pert certainly, in any case, jebeits 

price, ber ^rcis fall<5 

tortoise, bie ©cbilbfrote ■ in vain, bergebemB 

guilt, debt, bie ©d;ulb even if, although, toenn aud; 

Idioms ; 1. I am studying (preparing) for an examination, 3d) bcrtitc mid) 
auf riu (frauifii (ace ) Dor. 

2. Do you consider that good .' yaltcu Sit tad fiir QUI ? 

3. To make rails, 8)cjud)e murticu. 

4. In the world, Huf Ber SDelt. 


A. 1. 2Btr foHten alle 9Jlenfd;en heben, tuenn fie une aud) 
fyaffen. 2. ©ie berfbracben, mid) abjubolen; attein id; nnutcte 
bergebenS, benn ©ie famen nid)t. 3. 23enn id; an !ybrem £aufe 
borttbergebe, fo gebe id) gelt>obnIid) binein. 4. 2tl3 id) aber geftern 
$Ibenb boriiberging, fab] id) fein Sicbt unb baber bin id) ntcfit 
bineingegangen. 5. %t mebr mir lernen, befto mebr finb mir tm 
©tanbe gu lernen. 6. SDtc ©cbiiler belommen morgen $erien, 
barum fbringen unb fingen fie bor $reube. 7. 2Bte febr id; mid) aud) 
bemiibe, e§ gelingt mir leiber bod) md)t, atte ©d|e bief-er 2tufgabe 
rid)tig §u febreiben. 8. 2)u tabelft mid), al§ ob id) febulb baran 
mare. 9. @in borftcbttger 5Jtann legt in feiner ^ugenb ©elb 
juriicf, auf bafc er in feinem 2llter nid)t 9Jiangel leibe. 10. 2luf$er 
roenn id; frant ober febr befdjdftigt bin, gebe id) jeben £ag fpajic- 
ren. 11. (Sr ift nicbt nur reid), fonbern aud) freigebig, unb be3: 
batb bat er fo biele $reunbe getbonnen. 12. fatten fair gemujjt, 
bafe ©ie b, eute 33efud) baben, fo roaren mir erft morgen gefommen. 
13. SBotten ©ie fid) erfunbigen, ob grau @. nod) in bemfelben 
§aufe roormt ? 14. @§ giebt nod) biele Seute auf ber 2BeIt, bie 
meber lefen nod; febreiben fonnen. 15. ©ie batten mir belfen 
fonnen, ibenn ©ie e§ getbollt fatten, aHein ©ie tootften e€ nid)t. 


lii. [JottS 3ic bee 3?adunittag3 ntd;t fommen fdnnen, fo fommcn 
Sie bod) bee 21benbe. 17. Cbgleid; £arl fd;on ^elm ^ar/re alt ift, 
fann er iueber 1311! leicn nod; gut fcftreiben. 18. Tie Sdulbhote 
lief, inbem ber irwfe fcfdief, beifjalb ift fie aud) juerft angefoms 
men. 19. £atte bet £afe nicfet gefd)lafen, fo rodre er jebenfattS 
juerft angelommen. 20. Xu follft beinen 33ater unb beine Stutter 
ebren, auf baft bu lange lebeft im Sanbe, bag bir ber ."oerr bein 
Sort giebt. 

B. 1. We shall come, even if it rains. 2. Before I leave 
the town, I must make some calls. 3. Shall we go without 
him, or shall we wait till he comes back ? 4. Whilst we were 
away, a thief came and stole the money. 5. Do you sit up 
late when you are studying ? 6. Not generally ; however, 
when I was preparing for my last examination I used to sit 
up late. 7. Do you consider this cloth dear ? The price is 
not high to be sure, but it will not wear well. 8. Here is 
cloth, which is dear, but I believe that it is good. 9. I do 
not, on the contrary, consider it dear, but cheap, since it is 
good cloth. 10. Since I have been ill, I am allowed neither 
to read much nor to write much. 11. It seems to me that it is 
colder to-day than yesterday. 12. It is^all^the same to^me, 
whether I travel by the steamer or by the railway. 13. [If] 
I had thought of^that, I should have gone to meet you. 
14. The hare slept, and in_the meanwhile the tortoise ar- 
rived. 15. If the hare had not slept, he would have arrived 


1. Die Fenster sind alle auf, wer ist daran schuld ? 2. Legen 
Sie viel Geld zuriick ? 3. Weshalb haben Sie mich nicht 
abgeholt ? I. Konnen Sie mir sagen, in welcher Richtung 
von hier der Fluss liegt ? 5. Hast du dein letztes Examen 
bestanden ? 6. Halten Sie diesen Hut fur teuer? 




i241. 1. 'idle ill follows and limits, or corrects, affirmative statements, 
as foilbcril does negative, thus : 

(St i ft icid), ollcitt cv ift nid)t gliicilid), He is rich, but he is not 

2. XcflO or tlllt fo (but not jc) may be used with a single compara- 
tive, as : 

(Sifen ©ie, bcraiit ©ic befto (urn fo) father anfommen, Make haste, 

so that you may arrive all the sooner. 

3- £f!§ is the most general in meaning of all the conjunctions. It may 
be omitted when it introduces a substantive clause, as in indirect state- 
ments. The sentence then has the construction of a principal clause 
(verb second ; see §87, 3). But bafj cannot be omitted when it expresses 
purpose or consequence. 

4. The Engl, //must be rendered by 06 (not roemi) when it — 
whether, as : 

I asked him if he could come, 3d) finite if)ii, ob cv fommen forme. 

5. For the distinction between al§, rueim (as conjunctions of time) and 
inarm, see § 58. 

6. ' Than ' should be rendered by olfl after an adjective in the com- 
parative degree, not by rule. 

7. Xcitlt = ' than ' is obsolete, except when used to prevent there- 
petition of ciliS, as : 

(§r ift grojjet al« 3)id)ter, benn ales s Jicnfd), He is greater as a poet, 
than as a man. 

8. In comparisons of equality, as ... as = (cbctt)fo • • tDtf, or at8, tint 
being more common, as : 

He is as tall as I, (5r ift (eben)fo grofj toie id). 
After a negative, ebeu is omitted, as : 
©r ift nid)t fo grog roie id). 

9. @0 • • ■ fo are used with correlative clauses, containing adjectives 
compared together in the positive degree (compare the use of je or befto 
with the compar. degree, § 1 26, 4), as : 


Si) gtofj et i ft, fo feige ift er and), He is as cowardly as he is 
big; or: ' equally big and cowardly'; lit.: Big as he is, he 
is just as cowardly. 
Note. — In the first clause of the above example fo is suborditmting ; in the second 
coordinating, but docs not throw the subject after the verb. 

Observe also the following construction, where the clauses cannot be 
rendered as correlative in English : 

©0 gent id) Sfynen (aud)) Ijetfen mod)te, fo unmbfllid) ift eS mir, 
However glad I should be to help you, it is quite impossible 
for me (or : Glad as I should be, etc.). 

10. As, when denoting cause (= ' since ') must be rendered by 
Da, as : 

I could not come, as I was not well, 3d) fomtte rtid)t fominen, JjU 
id) uid)t iuol)l iuar. 

1 1. As, in the sense of ' while ' = inbeffen, as : 

He fell asleep, as I was reading to him, Gr fdjlief cut, itiucffctl id)' 
thin DorlaS. 

12. Distinguish carefully between the following uses of Engl. since: 

(a) Since as preposition = feit (not feitbem), as : 
Since last Tuesday, Sett (extent SMettftog. 

(b) Since as adverb or coordinating adverbial conjunction = 
feitnem (not feit), as: 

He was here the day before yesterday, but I have not seen him 
since, SBorgeftertt nmr er bier, feitbem babe id) tint abcr ntdjt 

(c) Since as subordinating conjunction of time = fettbeitl or 
feit, as : 

I have not seen him since he recovered from his illness, 3d) l)Clbe 
ihrt ntd)t ncfeljen, fett(bcm) er gencfeit ift. 

(d) Since as conjunction of cause = bo, as : 

Since I have no money, I cannot pay you, $Q id) fcilt @elb babe, 
faint id) @te iiidjt bc$ablcn. 

13. After elje, bedor and tuiii)rcitu, bofj may be omitted. 

14. SBetlOr expresses time only, elje may also express preference ( = 
'rather '), as: 

(llje id) ba<5 thue, mill id) ftevben, Rather than do that, I will die. 


15. Observe that the adverbial conjunctions tuDeffen, UtttcrteffCH arc 
coordinating when they = 'meanwhile' (the pronoun beffcil being 
demonstrative), but subordinating -when they = 'whilst, while' (the pron. 
being relative), as : 

<3te fpradjen mit einauber; inbeffru (miterbcffen) ping, id) attf nub 

ab, They were speaking to each other; (in the I meanwhile I 

was walking up and down ; but : 
@ic fpradjen mit einanber, inbeffeii (rmterbeffen) id) auf nub ab 

fltnji, They were speaking to each other, while I was walking 

up and down. 
In the sense of 'however,' inbeffeu is coordinating only. 

16. ^ttbcm is subordinating only, and denotes cause as well as time, as : 

3d) braudje meljr <3Wb, inbem id) uicle ©djulben ju beijahlni babe, 
I need more money, since I have many debts to pay (having 

many debts to pay). 
3nbctn cr mir bie £anb gab, ladjelte er, As he gave me his hand 
(giving me his hand), he smiled. 
17- SBtil must be used (not ba) in answer to the question why? or 
wherefore ? as : 

SBorutn famen ©ie nidjt? SBctl id) franf war. 
Why did you not come ? Because I was ill. 

18. 'Unless' is rendered by tDCItn . . . nid)t {if ■ ■ ■ not), or by fceiltl 
(coordinating adv. conj.), as: 

2Bir roerbeu nidjt ausgehen fomten, toenn ftd) bas 2Bctter ntdjt 
artbevt, We shall not be able to go out, unless the weather 
3d) taffe bid) nid)t, bit fegneft mid) benn, I will not let thee go, 
except (unless) thou bless me. 
Note. — 2)enn in this sense always follows the verb. 

19. ' But ' after a negative = 0I8, as : 

3d) hatte nid)t$ 0I8 Ungliitf auf meitter iReife, I had nothing but 
misfortune on my journey. 
Note. — 91td)t§ roeniger ali> = ' anything but ' (not ' nothing less thai. 
<5r ift uid)t3 tuettifler a!3 reicr). Hi is anything but rich. 

20. Distinguish between : 

(a) £u = ' there ' : adverb of place, as : 
3d) roar ba, I was there. 


(f>) tu = ' then ' : adverb of time, as : 

25cr 2>tcb idjlid) infl $au3 ; too ergriff id) i()n, The thief sneaked 
into the house ; then I seized him. 

{c) $a = ' since,' ' as ' : subordinating conjunction, as : 

3d) foiiutc rtidjt fommcrt, t)u id) Iran! mar, I could not come, 
since (as) I was ill. 

21. Distinguish between bfffcnuitcjcadjtct, ' nevertheless' (coord, adv. 
conj.) and ltngcad)tct, 'although,'' '■notwithstanding that' (siibord.cox\y). 


1. Our neighbour has failed, but he is only the richer on that account, 
since he has not paid his creditors. 2. The hare was sleeping, whilst the 
tortoise crept slowly towards the goal. 3. Rather than accept your con- 
ditions, I will give up my position. 4. He has not been here since last 
week, and I have not seen him since. 5. Since you have not seen him, 
I must either go and see him (say : go to him), or write to him. 6. I con- 
sider him an ignorant man ; he is anything but learned. 7. Have you 
been at the railway-station ? Yes, I was there as the train arrived. 
8. We shall not go out this afternoon, because it looks like rain. 9. We 
shall not go out to-morrow either (mid)), if the weather does not change. 
10. The whole family was absent yesterday from eight o'clock till twelve 
o'clock at night ; meanwhile the house took (fangcil )fire. 





242. Nominative. 

i. The Nominative is the case of the subject, or of a 
word in apposition to the subject, or of a predicate noun quali- 
fying it. The nominative is also used in address, there being 
no special form for the vocative. 

2. Neuter verbs indicating a state or transition, such as 
fctn, to be ; toerben, to become ; bleibcn, to remain ; fcbeincn, 
to seem, appear ; betfsen, to be called, take a predicate nomi- 
native, as : 

©r ift Solbttt geroorben (geblicben), He has become (re- 
mained) a soldier. 

3. Verbs of calling take a predicate nominative, verbs of 
considering a nominative with al§, in the passive, as : 

$aifer £einrid) I. rourbe bcr ^ogtcr genannt, Emperor 
Henry was called the Fowler. 

■JUetn 3}ater tourbc immcr bon mir ale mein beftcr $reunb 
betracfitet, My father was always regarded by me (as) 
my best friend. 
Note. — Verbs of choosing generally take the preposition $u instead 

of the English nominative. 


§ 244] GENITIVE. 287 

243. Genitive. 

The Genitive is used chiefly as the complement of sub- 
stantives, its use in this respect being much the same as the 
English objective with 'of,' and also covering that of the 
possessive. Thus we have : 

i. The Genitive of Origin, as : 

3)ie gntcftte bcS 53aumc$, The fruits of the tree. 

2. The Subjective Genitive, indicating the agent or 
cause, as : 

2)er ©laube eincS Gbriftcn, The faith of a Christian. 

3. The Objective Genitive, indicating the thing affected, as : 

$)ie (Sntbecfung Stmerifag, The discovery of America. 

4. The Possessive Genitive, as : 

2)er ©arten beg &omg0, The garden of the king (the 
king's garden). 

5. The Genitive of Quality, as : 

3roct $mber einei Stltcre, Two children of one age. 

Notk. - This genitive is frequently replaced by Don, as : 
(Sin 2)iann Hon hohem 2Uter, A man of great age. 

6. The Partitive Genitive, as : 

@iner metner greunbe, One of my friends. 
Tier jungfte metner ©ruber, The youngest of my brothers. 
Note. — This genitive is commonly replaced by Don after numerals 
and other partitives. 

244. Genitive after Adjectives. 

Adjectives denoting posssession and interest, plenty, know- 
ledge, desire,guilt, or their opposites, govern the genitive, as : 
bebiirfttg, needing, in need beiuuf&t, conscious 

begierig (also -j- nacfr), de- eingebenf, mindful 

sirous fabig (also -f jju), capable 




frofy, glad 

geuuft, certain 

getuobnt (also + cm with ace), 

leer, empty 
lo§ (also -face), rid 
miibc (also + ace), tired 
fatt (also-f- ace), satisfied 

fd&ulbig, guilty 
ftcber, certain 
it'bcrbriifft^, weary 
ncrbacr/tig, suspected 
boll (also -|- ace, or -+- toon), 

inert (also-|- ace), worth 
tourbtg, worthy 

Remarks. — 1 . The neuter pronoun ' it ' after most of these 
adjectives may have the form ti, which is the old genitive, 
and is the origin of the later use of the accusative, first with 
the pronouns ba§, toai, and then, by analogy, with substan- 
tives, as : 

3d) bin ti (btt§) miibe, I am tired of it (that). 

2. With Io§, miibe, roert the Accusative is more usual than 
the genitive. 


Genitive after Verbs. 

1 . Verbs of meanings similar to those of the adjectives under 
the previous section take a genitive of the nearer object, as : 
acfyten (also + auf with ace), benfen (generally + an with 

^ (also + 

pay attention 
bebiirfen, need 
begebren, desire 
braucben, want 
cntbebren, miss, 

do without 

Also the following : 
barren (also + auf with ace) 

inarten (also + ace), tend, 


ace), think 
gebenfen, mention 
genicfjen (generally + ace), 

nergeffen (generally + ace), 


Iatf>en, laugh at 

fpottcn, mock 

foremen (also + ace), spare 


2. Transitive Verbs of accusing, condemning, acquittal, 
deprivation, emotion, take a genitive of the remoter ob- 
ject, as : 

aitflagen, accuse loSftorecfyen, acquit 

berauben, rob uberfiib/ren, convict 

befcbulbigcn, accuse ftberjeu'gen (also -f t>on), con- 
entbinben (also + toon), re- vince 

lieve berftcbern, assure 

entflctben (also -f bon), dis- roitrbigen, deem worthy 

robe jetben, accuse 

3. Also many reflexive and impersonal verbs (see §§ 215, 
216, 219). 

246. Adverbial Genitive. 

For the use of the genitive in forming adverbs from sub- 
stantives, see § 189, 2. The adverbial genitive may express 
place, time or manner, as : 

Stnfcr £»artb, On the left hand. 

(Seiner 2Bege gebert, To go one's way. 

£>iefcr Sage, During these (last) days. 

Slbenbg, In the evening. 

•Jftorgenl, In the morning, etc. 

2tttcS ©rnftcg, In all seriousness. 

£roc!nen $ufcc§, Dry-shod. 

And particularly with SBeife, 'manner,' after an adjec- 
tive, as : 

©lucflicbcr 2Beije, — or: | Fortunately (lit., in a fortunate 
©lucflicbertoeife, ) manner) 

247. For Interjections followed by a genitive, see 
§ 240, 4, (a). 

For the genitive after prepositions, see §§ 222, 223. 

2QO LESSON XLI. [§§247 


A. 1 . Guten Morgen, Karl ; was hast du fur Eile, mein 
Junge ? 2. Guten Morgen, Herr B. ; es ist bald neun Uhr 
und ich gehe jetzt in die Schule. 3. So, hast du noch weit 
zu gehen ? 4. Bis nach der Friedrichstrasze ; Herr G., 
unser Lehrer, besteht sehr auf Punktlichkeit. 5. Steige nur 
ein, du kannst mit mir fahren, da mein Weg durch die 
Friedrichstrasze fiihrt. 6. Ich bin Ihnen sehr dankbar ; das ist 
sehr freundlich von Ihnen. 7. Sitzt du da bequem ? 8. Ja, 
aber sind meine Biicher Ihnen nicht im Wege ? 9. Nicht im 
geringsten, aber was fiir eine Menge Biicher hast du da ! Du 
hast gewiss viel zu studieren. 10. Ich arbeite jetzt sehr 
fleissig, da das Examen nachstens stattfindet. 11. Auf 
welches Examen bereitest du dich vor ? 12. Auf das Ein- 
trittsexamen der Universitat. 13. Was fiir Sprachen stu- 
dierst du ? 14. Ich studiere Englisch, Latein, Deutsch und 
Franzosisch. 15. Natiirlich studierst du auch die Mathe- 
matik ? 16. Wir mussen Rechnen, Algebra und Geometrie 
lernen. 17. Bist du ein Freund von der Mathematik, oder 
ziehst du die Sprachen vor? 18. Ich lerne sehr gem Ma- 
thematik, besonders Algebra ; mein Lehrer glaubt, ich 
habe nicht viel Sprachtalent. 19. Deshalb solltest du desto 
fleissiger die Sprachen studieren, (auf) dass deine Bildung 
nicht einseitig werde. 20. Mein Vater ist auch derselben 
Meinung. 21. Hoffentlich wirst du dein Examen gliicklich 
bestehen ; da sind wir aber schon bei der Schule. 22. Ich 
danke Ihnen vielmals fiir den freundlichen Wunsch, wie auch 
fiir die Fahrt. 

B. 1. " An honest man is the noblest work of God." 2. A 
pound of iron is about as large as two pounds of silver. 
3. Mr. Cleveland was elected president of the United States 
in the year 1884. 4. I was to have taken (made) a journey 
to Europe this summer, but my father needs me in his busi- 

248] DATIVE. 2gi 

ness and I shall be obliged to remain at home. 5. I have 
been offered live thousand dollars for my house, and I shall sell 
it, for I am glad of the opportunity of getting (to get) rid of it. 
(3. The Duke of Wellington, a great English general ($elb* 
hcrr), was called the " Iron Duke," as Prince Bismarck, the 
great German statesman, is called the " Iron Chancellor." 
7. He (the former) has deserved that title not only as a soldier 
but as a man. 8. My neighbour, the merchant, has been 
accused of forgery, but I do not believe that he is capable 
of such a crime. 9. He was in^need of money, and is 
said to have done it on that account. 10. I hope that he 
will be acquitted of this accusation, for I am convinced of 
his innocence. 11. The discovery of America by (burd)) 
Columbus was perhaps the greatest undertaking of any man 
or of any age (3eitalter). 12. Columbus was a man of great 
bodily as well as mental power. 1 3. His whole fleet con- 
sisted of three small ships, of which two were very old. 14. 
Have you seen your brother the lawyer ? 15. Excuse [me] ; 
my brother is not a lawyer, but a doctor. I have not seen 
him since Christmas. 16. As a student he always us£d (pflegcn) 
to say he meant^to be (iucvbcn) a lawyer. 17. We are tired 
of studying; let us go out. 18. Shall I send for (natf)) a 
carriage ? 19. No, it is not worth while (bcr Wlufyc inert), I 
would rather walk. 20. Unfortunately it has rained and the 
roads are bad. 21. We can try (the) walking, and if we get 
tired of it, we can take the street-cars (^ferbc&abn, sing.). 



248. Dative. 

The Dative is the case of the Indirect Object. 

The Dative is used to denote the person for whose advan- 
tage or disadvantage a thing is or is done, as : 

2Q2 LKSSON XLII. |§§2 4 8- 

CSr bat mir cin V>nd) gefauft, He has bought me a 

24-i). The Dative is very freely used in German to denote 
the person who has some interest in an action or thing. This 
is called the ethical dative or dative of interest, and must 
usually be left untranslated in English, in which language its 
use is obsolete, thus: 

%$) babe mir bie <&ad)t angefeb, en, I have considered the 

thing (for my own satisfaction). 
3!bu mir bag nid;t toteber, Don't do that again (I tell 
For the possessive dative replacing, with the definite ar- 
ticle, a genitive case or (with pronouns) a possessive adjective, 
see § 44, 6. 

250. Dative after Veri:s. 

i. The Dative stands as the Indirect Object of transitive 
verbs, as : 

Gr gicbt mir ba§ 23ud), He gives me the book (the book 
to me). 

2. It stands as the sole object after verbs which express a 
personal relation only, such as verbs of : 

(a) Approach or removal, etc., as : 
begegnen, meet gleicben, resemble 

entgeben, escape nacfygeben, follow 

cnttyrcd) en, correspond to nad;ftcb, en, be inferior 

feblen, be wanting naben, approach 

folgen, follow jufeben, watch 

(l>) Pleasure or displeasure, as : 
bebagen, please broken, threaten 

bemfen, thank flucben, curse 


gefallen, please mifefal'lcn, displease 

geniigen, suffice fd;meidf>eln, flatter 

grollen, be angry [teben, suit, become 

(/) Advantage or disadvantage, as : 
beifteben, assist mangeln, be wanting 

bienen, serve 111113011, be useful 

belfen, help fdjaben, harm 

(d) Command, resistance and their opposites, as : 
befeblen, command frozen, defy 
gebieten, order ioeidjen, yield 
geborcben, obey JDtberfte'ben, oppose 
uerbieten, forbid tinberftre'ben, resist 

(e) After verbs expressing possession, trust, and various 
other persona/ relations, as : 

anttuorten, answer glauben, believe 

bciftimmen, agree with fdjetnen, seem 

ertoibern, reply trauen, trust 

geboren, belong jureben, encourage 

Also with fcin and tuerben, expressing a state of feeling 
(with ju s JJhtte expressed or understood), as : 
2Bie ift ^ljnen ? How do you feel ? 

Observe also the idiom : 2Benn bcm fo ift, ' If that is the 
case,' in which bcilt is dat. neut. 

(/) After many verbs expressing similar relations, com- 
pounded with the inseparable prefixes ct-, Cttt-, 
tier-, ttJtbcr ; with the separable prefixes on-, Ollf-, 
f»ei-, entgegen-, natfj-, t>or-, ^u-, etc., and with 
adjectives, nouns or adverbial phrases, such as : 

(eib tbun, be sorry ju QTeit tuerben, fall to one's 

luobltootten, be well-disposed share 

ju ©fatten fommen, be of use ba3 2Bort reben, defend 

294 LESSON XLII. [§§ 250- 

Ri marks. — i. The great majority of these verbs have 
become transitive in English, on account of the loss of dis- 
tinction between the dative and accusative ; their construc- 
tion in German should be carefully observed. 

2. Many of the verbs under (//), (e) above take a direct 
object, particularly in the shape of a clause or of a neuter 
pronoun, as : 

(iv hat mir Derbotcn 511 flcljcil, He has forbidden me 

to go. 
v Vh erimbette, bof; ttfj fomtnen tootle, I replied that I 

would come. 
Wan S3atet hat cs mir befohten, My father has ordered 
me (to do) it. 
For the Dative with Reflexive Verbs, see $§ 215, 216; with 
Impersonal Verbs, see §§ 217, 219. 

251. Dative after Adjectives. 

The Dative stands after adjectives similar in meaning to 
the Verbs given in the foregoing section, such as : 

(a) Approach, etc. : 

dbulicb, similar ungletd), unequal, unlike 

frcmb, strange nar/e (also + hoi), near 

ojcich, equal, like herluanbt, related 

(b) Pleasure, etc. : 

angenchm, pleasant Itch, dear 

gnabtg, gracious tmllfommen, welcome 

(c) Advantage, etc. : 

hcilfam, wholesome treu, faithful 

fcbulbtg, indebted 

(d) Command, etc. : 

fotgfam, "» ... ungeborfam, disobedient 

geborfam, j C hribrig, repulsive 

253] ACCUSATIVE. 295 

(e) Possession, etc. : 
eigen, belonging gemein(fam), common 

Note. — Almost any adjective modified by jll or geiwg may take a 
dative, as : 

jDieje §anb?d)ubc fnib mir ju grofi (grofi gcnug), These gloves are 
too large (large enough) for me. 

For the Dative after Prepositions, see §§ 46, 51. 

252. Accusative. 

The Accusative is the case of the Direct Object, Time 
and Measure. 

All transitive verbs take the direct object in the accusative. 
Remark. — Many verbs that are transitive in English are in- 
transitive in German (see § 250, Rem. 1, above), and vice versa. 

253. Double Accusative. 

The verb lebren, ' to teach,' governs two accusatives, one of 
the person and the other of the thing ; the verb fragen, ' to 
ask,' takes the latter accusative only when it is a neuter pro- 
noun, as : 

%$ toerbe bid) bic bcutfdjc Spratfjc leBren, I shall teach 
you the German language. 

%$ trjoflte bid) genie ctttJOS fragen, I should like to ask 
you something. 
Verbs of calling, etc., have a second accusative as facti- 
tive predicate, as : ' 

^jd) nannte iljn cincn barren, I called him a fool. 
Of Verbs of considering, etc., some, such as : betracftten, ' to 
regard ' ; anfeben, ' to look upon ' ; barftetfen, ' to represent,' 
take a factitive accusative with al3, as : 

%$) fefye ben 9tegcn ttlg erne 2SobItbat an, I regard the 
rain as a benefit. 

2of> LESSON XLII. 1§S 253- 

Other verbs of considering, with those of choosing, etc., 
which take a second accusative of this sort in English, are 
followed by a preposition (fur, ju) in German (see Less. XLIX). 

254. Accusative after Intransitive Verbs. 

1. Intransitive Verbs may sometimes be followed by an 
accusative of a meaning akin to their own, called the cognate 
accusative, as : 

£$d) fyabe eincn fd)5nen Xraum getriiumt, I have dreamt 
a beautiful dream. 

2. Intransitive Verbs may take an accusative of that which 
is effected or produced by the action they express, as : 

$etru€ tocintc bitterc 3tyriinen, Peter wept bitter tears. 

3. Intransitive Verbs may take an accusative followed by 
an adjective, etc., as factitive predicate, as : 

3d) fyabt tmd) fott gegeffen, I have eaten enough (lit., 

have eaten myself satisfied). 
SDa<3 $inb toeinte fid) in ben <Sd)Iaf, The child has cried 
itself to sleep. 
Remark. — The Accusative in all these constructions, ex- 
cept the last, which is not used in the passive, becomes a nom- 
inative in the passive construction ; that of the thing after 
lebren remains accusative ; with fragen and bitten, the ace. of 
the thing is not used in the passive. 

For the accusative after Reflexive Verbs, see § 216; after 
Impersonal Verbs, see § 219 ; after Prepositions, see §§ 34, 50 ; 
after some Adjectives, it replaces the Genitive (see § 245, 
and Remarks). 

255. Adverbial Accusative. 

1. The Accusative is used adverbially to express time (see 
§ 184, 1) and measure (see § 185, 4) ; also distance and way after 
verbs of motion, as : 


%d) bin fcd)8 i^tttc SWcilcn gefabren, I have driven six 

full miles, 
■©eleven 2Bcg toerben ©ie geben ? Which way will you 

The Accusative is used also in absolute constructions, 
especially with participles, as : 

@r fam ju mir, ben §ut in ber §anb, He came to me 

hat in hand. 
@r ftanb ba, bie 2lugen in bie §obe gcrid^tct, He stood 

there [with] eyes uplifted. 


A. 1. Also, Sie haben sich entschlossen, uns morgen friih zu 
verlassen? 2. Ich muss wohl, da meine Geschaftsangelegen- 
heiten mir keinen langeren Aufenthalt erlauben. 3. Sie reisen 
natiirlich mit dem zweiten Zug ab ? 4. Wissen Sie, um wie viel 
Uhr derselbe in B. ankommt? 5. Ich kann es Ihnen nichtganz 
genau sagen, aber er kommt gegen vier Uhr (des) Nachmittags 
an. 6. Das ist mir viel zu spat. Man erwartet mich schon um 
halb zwolf auf meinem Bureau. 7. In dem Falle miissen Sie 
wohl den Schnellzug nehmen, der schon um drei Viertel auf 
sieben abfahrt. 8. Es lasst sich nicht andern. 9. Gut, ich 
werde Sie Punkt sechs Uhr wecken lassen. 10. Ich danke 
Ihnen ; das wird durchaus nicht notig sein, da ich meine Weck- 
uhr bei mir habe. 11. Wie viel Zeit brauchen Sie, sich anzu- 
kleiden? 12. Zwanzig bis funfundzwanzig Minuten ; aber ich 
werde noch mehreres einzupacken haben. 13. Dann ware es 
jedenfalls besser, die Weckuhr auf halb sechs zu stellen. 14. 
Bitte, sagen Sie mir genau, wie viel Uhr es jetzt ist ; ich furchte, 
meine Uhr geht nach. 15. Es ist gerade neun Minuten vor elf. 
16. Ist es moglich ! Dann geht meine Uhr ja vor, anstatt nach. 
Sind Sie gewiss, dass Ihre Uhr richtig geht? 17. Jawohl ; ich 
habe sie heute nach der Stadtuhr gestellt. 18. Es wird spat ; 

298 LESSON XLII. [§§255- 

ich muss mich schlafen legen, urn morgen friih aufstehen zu 
konnen. l!>. Also machen wir es auf diese Weise : Sie stehen 
urn halb sechs auf, urn fiinf Minuten nach sechs friihstiicken Sie, 
um fiinfundzwanzig Minuten nach sechs wird der Wagen vor- 
fahren und in zehn Minuten sind Sie auf dem Bahnhofe. Dann 
haben Sie noch zehn Minuten iibrig, um Ihr Billet' zu losen 
und Ihr Gepack einschreiben zu lassen. Jetzt, gute Nacht ! 
20. Gute Nacht, schlafen Sie wohl ! 

B. 1. Do not trust those who flatter you. 2. Do not be- 
lieve them, for flatterers are liars. 3. I always considered my 
father as my truest friend. 4. The general commands the sol- 
diers : the soldiers obey the general. 5. What is^the^name 
of the gentleman whom we have just met ? His name has 
escaped me. 6. You should never forget to thank those who 
help you. 7. How does this hat, which I bought myself yester- 
day, please you ? 8. It does not become you very well ; it is 
too large for you. it. When I was going to the railway-station, 
a boy met me and gave me a telegram. 10. May I ask you if 
Mr. H. is related to you? 11. He resembles me very much, 
but he is not related to me. 12. Mr. B. has been ordered, on 
account of ill-health, to go to a warmer climate. He has been 
forbidden to pass the winter in the North. 13. How long does 
he remain absent? 14. He is to remain absent at least four 
months. 15. Last week I ordered (myself) an overcoat at the 
tailor's, which he was to bring me to-day. 16. The Niagara Falls 
are considered (one considers, etc.) as one of the greatest 
wonders_of w the w world. 17. People say of one who sleeps 
very soundly that he sleeps the sleep of the righteous. 18. 
May I ask you to assist me, or at least to advise me ? 19. I 
should be very glad to be able to help you. 20. I am in need 
of money, and should not like to ask any one else for it. 

257] THE PRESENT. 299 



256. The Indicative is the mood of reality and direct 
statement. As the tenses are used with reference to time 
in the Indicative only, their proper use is given here. 

257. The Present. 

The Present Tense answers to all the English forms of 
that tense (e. g., id) lobe = I praise, am praising, do praise), 
and is used : 

1. To denote action now going on, as : 

Xas Stint fdjltift The child is sleeping (now). 

2. To state a general fact or custom, as : 

Tcr 3d;nee ijl toeif}, The snow is white. 
£er £d})c frifet ©raS, The ox eats grass. 

3. For the imperfect in historical narrative, to give greater 
vividness, as : 

©efcfytoinb Ijcfit or cinen Stein nuf unb tturft benfelben bem 
.<£>unbe, ber ihn beifjen mitt, an ben ftopf, Quickly he 
picks up a stone, and throws it at the dog, who is 
about to attack him. 

4. For the English perfect (as in French), when the action 
or state continues in the present, the past being inferred and 
the present alone expressed, as : 

SEBie lange ift er frfion franf ? How long has he been 

ill? (N. B.— He is still ill.) 
^d) gctye feit ad)t Tngen uneber jur 'Srfiulc, I have been 

going to school again for the last week (and am still 

Note. — This construction is very common with feit. 

300 LESSON XLI1I. [§§257 

5. For the future very commonly, where no ambiguity 
would arise, particularly to replace the English form ' am 
going to,' as : 

%<§ jrfjrcibc morgen cinen 33rief an meincn SBater, I am 
going to write a letter to my father to-morrow. 

258. The Imperfect. 
The Imperfect is used : 

1. As the historical {narrative) preterite, when an event 
is told in connection with others, as : 

3m 2lnfang fdmf ©ott &immel unb (Srbc, unb StUeS toor 

nntfte unb leer u. f. \x>., And in the beginning God cre- 
ated heaven and earth, and all was waste and 
void, etc. 

2. To denote customary, continued or contempo- 
raneous action, replacing the English forms 'was doing,' 
'used to do,' as : 

@r ging jeben £ag urn bier Ufor au3, He used to go out 
every day at four o'clock. 

2Bir fuljrcn an ber $ird)c. borbei, ate bie Ubr elf fdjlug, 
We were driving past the church, as the clock 
struck eleven. 

259. The Perfect. 

1. The Perfect indicates a past event as complete and 
no longer continuing, thus : 

^cfc Ijabc gclebt unb gdtebct, I have lived and loved 
(and both my life and my love are ended). 

2. The Perfect is used of an event as a separate and 
independent fact, simply asserted as true without reference 
to any other, as : 

©ott f)ot bie 2Belt crfdjaffcn, God created the world ; 

261] THE PERFECT. 301 

but in the sentence : 

©ott jdjuf bie SBcU in fed)3 Stagen unb ruljte am 
fiebenten, God created the world in six days, and 
rested on the seventh, 
the imperfect is used, because the two events are connected. 

3. The Perfect is used (apart from historical narrative), in 
preference to the Imperfect, of an event which has not been 
witnessed or participated in by the speaker, as : 

©eftern ifi ein ftinb crtrunfen (Per/.), A child was 

drowned yesterday ; — but : 
©eftern crhanf {Imp/.) cin &inb, als icf> am Ufer ftonb, 
A child was drowned yesterday, when I was stand- 
ing on the shore. 
Remark. — This distinction between the use of the Perfect 
and Imperfect is not accurately observed, but it is always 
better to render the English forms ' was doing,' 'used to do,' 
by the Imperfect. 

4. The Perfect replaces the Future-Perfect, as the Present 
does the Future, as : 

^d) iuerbc fommen, fobalb id) meine ©efdiafte abgnnad)t 
Jjabc, I shall come, as soon as I have (i. e., shall 
have) finished my business. 

260. The Pluperfect. 

The Pluperfect is used, as in English, of a past action 
completed before another was begun, thus : 

Gr Ijattc feme 3lufgabe tioflcnbct, clje Sic famen, He had 
finished his exercise, before you came. 

261. The Future. 
The Future is used : 

1. Of an action about to take place, as : 

Unfer SSater toirb un3 lobcn, Our father will praise us. 

302 LESSON XLIII. 1§S 261- 

2. To denote probability or supposition, as : 

(53 roirb mcin 23rubet jctn, bet cragelommen ift, It is 
probably my brother who has arrived. 

262. The Future-Perfect. 

The Future-Perfect is the Perfect in the Future, and 
expresses probability even more frequently than the simple 
Future, as : 

5D« 93rtef toirb fcfcon geftern gctommcn fcin, The letter 
probably arrived yesterday. 


A. 1. Diese Hitze ist unertraglich ; ich glaube, nie einen so 
heissen Sommer erlebt zu haben. 2. Und wie schwiil es ist ! 
Sieht es nicht sehr nach Regen aus ? 3. Richtig, da sind 
schon die ersten Regentropfen, und ich meine, vor einigen 
M inuten Donner in der Feme gehort zu haben. 4. Das macht 
mir einen Strich durch die Rechnung. Bei diesem Wetter 
kann ich unmoglich zur Stadt gehen. 5. Fur's Erste allerdings 
nicht, aber das Gewitter wird nicht lange anhalten. 6. Das ist 
ein wahrer Platzregen ; so ein Regen ist dem Lande sehr notig. 
7. Ja, wir haben diesen Sommer uberhaupt sehr wenig Regen 
gehabt, aber vorigen Winter desto mehr Schnee. 8. Hdren 
Sie, das war ein Knall ! 9. Ja, und wie schnell der Donner 
auf den Blitz folgte ! Fiirchten Sie sich vor dem Blitze? 10. 
Seitdem es voriges Jahr iu unserer Nahe eingeschlagen hat, bin 
ich ein wenig angstlich. 1 1 . Das glaube ich schon, aber sehen 
Sie doch, jetzt hagelt es noch sogar ! 12. Das braucht das 
Land gewiss nicht, aber die Hagelkorner sind nicht grosz 
genug, um viel Schaden anzurichten. 13. Es fangt schon an, 
sich aufzuhellen j das schlimmste ist vorbei. 14. Wie sich die 
Luit abgekiihk hat ! 15. Und wie schnell ! Das ist oft der 
Fall hier zu Lande. 16. Jawohl ; erinnern Sie sich nicht des 


wechselhaften Wetters, das wir vorigen Friihling gehabt haben ? 
17. Besonders im Marz und Anfang April. 18. Einen Tag 
thaute es, den nachsten fror es, und am dritten Tage regnete 
oder schneite es gar. 19. Dann gab es wieder eine Hitze 
wie mitten im Sommer ; schon im April hatten wir fast 
achtzig Grad Fahrenheit. 20. Da scheint die Sonne wieder ; 
ich sagte Ihnen ja, dass das Gewitter nicht lange anhalten 
wiirde. 21. Da haben Sie Recht ; jetzt muss ich mich auf den 
Weg machen. 

B. 1. A misfortune seldom comes alone. 2. Schlegel trans- 
lated Shakespeare's works into German. 3. Is your father at 
home ? No, he has been away for three weeks, but he is (prob- 
ably) coming back to-morrow morning. 4. As soon as I have 
news of his arrival, I shall come again. 5. During my illness 
I used to go for a drive two hours every day. 6. Are you 
going (to go) to the concert this evening? I do not think I 
shall go. 7. Have you an engagement elsewhere ? No, but I 
am going to bed immediately, as I start for Boston to-morrow 
morning at seven o'clock. 8. People (man) are often con- 
scious of bad habits, which they cannot get rid of. 9. Have 
you been long in America? I have been here since my fifteenth 
year. 10. This is probably a letter from my mother, for that is 
her hand-writing. 11. We had hardly been at home half an 
hour, when it began to rain. 12. Shakespeare is considered 
the greatest poet of the English nation. 13. He was born at 
Stratford-on-Avon, and passed his youth in that place. 14. As 
a young man he went to London, became celebrated there, and 
died in the year 16 16 in his native^town. 15. The sun was 
setting, and the long [and] desperate combat was not yet 
decided. 16. For the third time our brave soldiers throw 
themselves upon the batteries of the enemy. 17. Nothing 
could resist this attack ; the enemy wavers, and the victory is 
ours. 18. But what a dearly-bought victory ! 19. He, who 

304 LESSON XLIV. [§§ 263- 

led the soldiers into the combat, comes not back with them. 
20. Yonder he lies cold and silent, and our triumph becomes 
bitter mourning. 



263. The Conditional. 

1. The Conditional tenses are, in form, subjunctive past 
tenses, answering to the Future as a present. 

2. They indicate possible futurity, and coincide with the 
Impf. and Plupf. Subj. in their use in conditional clauses, and 
will therefore be treated conjointly with them (see § 267, 

Note. — The Tenses of the Conditional are a new formation; the 
Impf. and Plupf. Subj. having, in the older stages of the language, per- 
formed the function of the Conditional. 

264. The Subjunctive Mood is used much more fre- 
quently in German than in English, the distinction between 
Indicative and Subjunctive being almost entirely obliterated 
in the latter language. 

265. The Subjunctive in Indirect Statements. 

The Subjunctive is used in Indirect Statements or 
Quotations (see also § 87), i. e., when the words used are 
quoted in substance only, and not as they were spoken, espe- 
cially after a verb in the principal clause signifying : 

(a) Imparting of information (statement, report, con- 
fession, reminding, etc.), as : 
anttoorten, answer erjdblen, relate 

bebauptcn, assert gcftcbcn, confess 

bertcfyten, report fagen, say 


(£) Apprehension, as : 

benfen, think mcinen, be of opinion 

crinnern (refl.), remember mcrfen, observe 

fiibjen, feel fdjlieften, conclude 

biircn, hear toiffen, know 

(c) Contemplation with various emotions, as : 
furd)ten, fear tounbern (refl.), wonder 
freuen (refl.), rejoice tDiinfd;en, wish 
glauben, believe jtoeifeln, doubt 
boffen, hope 

(d) Request, command, advice, etc., as : 

befeblen, command ratcn, advise 

bitten, ask toerlartgen, demand 

ermafjnen, admonish 

266. The Tense in Indirect Statements. 

The verb of the Indirect Statement is, as a rule, in the 
same tense as it would have, if the statement were made 
directly (see § 87, 2), i. e., the tense of the Indirect Statement 
is the same as that of the Direct. 

Remarks. — 1. An Indirect Statement is always a subordi- 
nate clause. 

2. The conjunction baft may be omitted in such clauses, 
which will then have the construction of a principal sentence 
(i. e., verb second ; see § 87, 3). 

3. The Indicative may replace the Subjunctive in Indirect 
Statements, when the speaker wishes to represent his own 
belief in the correctness of the statement, as : 

3>cb fyafo gefyort, baft mein ©ruber fram* ift, I have 
heard that my brother is ill {and he is ill). 

©ie ttmfttc, baft ber ©ptegel feine Untoabrbcit fpraii), unb 
merfte, baft ber $&ger fie betrogen Ijattc, etc. (Grimm, 

306 LESSON XLIV. [§§ 266- 

Sneennttchcn, p. 52, 1. 1), She knew that the 
mirror did not tell a lie, and saw that the huntsman 
had deceived her (and he had deceived her). 
But the Subjunctive is used, when the truth of the state- 
ment is not vouched for, or when any doubt is cast upon 
it, as : 

%a% bo§baftc Tiktb aft fie auf unb mcintc, fie (jiitte 
(2necnnttd)en3 Surige unb Seber gegeffen (ibid., 'p. 49, 
1. 8), The malicious woman devoured them, and 
thought she had eaten Sneewittchen's lung and 
liver (whereas she had not eaten them). 

4. The tense of the Indirect Statement does not depend on 
that of the principal clause, and the sequence of tenses which is 
observed in English is not found in German, as : 

(Engl.) He said he was not ill. 
(Germ.) ©r fagtc, er fci nidbt hranf. 

Notes. — 1. The Subjunctive is unusual after the verbs under (t>) and 
(c) in the previous section (except hbrert), if the principal clause has a 
present tense. 

2. The rule as to tense is not always strictly observed, the tense used 
being sometimes determined by the want of distinctive subjunctive forms. 
Thus in the following sentence two different tenses are used : 

Stud) jdjlofj er, c§ miiffe bie Sage Dom ©laSmannlein nicht febr 
befamtt join, unb ben ©prudj mitfjtcn nur roenigc roiffert (Hauff, 
Das kaltc Herz, p. 8, 1. 7), Further, he concluded that the 
legend of the Glass-manikin could not be very well known, and 
only a few people could know the verse. 

3. After an Impf. in the principal clause, the Subjunctive is usual in 
the Indirect Statement, except as in the second example under Remark 3, 

4. The verb of the principal sentence sometimes remains unexpressed, 
or is replaced by a noun of kindred meaning, as : 

Gr licfj micf) nbtoetfen, mcil cr fmnf ffi, He refused to see me, 
because (as he asserted) he was ill. 


M) lief [0 jdpicU one moglid), an? J?urd)t, id) mbdjtc $a (pat torn 
men, I ran as quickly as possible, from fear that I might come 
too late. 
Xa? fjiitlC icfj iiefaflt? (Do you mean to say that) I said that ? 
This last construction is very frequent in German, to express empha- 
tically a doubt as to the truth of a statement. 

2<>7. The Subjunctive and Conditional in- 
Hypothetical Periods. 

Example of a Hypothetical Period: 

If I had followed your advice, I should have been 

1. The above sentence consists of two parts. Of these the 
one expresses a condition, conceived, in this instance, as unreal 
or impossible, viz. : 

If I had followed your advice {which I did not) ; 
the other expresses a result, also unreal or unrealized, which 
would have followed, had the condition been realized, viz. : 

I should have been happy (which I am not). 

2. In both parts of the above period (in the condition and 
in the result), the verb is in a past tense (Impf. or Plupf.) 
of the Subjunctive Mood, as : 

2Berm irh ^brcn 3{at bcfolflt Ijattc (Plupf. Subj.), fo ttJore 
id; gliicflid) gclocfcn (Plupf. Subj.). 

Remarks. — i. Either of the two clauses may stand first; 
thus, the sentence given above may have the form : 

^d? to&re glucfUrf) getoefen, roenn u. f. to. 

2. The conjunction toenn may be omitted, especially when 
the condition precedes the result, in which case the verb y. ill 
begin the sentence, as : 

£>tittc id) ^bzen fftat befolgt, fo Ware id) gliicfltd). 

308 LESSON XLIV. 1§S 267 

3. If the result clause follows the conditional clause, it is 
usually introduced by the particle fo, and always when HJCltlt 
is omitted in the preceding conditional clause (see § 59, and 

4. The conditional tenses may replace the Impf. and Pluptf. 
Subj. in the apodosis, result or conclusion only, as : 

3Senn id) ^brcn Mat bcfolgt btittc, fo toiirbc id) glucftid) 
gctucfen fein. 

5. If the condition is stated without its unreality being 
implied, the verb is in the Pres., Perf., or Fut. Indicative, as : 

2Benn er fommt, fo toerbe id) fortgefyen, If he comes, I 
shall go away. 

6. A condition may be introduced by q!§ ttJClttt or rt(S 00, 
' as if,' thus : 

©r ftebt au§, al8 ttcnn (aft) er fran! to'avt, He looks as 
if he were ill. 

Note. — In clauses of this kind, roerm or ob may be omitted, and the 
construction is then inverted accordingly (see § 239, 4), as : 
(5r ftebt cute, ate foore er frartt. 

268. Other Uses of the Subjunctive. 

1. The Pres. Subjunctive replaces the missing persons 
(1. and 3.) of the Imperative Mood, the subject being then 
put after the verb, except in the 3. person, where it may also 
precede, unless the pron. 2ic is used for the 2. person, as : 

©cfye er (or er gebc) nad) £>aufe, Let him go home. 

2. The Impf. and Plupf. Subjunctive are used to express 
a wish, as : 

2B&re id) bet lybnen ' Would that I were with you ! 
•Note. — This is really an elliptical conditional clause, with the result 
unexpressed; the full form may be. supplied thus: 
SBfire id) bei 3hncn, (fo rotirc id) gliicflidj). 


3. The Subjunctive is used in clauses expressing purpose, 
with the conjunctions bafj, auf baft, bamit, as: 

(St cilte, bnfe (auf baft, bamit) er ,uir rechten 3ett anionic, 
He hastened, (in order) that he might arrive in 
good time. 

4. It is also used after a negative or an indefinite relative, as : 

§ier ijt ntcntanb, bev mid) nid)t fcuutc, There is nobody 

here, who does not know me. 
^d) iucrbc e§ tbun, luos aitd) bafcon fommen moflc, I shall 

do it, no matter what may come of it. 
Note. — The Indicative is also admissible in these constructions. 

5. The Impf. Subjunctive is sometimes used to express 
possibility, as : 

25a§ gutge rcobl, That might (possibly) do. 
$d) bttlfjtc, ba# toarc gut, I should think that might 
be good ; 
and especially with the Modal Auxiliaries, as : 

SDaS miidjtc (fonntc, biirfte) tuafyr fetn, That may (pos- 
sibly) be true. 

6. Observe the following idiom : 

2Bie bem aud) fet, However that may be. 


A. 1. Ich habe gehort, dass Sie Ihr Haus verkauft haben ; 
istdaswahr? 2. Ja, meine alte Wohnung gefiel mir nicht 
mehr. 3. Wie kommt das ? Ihr Haus schien mir immer eine 
sehr elegante und bequeme Wohnung zu sein. 4. Ein besse- 
res lasst sich nicht leicht finden; allein, seit(dem) die vielen 
Fabriken in der Nahe gebaut worden sind, gefallt mir die 
Umge'bung nicht mehr. 5. Das kann ich mir schon denken. 
Der Rauch von den Fabriken muss sehr unangenehm sein. 
ti Das ist nicht das Schlimmste ; das fortwahrende Gerausch 

3IO LESSON XLIV. [§§268- 

bringt einen oft zum Verzweifeln. 7. Hal)en Sie cin anderes 
Haus gekauft ? 8. Nein, vorlaufig habe ich mir ein Haus in 
der Schillerstrasze gemietet, sobald ich aber einen passenden 
Bauplatz linden kann, werde ich bauen. 'J. Haben Sie sich 
schon nach einem Bauplatz umgesehen ? 10. Ich habe die 
ganze Stadt durchsucht, aber ohne Erfolg. 11. Sie musseh 
sehr schwer zu befriedigen sein. 12. Das gerade nicht, nur 
bestehe ich auf drei Bedingungen : Frische Luft, eine ruhige 
Strasze und eine schone Aussicht. 13. Warum bauen 
Sie nicht auf der Anhohe in der Vorstadt, jenseit des 
Flusses ? 14. Daran habe ich schon gedacht, nur sind mir 
die Preise ein wenig zu hoch. 15. Das wiirde mich nicht 
abhalten, so lange ich nur bekame, was ich wiinschte. 1*>. Es 
wird mir wohl nichts iibrig bleiben, als mich dort anzukaufen. 
17. Beabsichtigen Sie, mit Backstein oder mit Quaderstein zu 
bauen ? 18. Ich muss das erst mit meinem Architekten 
besprechen. 19. Welchen Architekten haben Sie gewiihlt ? 
20. Herrn Kalk, der den Plan meines alten Hauses ent- 
worfen hat. 21. Dann bekommen Sie jedenfalls ein gutes 
Haus. Ich wiinsche Ihnen Gluck zu Ihrem Unternehmen. 
22. Danke vielmals. 

B. 1. An old beggar-man said: "When I was young, I 
could have worked if I had wished (iDoden), and now I should 
be glad to work, if I could, but I cannot. Alas ! had I only 
been more industrious." 2. A certain French king is said to 
have died of hunger, for fear that he might be poisoned. 3. I 
wish my house were not so far from yours. 4. I too ; if the 
way were not so long, we could visit each other oftener. 
5. We were astonished to see Mr. B. on the street this 
morning, as we thought he was still in England. (J. They 
say he intended to remain three months longer in England, 
but that he was obliged to come home on account of business 
matters. 7. What did the gentleman whom we just met ask 


you ? He asked me how far it was to the town-hall. 8. The 
messenger asserted that he could not wait longer because 
he had no time, but I believe it was for (au3 -|- dat.) 
another reason. 9. A certain gentleman wanted to set his 
watch, and asked his servant what o'clock it was. 10. The 
servant .answered that he had no watch, but that he had 
seen a sun-dial in the neighbour's garden. 11. To^this 
the gentleman replied absent-mindedly : " Go immediately 
and ask him for permission to bring it up here." 12. 
Do you believe that the German language is as difficult 
as the French ? 13. When I began to study German, I 
thought it was not so difficult as French, but now I believe 
otherwise. 14. I should be very sorry, if the news were true 
which I heard this morning. 15. The boys must not skate 
to-day ; the ice is too thin, and they might break through 
and be drowned. 16. Please tell me who translated Shake- 
speare's works into German. 17. Would it be worth while to 
take a carriage to drive to the bank ? No, 1 do not think so. 
18. He said that of us ! I should never have believed it. 
1!). I asked the bookseller: "Have you Schiller's works?" 
He answered : " I have not^a single copy of them left. 
20. I asked the bookseller if he had Schiller's works, and he 
answered that he had not_a single copy of them left. 




The Imperative expresses a command and corresponds 
precisely to the English Imperative. The Imperative proper 
occurs only in the 2. person, the other persons being supplied 
by the Pres. Subjunctive (see § 268, 1, above). 

312 LESSON XLV. [§§269- 

REMARKS. — 1. The pronoun of the 2. Pers. is only ex- 
pressed for the sake of emphasis or contrast, as : 
(Singe bit, Do you sing, 
©ebt iljr, tore toerben blciben, You go, we shall remain. 

Note. — The pronoun, if expressed, always follows the verb, as above. 

2. Where no definite person is addressed (e. g., when an 
author is addressing his readers), matt should be used with 
the Pres. Subj., as : 

9Kott benfe fid) meinen ©cbretfen, Imagine my fright. 

3. The Modal Auxiliaries follen, muffen, Iaffctt are used with 
imperative force, as : 

3)u foflft ntd)t toten, Thou shalt not kilt. 

©r tttllft fd)retben, He must write. 

Cafe (Iafjt, Iaffcn ©ic) un<S geben, Let us go. 

4. The Present and Future Indicative are sometimes used 
with emphatic imperative force, as : 

2)u blcibft bier ! You are to stay here ! 

<5ie rocrbctt bie ©iite Ijubctt, morgen friiber ju !ommen, 
You will have the goodness to come earlier to-morrow. 

5. The Past Participle and Infinitive are also used in ex- 
clamatory clauses with the force of an Imperative, as : 

Sltgefaljrcn, $utfd)er ! Drive on, coachman ! 
©till ftd|Ctt ! Stand still ! 
(Stttftcigctt ! All aboard ! 

6. In elliptical and exclamatory clauses a command is fre- 
quently expressed by an adverbial prefix or prepositional 
phrase, without a verb, as : 

$rij$ nut ■ ^ameraben, oufg $ferb ! aufS *Pfcrb ! 

Up ! comrades, to horse ! to horse ! (Schiller.) 

SDrauf unb bran ! Up and at them ! 

fytv ju mtr ! (Come) hither to me ! (Goethe, Faust.) 



270. The Infinitive as Substantive. 

The Infinitive is a verbal substantive, and any infinitive 
may be used as a substantive of the neuter gender, declined 
after the dialer Model (§ 16). 

Remarks. — i. The Infin. as Subst. indicates action, as: 
2)03 £efen, ' (the act of) reading,' — but: gute Sectiire, 'good 
reading, good literature.' 

2. Some Infinitives have become substantives entirely, as : 
ba3 Seben, life ; ba§ @ntfe£en, horror. 

3. The Infinitive, either with or without ju, is often used as 
subject of a verb, and as such may have an object by virtue 
of its verbal character, as : 

©ute ftreunbe (ju) Ijulieit ift beffer al§ reid) (ju) fein. 

271. The Infinitive without 511. 
The Infinitive without 511 follows : 

(a) The Modal Auxiliaries (see Lesson XXXIV) ; also 
toerben in the formation of the future tense. 

(b) The following verbs : 

bleiben, remain laffen, let, allow, permit 

jtnben, find lebren, teach 

fyetften, order, bid lernen, learn 

belfen, help macben, make 

fcoren, hear feben, see 

and, in certain phrases, fyahzn, as : 

$d) f)ahz nid)t bid (55elb cmf ber 33anl litgcit, I have not 
much money lying in the bank. 

(c) After gefyen and other verbs of motion in such phrases 
as fpajteren geben, retten, faljren, ' to go for a walk, ride, drive ' ; 

314 " N XI v l§§27i- 

fd;lafcn gcbcn, 'to go to bed' (not = ' go to sleep,' which is 
cinfcblafcn), etc. 

(d) As predicative subject, with fyciften, and as object with 
nennen, tjcif^en, as : 

3)a3 betftt fdmell fttljreil, That is quick driving. 
2)aS nenne (bcifje) id) fd>lccf>t iiufnuuni, I call that be- 
ginning badly.* 
Note. — The Past Participle is also admissible in this construction; 
see § 281, 6, below. 

Remarks. — 1. After fyaben, bleiben, finben, fyoren, feben, 
geben, in the constructions given above, the German Infin. 
corresponds to a Present Participle in English, as : 
@r blieb ftcfjen, He remained standing, etc. 

2. The verbs under (b), except blciben and fyeifsen, also 
admit of a tJQJj clause after them, as : 

^d) l)abe gebbrt (gefeben), bnfi er artgefommen fei, I have 
heard that he is come. 

3. The verbs belfen, lebren, lernen also take an Infin. with 
JU after them, as : 

3d) babe gclernt, y\ gefyordien, I have learnt to obey. 

4. For the use of the Infin. for the P. Part, with these 
verbs, see § 199. 

Note. — The verbs heifcn, Icljieu, lernen do not substitute the Infin. for 
the P. Part, when followed by an Infin. with ju (see Rem. 3, above, and 

5. For the Infin. with passive sense after laffert, see § 200, 
7 (V), Note. 

272. The Infinitive with ju. 

The Infinitive with ju is used after other verbs, such as : 
(a) Those implying something to be attained, done or left 
undone, as : 


onfangen, ) fud&en j 

begtnnen, ) ° toerfud)en, j 

befeblen, command unterneb/men, undertake 

bitten, beg toerbicten, forbid 

erlauben, allow roagen, venture 

fiircbten, fear roarnen, warn 

boffen, hope nritnfd;en, wish 
raten, advise 

(b) Those implying a suspension of judgment, as : 
befcbulbigen, accuse . foremen, seem 

ciiibilbcn, (red.), imagine fd)metd;cln (red.), flatter one's 

glaubeu, believe self, 

leugnen, deny 

(c) Those indicating various states of mind, as : 
bereucn, repent licb fcin, be acceptable (be 
freuen (impers.), | ■ ice glad) 

freuen (refl.), J leib fcin (tbun), be unaccept- 

able (be sorry) 

Remarks. — i. With most of these verbs the Infinitive may 
be replaced by a t)ofj clause, and must be so replaced unless 
the subject of the action in the dependent clause is either 
subject or direct object of the principal clause, as : 

@r glaubt, febr gefd;idt ju fcin, He believes himself to 
be very clever ; — or : 

Qx glaubt, baft er febr gefebieft ift. 
Sr fjoffte, 311 fommen, He hoped to come ; — but : 
Gr boffte, baft fein $?ater fommen merbe, (see § 265, c), 
He hoped that his father would come. 

@3 tbat mir leib, ©ie nid)t gefefyen $u (jaben, I was sorry 

not to have seen you ; — or : 
©€ tbat mir leib, baft id) Sie nidbt gefeben batte ; — but : 

3 16 LESSON XI. v. [§272 

Qi ift inir lieb, bufj 2io gefommcn finb, I am glad that 

you have come. 

2. The Infinitive clause as direct object is often represented 
in the principal clause by the neut. pron. C0 (with prepositions 
by btt, see § 277, below), as : 

3>d) toa'ge C8 ntcbt, attcin 511 fommen, I do not venture to 
come alone. 

Observe the idiomatic use of the Infinitive with ju after 
baben, fctn, fteben, in the following examples : 

%&) Ijabc ibm etnen 33rief $u iibergeben, I have a letter 
to deliver to him. 

(S3 ift (ftebt) ju ertoarten, It is to be expected. 

Note. — In the latter example, the infin. has a passive signification. 

A. 1. Guten Morgen, alter Freund ; nichts konnte mir gele- 
gener sein, als dich anzutreffen. 2. Ich freue mich herzlich, 
dich zu sehen ; ich habe schon lange einen Besuch von dir 
erwartet. 3. Du solltest doch wissen, dass man wenig Zeit 
hat, Besuche zu machen, wenn man sich auf ein Examen vor- 
bereitet. 4. Das ist wahr, aber lass dir gratulieren ; du hast ja 
ein glanzendes Examen bestanden. 5. Es ist mir freilich viel 
besser gelungen, als ich erwartete. fi. Was gedenkst du jetzt 
zu thun, da du promoviert hast ? 7. Gerade das wollte ich mit 
dir besprechen ; du kannst mir vielleicht mit gutem Rate bei- 
stehen. 8. Ich habe mich entschlossen, auf ein Jahr nach 
Europa zu gehen ; ware es nicht auch fur dich sehr vorteilhaft, 
ein Jahr dort zuzubringen ? 9. Sehr vorteilhaft, besonders 
wegen meines Sprachstudiums, aber ich fiirchte meine Verhalt- 
nisse "erlauben es mir nicht. 10. Das sehe ich nicht ein, es 
wird nur wenig mehr kosten dort zu leben als hier. 1 ] . Bist 
du deiner Sache gewiss ? 1 2. Ja wohl, weisst du, ein Vetter von 
mir ist kiirzlich von Europa zuruckgekommen, und ich habe 


mich bei ihm genau nach Allem erkundigt. 13. Wo hat er die 
Zeit zugebracht ? 14. Teils in England, teils in Frankreich 
(und) teils in Deutschland, und er behauptet, dass man in Eu- 
ropa wenigstens ebenso billig leben kann wie in Amerika. 15. 
Aber du hast die Reisekosten nicht mit eingerechnet. 1 6. Na- 
turlich nicht, aber man reist jetzt viel billiger als man friiher 
reiste. 17. Hast du dein Billet schon gelost? 18. Noch nicht, 
aber ich habe mich darnach erkundigt und finde, dass man fur 
hundert Thaler oder weniger iiber New York nach Liverpool 
reisen kann. 19. Zweite Klasse natiirlich. 20. O nein, erste 
Klasse, und mit einer sehr guten Dampferlinie. 21. 1st es mog- 
lich ? Du hast mich fast iiberredet, die Reise zu unternehmen. 
22. Komm nur heute Abend zu mir und wir werden die Sache 
weiter besprechen. 23. Gut ; also bis Abend. 

B. 1. Have the goodness to read this letter for me ; I have 
left my spectacles up-stairs, and cannot see very well. 2. Please 
read pretty loud, for my hearing is bad. 3. Help me to do my 
work, and I will help you to learn your lessons. 4. When you 
(man) do not know what to say (what you shall say), say nothing. 
5. You will now close your books ; we have read enough for 
the present. 6. "To err is human; to forgive, divine," is a 
verse from a poem by the English poet Pope. 7. I have so 
much work to do that I do not know where to begin. 8. Show 
the child how it is to learn its lesson. 9. I am tired of read- 
ing, and must now retire to rest. 10. " Eat, little^bird, eat," 
said a child to her bird. 11. " Thou shalt not steal " is (called) 
the eighth commandment. 12. The habit of rising early is of 
great importance when one has a^great^deal^of work to do. 

13. If one wants to rise early, one should go to bed early. 

14. An old, well-known proverb says: "Man does not live to 
eat, but eats to live." 15. Another proverb says : " Speaking 
is silver; silence is gold.' Hi. When I arrived at the railway- 
station I found that I had no money with me ; imagine my 

3 I<S LESSON XLVI. [§§273- 

embarrassment. 17. The art of making glass was already 
known to the aneients. IS. Are there any houses to sell or to 
rent in your neighbourhood? lit. I wish to speak to Mr. 
Bell. 20. Have (laffcn) John black my shoes, for I am in a 
hurry. 21. 1 have heard say that the celebrated bishop of G. 
is coming ; would you not like to hear him preach ? 22. Yes, 
I should like very much to hear him preach ; when is (follon) 
he to come here? 23. We have had the good^fortune to 
shoot three hares. 24. Some people would rather die than beg. 


273. Infinitive ok Purpose. 

The Infinitive with ^u is used to express purpose, as : 

9JMn o'rcunb lam, midj> JU UulfUCU, My friend came to 
warn me. 

Remarks. — i. The Infin. expressing purpose is generally 
governed by the preposition um (see $276, 1, below), which 
begins the clause, as : 

%$ fommc, um Sic nad; §aufe %\\, I come to fetch 
you home. 

2. An Infin. clause with }U is always preceded by a comma 
in German. 

3. This Infin. is also used, with or without yi\, after adjec- 
tives preceded by $U, ' too,' or (lCHUfl,, ' enough,' as : 

^d; toot yix miibc, (um) auSgeljen 311 fiiuucu, I was too 
tired to be able to go out. 

(Sr ift void; flcuufl, (um) btele Ttcncr haltcn ^u fiiuucu, 
He is rich enough to keep many servants. 


NOTE. — After an adjective with flu, a clause introduced by aid till ft 

may be used, as : 

3d) mar ju mitbc, aid tiajj id) auSiicljm fonntr, I was too tired t<. 
be able to go out. 

274. The Infinitive after Substantives. 

The Infinitive with ju is used after substantives, nouns and 
adjectives, akin to the verbs in § 272, to express purpose, 
etc., as : 

3d) babe Cuft, cinen Spasicrgartg 511 madjcti, I have a 
mind to take a walk. 

$>d; battc feme $cit, mid) nacb ibm umjufefjen, I had no 
time to look after him. 

@r ift ftet§ bcrctt, ben 2lrmen ju fydftlt, He is always 
ready to help the poor. 

275. The Accusative with the Infinitive. 

The Accusative with the Infinitive is inadmissible in 
modern German ; hence verbs denoting statement, know- 
ledge, perception, etc., must be followed by a baft clause, as : 
{Engl.') I know him to be a good man, 
{Germ.) ^d) tocifj, baft cr ein outer Wldnn ift. 
(Eng/.) I perceived her to be inattentive, 
(Germ.) $d) mcrftc, baft ftc unaufmcrfjam luar. 

. Remarks. — 1. In such sentence* as those in the examples 
given in the above section, the passive construction with the 
Infin. is also inadmissible in German except impersonally, as : 

(Engl.) He is known to be a good man, 
(Germ.) SWotl tocift, baft ct ein guter s 3)icnfd) ift ; — or : 
<£g ift befannt, baft cr u. f. h>. 

2. Observe the different relations of the accusatives in the 
following sentences : 

320 LESSON XLVI. [§§275~ 

(Engl.) I begged him (obj. of ' begged ') to come, 

(Germ.) ^cb bat Mjn ju fommcn. 

(Engl.) I wish to see him (obj. of ' see '), 

(Germ.) %&) hriinfdje, ifm ju fcbcn. 

(Engl.) I wish him (subj. of 'come') to come, 

(Germ.) ^d) luiinfchc, baft cr fomme. 

3. After glauben, the Infin. is admissible in German, but 
not in English, when the subject of the action is the same in 
both clauses, as : 

(Germ.) ^d) glaubte, recbt gebort $u baben, 
(Engl.) I believed that I had heard aright. 

When, on the contrary, the subjects are different, the Infin. 
(with accus.) is admissible in English, but not in German, as : 
(Engl.) I believe him to be an honest man, 
(Germ.) %d) glaube, baft cr ein ebrlicber 5Renfd) ifi. 

4. The English Infin. in objective indirect questions is 
unusual in German, and should be replaced by a finite 
clause, as : 

(Engl.) He did not know where to go, 
(Germ.) (Sr toufjte nicbt, toobin er geben fofltc. 
(Engl.) He told me what to do, 
(Germ.) @r fagte mir, toa§ idb tbun foflte. 

276. The Infinitive governed by Prepositions. 

1. Only three prepositions can govern an infinitive (with ju) 
directly, viz. : um, ' in order,' oljtie, ' without,' and ( an)ftntt, 
1 instead of,' as : 

@r fam, urn micb toon btefem Unfad $u bcnarfjriifjtiant, 
He came, in order to inform me of this accident. 

^d) fonnte ibn nicbt nnfcbcn, oljnc bcrjltcb ju lacbcn, 
I could not look at him, without laughing heartily. 


flnfiatt micb, gebulbig an$uboren, unterbrad) cr mid; 
beftdnbtg, Instead of listen///^ to me patiently, he 
kept constantly interrupting me. 

Remarks. — i. Observe that in each of these examples the 
preposition stands at the beginning of the clause, the Infini- 
tive at the end, with the words dependent on the Infinitive 

2. The Infinitive after obne and (an)ftatt may be replaced 
by a ba|) clause. This is always the case when the subject of 
the action is different in the two clauses (compare § 224, 
2, b, Rem.). Thus we may say : 

!Jd) fucbte borbetjufommen, obne gefeben ju fflcrben (or : 
obne bafc id) gefeben rourbe), I tried to go past without 
being seen ; 

but we must say : 

$d) fucbte borbeijufommen, obne baft man micb falj, I tried 
to go past without any one's seeing me, 
because the subjects of the two clauses are different. 

277. With other prepositions, the Infinitive or baft clause 
is represented in the principal clause by the adverb bo pre- 
fixed to the preposition, as : 

^d) begniigte mtcb, bamit, ibn meine Unjufriebenbett mcrfen 
JU laffcn, I was contented with showing him my 
dissatisfaction. * 

2Bir berlaffen un3 barauf, baft <5ie fommen, We rely on 
your coming. 

3cb, fonnte tl)n nicbt baran berbtnbern, au§$ua,cljen, I could 
not prevent him from going out (or : his going 

©r roar eifcrfutfitig barauf, baft roir etngelaben roorben 
roaren, He was jealous of our having been invited. 

322 LESSON XLV1. (§8277- 

2Bu febncn unS bonod), 2ic nricbcrjujcljcn, We long to 
see you again. 

@r ftnbet SBergntigen boron, Hinbcr ju nrifcn, He finds 
pleasure in teasing children. 

<3ie drgertc fid; bnriibcr, bofj mir fo tycit fcunen, She was 
angry at our coming so late. 

Remarks. — 1. The preposition 'of is often omitted, as: 

S)ie 9Jad;rid)t, bofj bcr gfriebe untcrgeid)net iwcrbcn tnar, 
The news of the peace being (having been) signed. 

2. The Infin. clause is only admissible when the subject of 
the action is the same as in the principal clause (compare 
§ 276, Rem. 2, above). 

3. The English Infinitive in -ing, or Gerund, must be 
carefully distinguished from the Present Participle, with 
which it has no connection. 

4. The genitive or possessive adjective in English before 
this Gerund will become the subject of the bflfj clause in 
German, as : 

She was angry at our coming late, <5ie Wax bofe 

bcmi&er, baft loir ju tycit famen. 
He insisted on his sister's learning Latin, @r fceftanb 

barauf, bafj fcinc Sdjtocftcr 2atein Icrnte (lemen follte). 

5. In an indirect question, ob takes the place of baf}, as : 

@3 geht mid) ntcfetg an, ob er fommt ober nid)t, It does 
not concern me, whether he comes or not. 

6. When the Gerund expresses an adverbial relation (time, 
cause, etc.), it must be expanded into an adverbial clause, as : 

Before concluding, I shall make one more obser- 
vation, (£{je id) fdjttcftc, toerbe id) nocfc cine SBemerlung 


On seeing me, he held out his hand to me, 3U§ cr 

mid) falj, fytclt er mir bie £anb bin. 
In persuading others we persuade ourselves, ^nbcm 

mir cmberc iibcrrebcn, iiberreben mir un3 felbft. 

278. The Infinitive in^ Elliptical Constructions. 

1. The Infinitive is used, as in English, in various elliptical 
constructions, without being dependent on any other word, as : 

ffiarum mid) roecfcn ? Why waken me ? 
Wad) feinem 2(u§feben ju urtetlen, To judge from his 

2. For the Infinitive with the force of an Imperative, see 
§ 269, Rem. 5, above. 


A. 1. Nicht wa.,r, Fraulein B., Sie vvaren gestern Abend im 
Konzert ? 2. Ja, waren Sie auch dort ? Ich habe Sie nicht 
gesehen. 3. Das ist gem moglich ; unter so vielen Menschen 
findet man sich nicht leicht. 4. Der Saal war gedrangt voll, 
wahrscheinlich weil das Konzert zum Besten des neuen Waisen- 
hauses gegeben wurde. 5. Nicht allein das, sondern auch weil 
die neue Sangerin, Fraulein M., zum ersten Male auftrat. 
6. Das Publikum schien von ihr ganz entziickt zu sein, und die 
Zeitungen sind heute Morgen voll ihres Ruhmes. 7. Ich habe 
nie eine so klare und starke Stimme gehort. 8. In der Arie 
aus Lohengrin hat sie sich besonders ausgezeichnet. <). Das 
Lied von Schubert mit Harfen-Begleitung gefiel mir am besten. 
10. Frau S. sang auch sehr gut, aber Sie schien ein wenig 
heiser zu sein. 11. Trotz dem, was die Kritiker sagen, gefiel 
mir ihr Gesang besser als der von Frl. M. 12. Ich finde auch, 
dass sie mit mehrGcfiihl singt und dass ihre Stimme geschulter 
ist. Y.\. Was halten Sie vom Geigenspiel des Herrn K. ? 11. Es 
muss sehr gut sein, dem Beifall nach zu urteilen, aber ich ver- 

324 LESSON XLVI. [§§278 

stehe mich nicht auf die Geige. 15. Ich ziehe die Geige jedem 
andern Instrumente vor. Hi. Spielt Ihr altester Bruder nicht 
die Geige? 17. Nein, aber er spielt die Flote und begleitet 
mich oft, wenn ich auf dem Klavier spiele. 18. Ihre Familie 
ist iiberhaupt sehr musikalisch. 19. Ja wohl, wir spielen fast 
alle mehr oder weniger. 20. Selbst Ihre kleinen Geschwister ? 

21. Ja, Marie spielt die Guitarre, Anna die Geige und Frie- 
drich nimmt seit einigen Monaten Stunden auf dem Violoncell. 

22. Wissen Sie, ob viel fur das Waisenhaus iibrig bleibt, nach- 
dem alle Kosten bestritten sind? 23. Etwa ftinf hundert 
Thaler, doch beabsichtigt man, ein zweites Konzert im Laufe 
des Winters fur denselben Zweck zu geben. 

B. 1. Let us (indef.) not return evil for evil. 2. Do what 
is right, let it cost what it may. 3. The eighth command- 
ment says that we are not to steal. 4. He was punished for 
having neglected his duty. 5. The teacher told us we should 
close our books, we had read enough for the present. 
6. Freddy, do you stand, and give your little brother your 
chair. 7. In German they say of one who buys anything 
without seeing it that he buys a cat in a bag. 8. Do you 
care to go for a drive with us ? 9. No, thank you. Do you ride 
(falnen); I prefer to walk. 10. Who has left these books lying 
on the table ? 1 1 . John ; and he says he forgot to take them up. 
12. Bid him carry them up immediately into the study, and 
then let him come down here. 13. Every one thought Mr. 
N. to be a rich man, but he failed (perl) lately. 14. I have not 
a single pen fit to write with, and I have a dozen letters to 
write. 15. Do not allow yourself to be disturbed by my com- 
ing ; do not stop writing. 16. The beggar, of whom we were 
speaking in another exercise, passed his youth in idling 
instead of working. 17. Little Frederick had the misfortune 
to break an arm while skating, and he was obliged to remain 
lying in bed a week. 18. Alfred the Great divided the day 


into three parts : one part was devoted to business, the 
second to reading, praying and studying, and the third to 
eating, sleeping and pleasure. 19. We wished our friends to 
come in, but they had no time. 20. I am glad to have made 
your acquaintance. 21. If you go hunting without your father 
knowing it, he will be very much displeased. 22. Our teacher 
used to insist on our writing a German exercise every day, 
and it was impossible for us to neglect this duty without his 
knowing it. 23. Before going home we must go to visit your 
old friend L. If you went away without his seeing you, he 
would be very sorry. 24. We heard some one coming behind 
us on the street, and we remained standing at the corner to 
see who it was. 25. Our old neighbour has three sons, but 
instead of their supporting him, he is obliged to support them. 
Is he not very much to be pitied ? 


279. The Participles are properly Verbal Adjectives, and 
their uses and constructions are those of Adjectives. There 
are three Participles, the Present, the Past and the Future- 
Passive or Gerundive. The English compound Perfect Par- 
ticiple (e.g., 'having praised') has no corresponding form 
in German, and must be rendered by a clause (see § 284, 

280. The Present Participle. 

The Present Participle has active force, and, like the 
Present Indie, marks a present or continuing state or action, 
the substantive which it qualifies being the subject of the 
action, as : 

326 LESSON XLVII. l§??28o 

Dai fdjlafcnbc Mini;, The sleeping child (= 'the child 

that sleeps '). 
Sine bacirftr dub cube ©cfd)icbte, A story that makes 

one's hair stand on end. 

The Present Participle is for the most part used only 
attributively, as in the above examples. It is used predica- 
tively only : 

(a) When it is a true adjective in function, without any idea 
of time, as : 

©erne ^ranffyett tft md)t bebcututb, His illness is not 

2)te ©cfyonbett biefer 2anbfd)aft tft cntjiirfcttb, The beauty 
of this landscape is enchanting (i. e., delightful). 

(b) In apposition with the subject (sometimes also with 
the direct object) of the sentence in which it occurs, when 
the action of the Participle is simultaneous with that of the 
principal verb, as : 

©id; fdjnett nad; mir nmttJenbenb, fab er mtr inS ©eftd)t, 
Turning quickly around, he looked into my face. 

(Srrotcnb fcfcluo. fie bie 2Iugen nieber, Blushing she 
dropped her eyes. 

^Jrcifcnb mit Did febonen 9teben 

^hrer Sdnber 2Bert unb 3afyl, 

©af$en btelc beutfdbe ^iirften 

©inft jut 2Borm§ im S?aifer[aal. (Kerner.) 

Praising with many fine speeches the worth and num- 
ber of their territories, many German princes were 
sitting one day in the Imperial Hall at Worms. 

Remarks. — 1. This construction is more usual in poetic 
or exalted diction than in ordinary language, where it is gen- 
erally replaced by an adverbial clause (see ^ 284, below). 


2. The Present Participle is not used in German, as it is 
in English, with the auxiliary ' to be ' (see § 31, Rem. 3). 

281. The Past Participle. 

The Past Participle of a transitive verb has passive 
force, not necessarily with any distinct reference to past 
time, as : 

3)a3 gelirfite $inb, The beloved child (i. e., the child 
that is or was beloved). 

But when the participle indicates a single action, it has 
perfect force, as : 

2)a3 gcftoblctic ^3ferb, The horse which has been 

The Past Participle of an intransitive verb has active 
force, as : 

2)ie 9Kufit bat aufgcljiirt, The music has ceased. 

Remarks. — 1. The Past Participle of transitive verbs may 
be used attributively as well as predicatively, as in the first 
two examples above. 

2. The Past Participle of intransitive verbs conjugated 
with fein is sometimes used attributively and denotes a state 
produced by the action of the verb, as : 

Tos ttieggelaufenc $ferb, The horse which had run 
away ; but not: T>a§ adaufcnc ^ferb. 

3. The Past Participle, like the Present (compare § 280 l>, 
above), may be used predicatively in apposition to the sub- 
ject (or sometimes to the direct object) of the sentence in 
which it occurs, as : 

3)a3 SBolf, bom fritrften untcrbritrft, emtoorte ficfe gegert 
ibn, The people, oppressed by the prince, revolted 
against him. 

328 LESSON XLVII. [§§281- 

4. For the Past Participle with Imperative force, see §269, 5. 

5. The Past Participle replaces the English Present Parti- 
ciple after fommcn to specify the manner of the motion, as : 

@r font QCflongcn, flclaufcn u. f. to., He came walking, 
running, etc. 

6. After verbs of calling, it is used for the Infinitive, as : 

!Da3 r/eiftt (nerme id;) fiir bie gufunft gcforgt, That is (I 
call that) caring for the future. 

7. It also replaces an Infinitive in such phrases as the 
following : 

^d) mu| fort ! Steber bier 2Itte3 tm <5ttd;e griaffcn ! I , 
must go ! Rather (would I) leave everything in the 
lurch here. (Lessing.) 

8. It is used in a few absolute constructions, with or with- 
out a substantive, which is usually in the accusative when 
present, as : 

$ugcgcben, bafj bie§ toabr ift, Granted that this is true. 

■Bremen 23ruber auSgcnommcn, toaren alle jugegen, Ex- 
cept my brother, all were present. 

282. The Future Passive Participle. 

This Participle ; also called the Gerundive, has the form 
of the Present Part, preceded by ,jtt. It is formed from transi- 
tive verbs only, and is only used attributively, being replaced 
in the predicate by an infinitive with $u, as : 

(Sine 311 lobcubc £>anblung, An act to be praised ; but : 

(Sine £>anblung, toeldje ju lobcn ift. 

283. General Remarks on the Participles. 

1. Many words with the form of Participles have the value of 
adjectives. Some occur as adjectives only (see also § 194, 
Note), others with a special meaning, as : gelebrt, learned ; 
betannt, acquainted; berfcbieben, different; bejabrt, aged, etc. 


2. All Participles (except the Past Part, of some intransitive 
verbs, see § 281, Rem. 2, above) may be used as pure adjec- 
tives, and as such may be compared or used as adjectival 
substantives (see § 122), frequently with concrete meaning, 
as : ber Dteifenbe, the traveller ; ber 2efenbe, the man who 
reads ; ber SBorfttjenbe, the chairman ; bag ©elefene, what one 
has read. 

3. Participles, unless they have become pure adjectives, are 
used sparingly as adverbs ; but the Participle in apposition 
(see §§ 280, b ; 281, 3, above) may sometimes be construed as 
an adverb, e. g. : 

<2>d)tocigcnb briicfte er mir bte £>anb, Silently (in 
silence) he pressed my hand. 

Remark. — This participial adverb of manner may be 
replaced by an adverbial clause with inbem. 

4. The Participle, when used attributively, always follows all 
words qualifying or modifying it, and immediately precedes 
its substantive ; as predicate, it sometimes, especially in 
poetry, precedes them (see § 280 b, above), but generally 
and more correctly follows, as : 

2)a§ toon feinen ©Item innig gclicOtc ilinb, The child, 
dearly beloved by its parents. 

9JMt ber einen £>anb jdjtmmtncnb, mit ber anbern ba§ 
&inb liber bem Staffer cmjjorfjaltenb u. f. to., Swim- 
ming with one hand, with the other holding the 
child above water, etc. 

%<\§ SBolf, bom ftiirften untcrbriitft u. f. to., The people, 
oppressed by the prince, etc. 

284. English Participial Constructions. 

1. The Present Participle is never used in German, as it so 
frequently is in English, to express adverbial relations of time 

330 LESSON XLVII. [§284 

or cause, and mast be replaced, where so used, by a regular 
adverbial clause, introduced by the proper adverb or con- 
junction, as follows : 

(a) To express time, the conjunctions btt, ol8, 'when,' 

ittbcm, ttialjrcnb, 'while,' must be used, as : 

Seeing him turn pale, I hastened to his assistance, 

$o (ol8) idj ibn erbleicben folj, eilte id) ibm jur §ilfe berbet. 

Recovering himself, the orator continued, ^nbcin 

er fid) fammelte, fubr ber !Rebner fort. 

Remarks. — 1. The English Perfect Participle is replaced 
by a clause with nnd)Dcm (or ale ), with the Pluperfect, as : 

Having examined his papers, they let him go, 9iorf|= 

bcm man feine ^a^iere untcrfudjt Ijottc, liefe man ibn 


2. The clause with inbcttt, indicating simultaneous action, 

may be replaced by a participial clause in the case specified in 

§ 280, b, above. 

(J?) To express cause, the conjunctions bo, inbcm, ' as,' 
'since,' or foeU, 'because,' must be used, as : 
Being an honest man, he may be trusted, SBBcit er ein 

ebrlicber 9ttann ift, fo fann man ibm trauen. 
Hoping to see you soon, I remain ever yours, ^ubcm 
id) boffe, ©ie balb 511 feben, ucrbleibe id; ftet3 ber ^bvige. 
Not having found him at home, I went away, 2)0 
id) ibn nicbt ju §oufe gcfunbcn fyottc, gtng id) fort. 

2. The Present Participle qualifying a preceding sub- 
stantive or pronoun is changed: 

(a) Into a regular relative clause with finite verb, as : 
A loaf was found at Herculaneum, still retaining 
its form, @in '-Brot rourbe 3U Jperculanum gefunben, 
locltfjCf. nod) bie #orm bcibcljtclf. 


The ship, having come straight towards us, showed 
the black flag, 2)a3 2 duff, todrfjeg gerabe auf un3 
jugefommen ttar, jeigte bie fd)h)arse ^lagge. 

Note. The tense of the verb in the adverbial clause will correspond 
with that of the principal verb, as shown above, the Pluperfect, however, 
generally replacing the English Perfect Participles. 

(l>) Into an attributive participial clause, in which the 
Participle will immediately precede the substantive 
(see § 283, 4, above), as : 
A man passing on the street, ©in auf ber ©trafje t)0t= 
brigcljcnber -Diann. 
3. A Participle preceded by an adverbial conjunction is 
replaced by a finite clause with the corresponding conjunc- 
tion, as : 

While travelling in Europe, we met a great many 
Americans, 9U§ tuir in ©uropa reiften, trafen nnr mtt 
melon ^Imerifanern jufammen. 
For the Infinitive in -ing, or Gerund, and its German equi- 
valents, see § 276, above. 


A. 1. Haben Sie Ihr Billet schon gelost? 2. Nein, noch 
nicht. 3. Dann miissen wir uns beeilen ; wir sollten erst etwas 
geniessen, ehe wir abreisen. 4. Hier ist der Schalter ; soil ich 
auch ein Billet fur Sie nehmen? 5. Danke, ich habe meins 
schon gelost. (i. Jetzt bin ich fertig, aber wir haben kaum drei 
Viertelstunden Zeit, bis der Zug abfahrt. 7. Dann miissen wir 
nach der ersten besten Restauration gehen. 8. Dort driiben ist 
eine. 9. Das trifft sich gut ; gehen wir gleich hinein. 10. 
Kellner, wir haben es sehr eilig. 1 1 . Nehmen Sie Platz, meine 
Herren ; ich werde Sie sofort bedienen ; hier ist die Speise- 
karte. 12. Geben Sie mir gefalligst einen Teller Suppe. 
13. Und Sie, mein Herr? 14. Bringen Sie mir zuerst cine 
Serviette. 15. Entschuldigen Sie, hie- ist sie. 16. Ich nehme 

332 LESSON XLVII. [§284 

eine Forelle. 17. Bedaure, es ist keine mehr da. 18. Nun, 
dann bringen Sie mir ein Stiick Lachs. 19. Hier ist die Wiein- 
karte ; trinken die Herren Wein ? 20. Bringen Sie eine 
Flasche Rotwein und Glaser. 21. Wie schmeckt Ihnen der 
Fisch ? 22. Ausgezeichnet. 23. Diese Suppe schmeckt mir 
gar nicht. 24. Lassen Sie sich doch Fisch kommen. 25. Ich 
mache mir nichts aus Fisch ; — Kellner ! 26. Zu Befehl. 27. 
Eine Portion Entenbraten mit griinen Erbsen. 28. Wiinschen 
Sie keine Kartoffeln ? 29. Jawohl, gebratene Kartoffeln. Brin- 
gen Sie auch Brot. 30. Noch etwas ? 31. Nein. Was wiinschen 
Sie, Herr B. ? 32. Bitte, reichen Sie mir die Speisekarte. Ich 
bestelle mir Kalbskoteletten mit Kartoffeln und gelben Ruben. 
33. Sonst noch Gemiise ? 34. Etwas Blumenkohl. 35. Erinnern 
Sie sich schon friiher hier gespeist zu haben, Herr B. ? 36. Nicht 
dass ich wiisste ; die Restauration scheint neu zu sein. 37. Des- 
halb wird man vielleicht so gut bedient. 38. Ist den Herren etwas 
gefallig ? ' 39. Bringen Sie mir eine Portion Eis und eine Tasse 
Kaffee. 40. Und mir eine Tasse Chocolade und eine Portion 
Erdbeeren mit Sahne, und schreiben Sie alles auf meine Rech- 
nung. 41. Hier ist die Rechnung, mein Herr. 42. Wie viel 
betragt sie ? 43. Sieben Mark ftinfzig Pfennig. 44. Hier 
sind acht Mark ; das Ubrige ist Ihr Trinkgeld. 45. Jetzt 
miissen wir fort ; es hat soeben auf dem Bahnhofe zum ersten 
Male gelautet. 

B. 1. A sleeping fox catches no chicken. 2. Sleeping 
dogs do not bite. 3. The past cannot be helped (changed) ; 
let us rather think of what is to come. 4. It is much better 
to think without speaking than to speak without thinking. 
5. Man is a speaking animal, a fire-using animal, a laughing 
animal : these are some of the definitions which have been 
proposed by philosophers. 6. We learn to speak German in 
speaking German. 7. Well hit (treffen) ! I call that well 
played ! 8. I wanted to show you an article in yesterday's 


paper, but it is nowhere to be found. <). Let me know when 
you think of coining to town. 10. The skill of ants in the 
building of their nests is astonishing. 11. Smiling, he began 
to read the letter, but before having read the half of it, he 
threw it furiously on the floor. 12. A hussar came galloping 
down the street and said the battle was beginning. 13. The 
Paradise Lost of Milton is one of the most important works 
of English literature ; it was written in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, but this does not prevent its being still much read. 
14. After having been so well received by us, I wonder that 
he is not ashamed to speak evil of us. 15. The morning was 
cool and charming, but towards noon the heat became 
oppressive, and we saw great clouds rising in the west. 
16. He says the matter is perfectly clear, but his saying so 
does not make any difference. 17. He went away complain- 
ing that there was no use talking to people who did not want 
to understand. 18. That was because he was angry, and 
because he had not succeeded in making himself understood 
(iterfttinbltd)). 19. Make no mistakes in copying your exercise, 
or else a second copying will be your punishment. 20. Besides 
making mistakes the last time, you wrote very badly. 21. " The 
danger to be avoided," said he, "is not yet past." 22. Going 
(btngefien) to visit our friends in Schiller-street this afternoon, 
we met them coming to visit us. 23. His being rich is no excuse 
for his being lazy ; we do not need to be idle merely because 
we are not forced to earn our bread. 24. A certain man, just 
before dying, called his sons to him, and told them there was 
a treasure lying hidden somewhere in his field. 25. Believing 
they would find it, they began digging everywhere, but 
without finding the wished-for (ern)iinfcfit) treasure. 2(5. One 
of them, wiser than the others, finally guessed what his father 
had meant by having told them this. 27. This son said that 
since digging the ground the crop had been much better, and 
that this was the treasure the father meant. 

334 LESSON XL VI II. [§285 


285. Concord of Surject and Verr. 

1. The predicate verb (the finite part, or that containing 
the copula) agrees with its subject in number and person. 

2. Two or more subjects require the verb in the plural, as : 

9Jtein SBater unb meine Gutter finb bier getoefcn, My 
father and mother have been here. 

Remarks. — 1. If the subject nearest to the verb be singu- 
lar, the verb is sometimes in the singular, especially if the 
subjects follow the verb, as : 

(Seine iQabfucbt, feme itypige 2eben§art, fetn bod)fabrenbe§ 
SBefen bradjtc bie Grbitterung gegen tbn auf§ fyocbfie, 
His avarice, his luxurious mode of living, his arro- 
gant behaviour, excited tfee animosity against him 
to the highest point. (Schiller, Egtnonfs Leben 
und Tod.) 

Dben bet bem Stbrone lag ber $bnig unb bie $onigin, 
Above near the throne lay the King and Queen. 

(Grimm, Dornroschen.) 

Note. — This is especially the case when the subjects, indicating 
things or abstract ideas, are regarded as forming together one idea, or 
are more less synonymous, e. g. : 

•§au8 unb §of ifi uerfauft, House and home are sold. 
Well) tint) Out madjt nid)t glucfUcf), Money and property (= wealth) 
do not make [one] happy ; 
or when particular attention is called to the last (as forming a 
climax), e. g. : 

aWeiti syermogen, mrin 9tof, mctn I'eben ftefjt nidjt nnf bem ©pifle, 
My property, my reputation, my life (the most important of all), 
are not at stake. 


2. If the subjects be of different persons, the verb agrees 
in person with the first rather than the second or third, and 
with the second rather than the third, the plural pronoun of 
the proper person being usually (always with the second per- 
son) expressed before the verb, as : 

2)u unb id) (mem ^ ruber unb id}), loir gingen au§, You 
and I (my brother and I) went out. 

$)u unb betne Scfyroefter, t(jr feifc auSgegangen, You and 
your sister went out. 

3. With titles of rank and compliment the verb is usually 
in the plural (see also § 49), as : 

(Seine ^Jlqeftdt Ijaben gerubt u. f. to., His Majesty has 
been pleased, etc. 

4. Collectives, if singular, take a verb in the singular, unless 
followed by a plural substantive in apposition or in the geni- 
tive, as : 

(Sine grofee SJienf d)enmenge tour jugegen ; — but : 
(Sine grofee 9ttenge ■JRenfcben toorcn fcugegen, A great 
number of people were present. 
Notes. — 1. The singular may also be used in such cases as that 
given in the second example above, unless the collective is considered 
with reference to its component parts individually. 

2. With nouns of Number in the sing, (see § 185, 1) the verb is used 
in the plur. only when an indefinite quantity is meant, as : 

Gin poor (= etnige) £agc tooren oergangert, A few days had 

passed ; — but : 
©in tyaax ©tiefel fofiet fteben £f)a(er, A pair of shoes costs seven 


5. When the real (logical) subject is represented by e§, or 
some other neut. sing, pron., before the verb (see §§ 39 ; 82, 
Rem. 2 ; 141), the verb agrees with the logical, not with the 
grammatical subject, as : 

@3 filtb metne 33riiber, It is my brothers. 

33^ LESSON XLVIII. [§$285- 

NOTE. With a personal pronoun as subject, this et1 follows the verb 
(see § 39, 2). 

6. If the subjects be separated by a disjunctive conjunc- 
tion or conjunctions, the verb regularly agrees with the last 
only, but this rule is by no means so strictly observed as in 
English, even by the best writers, e. g. : 

HBcbcr bie Union nod) bie Stgue mijdjtcn fid; in biefen 
©trett, Neither the Union nor the league took part 
in this dispute, 
©ouiuljl bie Sage alg bie 23efeftigung biefcr ©tabt frfjicnen 
jebem 2lngriffe %x$% ju bteten, The situation, as well 
as the fortification, of this city seemed to defy 
every attack. (Schiller, yzjahriger Krieg.) 
Notes. — 1. Constructions like the following : 

(Sntrocber bit obcr id) bin tanb, Either you or I am deaf, 
are in German, as in English, felt to be awkward, and are therefore 
avoided by substituting some other construction, e. g. : 

Suttrjcbcr id) bin taub, ober bu bift c«, Either I am deaf, or you are. 
2. The sing, is used after expressions of the time of day, and in the 
multiplication-table, as : 

(S« i ft achrt Ub,r, It is ten o'clock. 

3cb,n mal elf ifi (madjt) hunbert ltnb joint, Ten times eleven is one 
hundred and ten. 

286. Repetition of Subject. 

When several connected sentences have a common subject, 
the subject must be repeated (as pronoun) when the order of 
the words is changed, as : 

£>er $ug tommt urn neun UBr an, unb fdbrt urn halb jebn 
toieber ah, The train arrives at nine o'clock, and 
leaves again at half-past nine ; — but : 
£>er 3ug fommt um neun llhr an, unb um balb jebn fdbrt 
Cf Inicber ab, The train arrives at i ne o'clock, and 
at half-past nine it leaves again. 

28g] the appos1tive substantive. 337 

287. Omission of Predicative Veru. 

§aben and fein, as auxiliaries of tense, may be omitted in a 
subordinate sentence, as : 

•ftacbbcm fie ben 23ricf fldefen, toemte fie, After she had 
read the letter, she wept. 

288. Other Concords. 

i . The Attributive (or Determinative) Adjective agrees 
with the substantives it qualifies in gender, number and case 
(for inflections see Less. XX, XXII, XXIV) ; the Predica- 
tive Adjective has no inflection (see § 14). 

2. For the concord of Pronouns and Pronominal Adjectives 
with their antecedent (in gender, number and person) see 
§§ 38, Rem. 4; 39 ; 43, Rem. 3, 4; 82, Rem. 1, 2; 83, Rem. 
i i 86; 95, 1 {b)\ 162, 2. 

Note. — A Relative Pronoun referring to an antecedent of the first 
or second person takes the verb in the third person, unless the relative is 
followed by the personal pronoun, as stated in § 95, 1 (b), e. g. : 

Sift bu c8, bcr jo jittcrtV — or : Sift 011 eg, ber fcu jo jitterft? 

Is it you that tremble ? 

289. The Appositive Substantive. 

1. A substantive or pronoun may have another substantive 
attached to it attributively, giving a further description or 
definition of the person or thing spoken of. This latter sub- 
stantive is said to be in apposition to the former, as : 

TOein $reunb, bcr ficljtcr, trug feme ein^tge 2Baffe, eiitrn 
birfen <§tod, in ber £>anb, My friend, the teacher, 
carried his only weapon, a thick stick, in his hand. 

2. A substantive or pronoun may also be placed in appo- 
sition to a sentence or clause, as : 

©r fagte, bafe er hneber ganj gefunb fei, etnc ©djauptmtfl, 
n>eld)e id) bejrDetfelte, or : toad id) bejineifclte, He said he 
was quite well again, a statement which I doubted. 

338 LESSON XI. VIII. [§§289 

j. The appositive substantive is in the same case as the 
substantive which it defines, thus : 

Alarl (Norn.), mctn jiingftcr ^rubcr, tft franf, Charles, 

my youngest brother, is ill. 
$)te Slranffycit ftarle (Gen.), mctncs jiingftcn 33ruberg, The 

illness of Charles, my youngest brother. 

(Sine gefabrltcbe ftranfbett brobtc (intr.) $arl (Dat.), mei= 
ncm jiingftcn Sruber ; or : bcbrobte (trans.) $arl (A'cc), 
mcinctt jiingftcn $3ruber, A dangerous illness threat- 
ened Charles, my youngest brother. 

Notes. — 1. A substantive in apposition to a sentence is put in the 
Nominative, as in the example under 2, above. 

2. An appositive genitive without a determinative word before it, 
especially when governing another genitive, is uninflected, as : 

2)ic ft'vantbeit beg .Uronprtii^cn, Soljlt beg bcntjd)cu $aifcre, The 
illness of the Crown-Prince, son of the German Emperor ; but : 

2)te ftrcmfhett bee .Hvonprinjen, otS dltcften ®ot)iie8 u. f. to., The 
illness of the Crown-Prince, the eldest son, etc. 

4. The appositive substantive generally agrees also in 
number with the word it defines, except in the case of abstract 
substantives and collectives, as : 

Gornclieny £tnber, tbr Stol$ unb ihre ^rcubc, Cornelia's 

children, her pride and joy. 
35a lebten bte §trten, etn barmlos (Mcfd)lcd)t, There lived 

the shepherds, a harmless race. (Schiller.) 

5. The appositive substantive agrees in gender when there 
is a special form for the feminine, as : 

£)ie Wrabttatton tft btc ficnfcrin bcr 93abnen after .fnm= 
melvsforper, Gravitation is the director of the courses 
of all heavenly bodies. 

6. These rules are also applicable to an apposition intro- 
duced by aH, 'as,' e. g. : 


3>cb tannic ibn ab§ $nabc (Nom.), I knew him as (when) 
a boy (i. e., when / was a boy) ; — but : 

3>d; tannic ibn al3 $nabcn, I knew him when {he was) a 


A. 1 . Konnen Sie mir eine gute Buchhandlurig empfehlen ? 
2. Was fiir Biicher wollen Sie kaufen ? 3. Ich mochte mir die 
Werke einiger von den besten deutschen Schriftstellern an- 
schaffen. 4. Sie sollten zu Herrn Braun gehen ; er hat einen 
sehr groszen Vorrat, besonders von den deutschen Klassikern. 
5. Wo ist das Geschaft? 6. Nur einige Schritt(e) von hier, 
Nummer fiinf, urn die Ecke ; ich werde Sie begleiten. 7. Das 
ware mir sehr angenehm. 8. Sie scheinen ein groszer Biicher- 
freund zu sein. 9. Ja, das ist eine Schwache, die mich viel Geld 
kostet, aber mir auch viel Vergniigen macht. 10. Hier ist der 
Laden ; ich crwarte Sie auf meinem Bureau, wenn Sie fertig 
sind. 11. Ich danke vielmals fiir Ihre Aufmerksamkeit. Also, 
auf Wiedersehen. 12. Zeigen Sie mir gefalligst einige Exem- 
plare von Schillers Werken. 13. Gebunden oder ungebunden ? 
14. Zeigen Sie mir beides. 15. Aus wie vielen Banden besteht 
dieses Exemplar? 16. Aus zwolf, und ich mochte Sie auf den 
ausgezeichneten Druck aufmerksam machen. 17. Der Druck 
ist sehr klar ; haben Sie noch sonstige (andere) Ausgaben ? 18. 
Wir haben Ausgaben in groszerem Format', aber nur gebunden. 
Hier sind sie. 19. Das Format gefallt mir besser, aber ich 
mag den Einband nicht. 20. Dem ist leicht abzuhelfen. Ich 
bestelle Ihnen ein Exemplar und lasse es nach Ihrem Ge- 
schmack einbinden. 21. Gut, ich mochte es in braunem Leder 
mit Titel gebunden haben ; aber wie viel soil ich Ihnen dafiir 
bezahlen? 22. Die Ausgabe kostet zehn Thaler, der Ein- 
band fiinf. 23. Bekomme ich Rabatt' ? 24. Ja, zehn Prozent 
gegen bare Bezahlung. 25. Ich bezahle bar ; das macht zwei 
und vierzig Mark. 26. Wunschen Sie noch etwas ? 27. Ich 

34 l > LESSON XLVI11. [§§289- 

mochte auch Goethes sammtliche Werke in demselben Format 
unil Einband haben. 28. Es thut mir leid, dass wir keine mehr 
haben, aber ich kann sie bestellen und gleich mit dor anderen 
Ausgabe einbinden lassen. 2!t. Zum selbcn Preise? 30. 
Ncin, es wird mit Einband achtzehn Thaler netto betragen. 

31. Dann besorgen Sie es gefalligst, und schicken Sie mir die 
Werke nebst Rechnung an diese Adresse ; hier ist meine Karte. 

32. Ich besorge alles aufs Sorgfaltigste ; binnen acht Tagen 
sollen Sie die Biicher haben. 

B. 1. "Books," said Alfonso the Wise of Spain, "are 
my most honest councillors : neither fear nor hope prevents 
them telling me what my duty is." 2. "It is not my courtiers," 
said this king, " who tell me most honestly what my duty is , 
it is my books." 3. "No courtier dares to say to a king: 
' Your Majesty is wrong,' but my books tell me so every day." 
4. I asked a gentleman standing near me, if he knew what 
time it was, and he answered me that it was exactly twelve 
o'clock. 5. More than two hours have passed since then, so 
it must now be between two and three o'clock. 6. Was it 
you that came to see me yesterday, when I was away from 
home ? 7. Yes, my brother and I wanted to visit you, and 
we were sorry not to find you at home. 8. Margaret, the 
eldest daughter of Henry VII. of England, married James 
IV. of Scotland. 9. These were the grand-parents of Mary 
Stuart, Queen of Scotland. 10. To do what^is^right, and 
to be happy, is one and the same, for virtue is its own reward. 
11. Dear father and mother, do you remain sitting here until 
I go for a carriage to drive you home, for I know you are too 
tired to walk. 12. Twelve and twelve make twenty-four, and 
twelve times twelve is one hundred and forty-four. 13. 
After having seen London and Paris, we had not much desire 
to see other cities. 14. I wrote to K., inviting him to pass 
his holidays with us, and by return of post received a letter. 


saying we might expect him in a fortnight. 15. I asked you 
first as my oldest friend to assist me in this embarrassment. 
16. I know we should avoid asking our friends for help until 
we have done our utmost to help ourselves. 17. The hunts- 
man whistled, and his dogs came running from the wood. 
18. Our teacher was Jn_the_habit_of telling us we should 
do what was right, let it cost what it would. 19. Is your 
teacher still living ? Yes, he is still living, but he is getting 
very old now. 20. Goethe and Schiller are the two greatest 
poets of Germany : it is difficult to say which of the two is 
most beloved by the German people. 31. If you think we 
are right, give us some sign of approval : a word, a smile, a 
glance will suffice. 22. All the rest of our party arrived at 
the top of the mountain before sunset, but my friend and I 
arrived only at nine in the evening. 23. Expect us on Thurs- 
day next, health and weather permitting. 24. The gentleman 
coming out of that shop is Dr. B., and the lady accompanying 
him is his niece, Miss L. 25. Did you ever see the Emperor 
William ? I have never seen him as Emperor of Germany, 
but I saw him many years ago as King of Prussia. 



290. The Appositive Adjective. 

i. Attributive Adjectives and participles are said to be 
used appositively when they are separated from their substan- 
tive, as : 

3>er $age, jung, p6f(fi unb gctjtreirtj, roar bet giebling 

be3 .£mufe3, The page, young, handsome and 
clever, was the favourite of the house. 




Jn bet 6cbladU fenrifl unb furdjHos, tear Wonmoutb 
fonft UberaQ iveiddid) unb unfaMufjuj, Ardent and 
intrepid in battle, Monmouth was everywhere else 
effeminate and irresolute. 
2. This apposiiive adjective or participle is, like the pre- 
dicate adjective, uninfected, and is placed at the end of its 
clause. It is used much more sparingly in German than in 
English, and is almost wholly confined to apposition with the 
subject of the sentence (sometimes also with the direct object}. 
In English the attributive adjective or participle is generally 
used appositively when it has more than one modifier, and 
always when it has a complement (as in the second example 
above). In German on the contrary the attributive adjective 
is freely used in all such cases before a substantive. All such 
appositive adjectives or participles, unless referring to the 
subject (or direct object) of the sentence, must be rendered 
in German either by an attributive or by a relative clause. The 
following examples will serve to illustrate to what extent the 
appositive adjective can be used in German, and to show how 
it is to be replaced in German in various connections. 

(a) English Appositive = German Appositive (see also the 
examples under 1, above) : 

{Engl.) Beleaguered with present distresses and 
the most horrible forebodings on every side, 
roused to the highest pitch of indignation, yet 
forced . to keep silence and wear the face of 
patience, Schiller could endure this constraint no 
longer. (Carlyle, Life of Schiller.) 

{Germ.) 33on gegentociritgen s J£i)ten unb ben fd)redEItd)(ten 
2lbnungen Don alien ©etten fjcimgcfudjt, bt§ auf ben 
I;5d)ften ©rab cntriiftet, gcitmntQcn jebod), ftifljus 
fcbluctgen unb bie 9Ra3fe ber Gkbulb ju tragen, fonnte 
©cfoitter btefen Btoang '"$* langer erbulben. 




Note. — In this example, as in those under i. above, the adjectives 
(participles) beleaguered, etc., are in apposition to the subject ' Schiller.' 

{b) English Appositive Adjective = German Attributive 
Adjective or Relative Clause ; 

{Engl?) To judge from the quantity of light emitted 
from the brightest stars, there is (one has) reason 
to suppose that some of them are much greater 
than the sun. 
(i) \ {Germ?) Waa) ber bon ben hettften Sternen auf$gcflra(jl= 
ten £td)tmaffe ju urteilen, hat man Gkunb anjunehmen, 
baft eintge baoon bid grower finb ale bic Sonne ; or : 
nad) bcr 2td)tmaf)c $u urteilen, loclthc u. f. to. au5i^c = 
ffraljlt tutrb u. f. ro. 
{Engl.) In the Isle of Man vast trees are found 
standing firm on their roots, 
(ii) -J {Germ.) 2Iuf ber 3nfel Wlan finbet man mdebtige Sdume, 
toclttjc auf ben 2Burjeln feftftcfjen ; or : mad)tige, auf 
ben SBurjeln fcflfieljcnbe 23dume. 

Notes. — i. The participles in these examples are in apposition to the 
objects 'quantity (of light)' and 'tree' respectively. 

2. Observe the position of the Germ, attributive adj. immediately bejore 
the substantive. 

(V) English Appositive Adjective = German Attributive 
Adjective : 
{Engl.) Bruce caused his men to lie down to take 

some sleep at a place about half a mile distant 

from the river. 
{Germ.) 23ruce liefe feine Seute ftd) an etner ungef&br 

cine balbe SJieile bom gluife entfernten ©telle meber= 

legen, urn ein roentg ju faMafen. 

Note. — An attributive clause is preferable here, since a relative 
clause would separate the clause of purpose (tun, etc.) from the infin. 
(uieberlegenj on which it depends. 




[§§ 290- 


(iii) J 

(Engl.) During the eruption of the volcano, the dark- 
ness occasioned by the ashes was so profound, 
that nothing like it was ever experienced. 

(Germ.) SSabrenb beg 21u3bruches beg 3$ulfan§ toar bte 
burdb, bie 2lfd)e ticrurfad)tc ^infternt^ fo tief, rote man 
nie etroa£ 2tfmlid)e3 roabrgenommen fyatte. 

Note. — Although the participle 'occasioned' is here in apposition to 
the subject ' darkness,' yet the position of the subject after the verb for- 
bids the use of the appositive construction in German, as also in the 
following sentence : 

(Engl.) It was a place advantageous for defence. 
(Germ.) ©3 roar etne jur Serteibigung giinftigc ©telle. 
(d) English Appositive Adjective = German Relative 
Clause : 
(Engl) This plant has changed into two distinct 

vegetables, as unlike each other as is each of 

them to the parent-plant. 
(Germ) SDtefe ^flan^e bat fid) in greet toerfcbtebene ©e= 

raufeasten berroanbelt, tticldje etnanber fo uniifjttlirfj 

finb, tote jebe berfelben ber 9ftutterbflanje tft. 

Note. — Here the attributive construction is inadmissible on account 
of the subsequent clause ruie jebe u. f . ro. 

291. Syntax of the Prepositions. 

The cases governed by the various Prepositions are fully 
treated of in Lessons IX, XIII, A, and XXXVIII, and their 
idiomatic use is further defined in Less. XXXIX. 

The object of many verbs, as well as that of substantives and 
adjectives corresponding with them in signification, is ex- 
pressed by prepositions. The proper use of prepositions 
after verbs, etc., must be learnt from practice and from the 
dictionary ; but below is given, for convenient reference, the 
regimen of particular classes of verbs, etc., which differ most 
widely from their English equivalents. 


i. at, of = iibcr -f- Ace, of sorrow, joy, wonder, etc., 
as : 

Verbs. Substantives. 

fid) drgern, be vexed Stager, vexation 

erroten, blush Gvrotung, blush 

erftaunen, be astonished Grftaunen, astonishment 

fief; freuen, rejoice ^roube, joy (also an -f- Dat.) 

fid) grdmen, grieve ©ram, grief 

flagen, complain $lage, complaint 

Iad)en, laugh ©eldcbter, laughter 

ftd) fcfydmen, be ashamed Scbam, 33efchdinung, shame 

fpotten, mock ©pott, mockery 

fid) (toerjtounbern, wonder Serhwnberung, surprise 

Also the Adjectives drgerlid), vexed ; bofe, angry (at things) ; 
eimpftnbltd), sensitive ; frob, luftig, merry. 

Note. — 33b)'c takes nuf -j- Ace. when referring to persons. 

2. for = ouf 4- Ace, of expectation, etc., as : gefafjt, pre- 
pared; boffen, ^offnung, hope ; roarten, wait. 

3. for = tlttd), of longing, inqtiiring, etc., as : 
Verbs. Substantives. 

biirften, thirst ©urft, thirst 

forfeben, inquire ^orfefyung, inquiry 

fmngern, hunger hunger, hunger 

jagen, hunt %&$>, chase 

fud)en, search 2uft, ) desire 

ficb, fetmen, long 33erlcmgen, \ 
berlangen, desire 

Also the Adjectives burftig, thirsty ; ebrgeijig, ambitious ; gte- 
rig, greedy ; b, ungrig, hungry. 

4. for = um, of entreaty, etc., as : bitten, ask ; bub, len, court ; 
fleben, beg ; ficb fummern, concern one's self. 

34 r > 



5. from = Dor -f- Dat., of protection, etc., as : belual;rcn, 
preserve ; r;ulcn, protect ; rotten, save. 

6. in = on + Dat., of plenty, want, etc., as : arm, poor ; 
frudjtbar, fruitful ; reid), rich ; fdnuad), weak ; ftar!, strong. 

7. in or on — oilj' + Ace, of confidence, etc., as : 

fid; briiften, boast 
fid; Derlaffen, rely 
bertrauen, trust 

<2>tolj, pride 
^crlaf}, reliance 
Sertrcmen, confidence 

8. of = ait 4- Dat., of plenty, want, doubt, etc., as: 

be wanting 


■Btangel, want 
9teid;tum, wealth 
Ubcrflujj, superfluity 
3t»eifet, doubt 

feblen (impers.), 
mongeln " 
jtoetfeln, doubt 
toerjtoeifeln, despair 

Also the Adjectives franf , sick ; leer, empty, 
o. of = ttlt 4- Ace, of remembrance, etc., as : 

Verbs. Substantives. 

benfen, think ©ebanfe, thought 

erinnern, remind ©rtnnerung, recollection 

fid; erinnern, recollect 

Note. — These verbs also govern the Genitive. See § 245. 

10. of = ouf 4- Acc. of suspicion, envy, pride, etc., as 
Substantives. Adjectives. 

2td;t ( geben), (pay) attention ad)tfam, 
iHvgtoobn, suspicion 
©iferfudjt, jealousy 
SRfctb, envy 




argtoobnifd;, suspicious 
etferfiicbtig, jealous 
eitel, vain 
netbtfd;, envious 
ftolj, proud 


11. of = box -f Dat, of /ear, etc., as : 

Verbs. Substantives. 

fid) fiirdjten, be afraid ^urd;t, fear 

„ erfcbreden, be terrified ©cbred, terror 

„ grcutcn, dread ©rauen, dread 

Also the adjectives bange, afraid ; fid;er, certain, sure. 

12. to = on 4- Ace, of address, etc., as: abreffieren, ad- 
dress ; fdueiben, write ; fid) ricbten, turn ; fid; toenben, apply. 

13. to = gcgctl, after Adjectives signifying an affection of 
the mind, as : barmberjtg, merciful ; feinblid), hostile ; freunb= 
lidi , friendly ; gered)t, just ; gleid) giltig, indifferent ; gnabtg, 
gracious ; graufctm, cruel ; nad)fid;tig, indulgent. 


1. My sister is vexed at not receiving an invitation to 
the party. 2. I am tired of waiting for Charles; let us go 
without him. 3. Oh no, do not let us go yet ; he will be angry 
at us, if we do not wait for him. 4. Charles has many good 
qualities, but you cannot rely upon him. 5. The boy is proud 
of the watch given to him by his father. 6. If you lose your 
way in a city, it is always safest to apply to a policeman. 7. 
I have no doubt that this is good advice. 8. Mary is angry 
at Sarah, because Sarah has made sport of her. 9. Our 
neighbour has been ill for some days ; he complains of rheuma- 
tism, and says he has caught cold. 10. I am less vexed at 
his not coming than at his not sending us word. 11. The war 
had already lasted more than four years, and people were long- 
ing for peace. 12. Diogenes is said to have gone once in day- 
light through the streets of the city, carrying at the same time 
a lantern. 13. People began to laugh at him and mock him, 
asking him what he was looking for. 14. He replied that he 
was looking for an honest man. 15. The general postponed 
attacking the enemy, because his army was weak in artillery. 

34 8 LESSON L. [§§ 292 

16. Mr. Kalk, the architect, promised that my house should be 
finished before the 1st July, but I doubt it. 17. The Province 
of Ontario is rich in iron, but is wanting in coal to smelt it. 
18. We have been thinking for some time of selling our house, 
but we cannot find anyone who is willing to buy it. 19. Be 
good enough to remind me to buy some postage-stamps, when 
we go past the post-office. 20. We may learn as much by pay- 
ing attention to what we see and hear as we can learn from 
books. 21. The horses, frightened by a passing train, shied, 
and were on the point of running away. 22. The first settlers 
in this country had much to endure : they lived for the most 
part in houses built of [the] trunk s_of^.trees and covered in 
many cases with bark. 23. (Just) as many people lost their 
lives (the life) by the famine occasioned by the earth- 
quake, as by the earthquake itself. 24. The bad news re- 
ceived yesterday has prevented our going to town to-day. 
25. There are men who grow richer by giving than others 
[do] by receiving. 



292. The Essential Parts of a Sentence. 

1. Every sentence contains three essential parts, viz : the 
Subject, or that of which something is asserted, the Predi- 
cate, or that which is said of the Subject, and, thirdly, the 
Verb or Copula, the word which makes the assertion, and 
which may include the Predicate (as in the simple tenses of 
a verb), but does not necessarily do so. Thus, in the sen- 
tence : 'He sings,' 'he ' is the Subject, while 'sings' contains 
both the Verb or Copula and the Predicate, i. e., it not only 
asserts something of the Subject, but also says what that 
something is, being equivalent to ' is singing.' In the sen- 


tence : ' He has sung,' on the other hand, 'has' is the Verb 
(or Copula), ' sung ' is what is asserted, or the Predicate. 

2. The Verb (or Copula) is in German the member of the 
sentence, the position of which is most absolutely fixed; it is 
the cardinal point or hinge on which the sentence turns. 

293. Normal Position of the Verb. 

In German, there are three normal positions for the Verb, 
according to the nature of the sentence. 

(a) The Verb stands first : 

1. In Interrogative Sentences expecting the answer ' yes ' 
or ' no ' (i. e., when the verb is the question-word, see 
§ 23, 2), as : 

3ft 3>br ©ruber roobl? Is your brother well ? 
SBirb cr fommcrt? Will he come? 
$Ctften <Sie $arl? Is your name Charles? 

2. In sentences expressing a command or 7i>is/i, as : 

®C|ud)cn Sic mid) morgcn, Come_and_see me to- 

!i£iirc id) $u §cmfe ! Were I (would that I were) at 
home ! 

Note. - The verb may either follow or precede the subject in the 
3. Sing. Subj. used as Imperative (see § 268, 1), as: 

Wott behiite bid) ! or: Scbitte bid) @ott! God preserve thee ! 

3. In Conditional clauses, when the conjunction roenn is 
omitted (compare § 59), as : 

HBorc ba§ SSctter fcbon, fo roiirbe id) auSgeben, If the 
weather were fine, I should go out. 

(b) The Verb comes second (is the second idea) in all 
principal assertive sentences (compare § 20), as : 

2)er Sftcnfd) ift fterbUch, Man is mortal. 

35° LESSON L. [^293 

SDer iungere SBruber meineS 33ater8, toel<$er |o Iran! tear, 

tfi tot, My father's younger brother, who was so ill, 
is dead. 
Wcftcvn Stbenb ftarb bcr ^rubcrrncineSSBatcrS, Yesterday 

evening my father's brother died. 
©otoobl (ntd)t rtur) mein Sorter, tote (fonbern and)) mcin 
©ruber toar jugegen, Both (not only) my father, and 
(but also) my brother were (-was) present. 
Remarks. — i. As in the last three examples above, the 
first member of the sentence may be' complex, with several 
attributes, complements, etc. ; the verb is still the second 

2. The coordinating conjunctions proper (§ 236) do not 
count as members of the sentence (see the last example above), 
but adverbial conjunctions throw the subject after the verb. 

NOTE. — Certain adverbial phrases, of a more or less interjcctional 
nature, such as: fveilid), true; jn, yes; ja moht, to be sure; nctli, no; 
fur;;, in short ; mit cincm 2Bort, in a word; gut, well, are not regarded as 
part of the sentence, and do not throw the subject after the verb, thus : 

ftvctlitf), id) fjdbc t% nid)t frlbft gefehen, True, I did not see it 

iturj (mit Cincm SBort), iff) fllottbc co nirf)t, In short (in a word), 

I do not believe it. 
0Ut, id) rocrfcc foinnini, Well, I shall come. 

3. In assertive sentences of an emphatic or exclamatory 
character, the verb sometimes comes first, especially when 
the particle bod) is present, as : 

3ft bct3 ein better! (= 2Bn§ fiir ein SBetter ift ba§!) 

What weather ! 
£>C(DC icb'3 bir bod) gefagt ! I told you so ! 

4. If a dependent clause or a quotation precede the prin- 
cipal sentence (compare § 294, l>, Rem. 2, below), such clause 
or quotation is regarded as a single member of the sentence, 
and requires the verb immediately after it, as : 


2)a icb felbft ntcfyt fommcn fonnte, fdjiiftc icb meineit ©ofm, 

As I could not come myself, I sent my son. 
21I§ idj anfatn, four c3 fcbon nacb, 10 Ubr, When I arrived, 

it was after 10 o'clock, 
■ffienn cr fommcn fofltc, tucrbc id) 511 irmufc fcin, If he 

should come, I shall be at home. 
„%d) mid meine 2tufgabc rticfet lerncn," frfjric bcr unartige 

.Vtnabe, " I will not learn my lesson," cried the naughty 


Notes. — 1. After dependent conditional and adverbial clauses (except 
those of time) the particle fo usually introduces the principal sentence, as : 
©a icf) nicht fclbft fommcn fonnte, fo jdjicftc id) meincn©ol)n. 
SBenn er fommcn foUtc, fo rocrbc id) ut §anfc fcin. 

2. This particle fo should always be inserted after a conditional clause 
with tOCltn omitted ; in colloquial usage, however, the principal sentence 
sometimes has the subject before the verb, fo being omitted, as : 

2Bdre er friihcr aefommen, fo bcittc cr mid) gefcljcn ; 
or (colloquially) : 

83aw er friiber gefommcn, er {jalte mid) fiefcfjen. 
This latter construction, however, should not be imitated. 

3. In proportional clauses introduced by jc, Dtfto, or untfo, the depen- 
dent clause comes first, and the verb is preceded by the word expres- 
sing the comparison, as well as by the particle jc, etc., as : 

3e longer bie 9fcid)te ftnb, ocflo fitrjer finb bie Xage, The longer 
the nights are, the shorter are the days. 

(c) The Verb is last in dependent sentences and ques- 
tions (compare §§ 32 ; 88), as : 

^d) toe% baft bcr -JKenfcb fterblicf) ift, I know that man 

is mortal, 
©in 2Rann, tuctdjer geftern bier toar, A man, who was 

here yesterday. 
$d) gebe, tocif. e§ fcbon fpdt ift, I go because it is late. 
%d) toevjj \\\d)t, Wtr fyicv gemefen ift, I do not know who 

has been here (dep. question}. 

352 LESSON L. [§§293 

Remarks. — 1. Indirect statements with baft omitted 
have the construction of principal sentences (verb second ; 
see §§20; 87, 3), as : 

©r fagtc, cr fjabr C8 tocrgeffen, He said he had forgotten it. 

2. Conditional clauses with roenn omitted follow the 
question-order (verb first ; compare § 59), as : 

2Biirc ba3 2Better febon, fo roiirbc icb au^geben, If the 
weather were fine, I should go out. 

3. The Verb precedes two infinitives (or infinitive and 
part.; see § 199, 3), as in the compound tenses of Modal 
Auxiliaries, thus : 

@r fagtc, baft er nid)t Ijabc fommen tooUcn, He said that 
he had not intended to come. 

4. Clauses with bttin (=' unless,' § 241, 18), having negative 
force, follow the construction of a principal sentence ("verb 
second), as : 

$jd) laffe 2)id) nid)t, £u fegneft mid} bentt, I will not let 

Thee go, unless Thou bless me. 
3d) roerbe nicbt fommen, c$ fci benn, baft bag SBetter fd)bn 

toerbe, I shall not come, unless (it be that) the 

weather should become fine. 

5. §aben and fetn, as auxiliaries of tense, are frequently 
omitted at the end of a dependent clause, as : 

(Sr Icugnete, baft er bai ^enfter jerbrod)cn (fyafcc under- 
stood), He denied that he had broken the window. 
!Jd) fragte ibn, ob er jur rccbtcn 3eit angefommen (fci 
understood), I asked him if he had arrived in good 
294. Position of the Subject. 

The Subject is placed : 

(a) In Direct Questions, if it be the question-word, at 
the beginning ; otherwise immediately after the Verb, as : 


SBer ift bier getoefen? Who has been here ? 
3ft cr bier getoefen? Has he been here ? 
ffiann fommt ^Ijrc Sc^rticftcr '? When does your sister 
come ? 

(/>) In Principal Assertive Sentences, the normal po- 
sition of the Subject is first ; but if any other word precede 
the Verb, the Subject immediately follows the Verb, as : 
3d) roerbe morgen ntcf/t aueger/en ; or : 
■Bforgen roerbe id) nicht au§gel)en, I shall not go out to- 

Remarks. — i. In point of fact it may be said that, in a 
principal sentence, the Subject follows the Verb quite as often 
as it precedes it. 

2. A preceding dependent clause, or a quotation, always 
throws the subject after the verb, except when, after a con- 
ditional clause with tccnit omitted, the principal sentence is 
not introduced by the particle )o (compare § 293, 4, Note 2, 

3. When the real (logical) subject is represented by e$ 
before the verb as grammatical subject, the logical subject 
immediately follows the verb, as : 

@§ ift mcinc ©djtucfter geroefen, It was my sister. 

(c) In Dependent Sentences, the Subject, if a relative 
pronoun, begins the sentence, otherwise the Subject imme- 
diately follows the connecting word, as : 

3)er SRann, rocldjer geftem bier roar, The man who was 
here yesterday. 

&er 9ftann, ben id) geftem fab, The man, whom I saw 

3<b fagte tbr, bafe id) fommen roerbe, I told her that I 
should come. 

354 LESSON L. IS§294- 

NoTE. ; — Personal Pronouns, and especially the reflective fid), some- 
times precede the Subject, both in principal sentences with the Subject 
after the Verb, and in dependent clauses, as: 

SRorgen null fid) mein ©ruber ucrhcirotcn, My brother is going to 

get married to-morrow. 
@r jnf|te, bag it)it Meier 9ftenfd) belcibiflt rjnbe, He said that this 

fellow had insulted him. 

295. Position of the Predicate. 

i. The Predicate, if not included in the Verb (see § 292, 
1, above), may consist of a participle or infinitive (as in the 
compound tenses of the verb); or it may be a substantive, an 
adjective, or the separable prefix of a compound verb. 

2. The Predicate is placed last in Principal Sentences 
and in Direct Questions ; in Dependent Sentences it 
immediately precedes the Verb. 

3. If the Predicate is compound, consisting of two or more 
of the elements under 1, above, they will occur in the follow- 
ing order : 1. Predicative adjective (or substantive) ; 2. Sep- 
arable prefix ; 3. Participle ; 4. Infinitive ; thus : 

Pred. Adj. 
@r foil ftet3 gegen fetnen armen 23ruber febr freigebifl 
Part. Inf. 

QCtocfctt fetn, He is said to have always been very 
liberal to his poor brother. 

Pref. Part. Inf. 
©te roiirbc febon geftern ab - fjcrrift fcht, She would have 
departed yesterday. 

Remark. — Any one of these elements of the Predicate 
may, for emphasis, occupy the normal position of the subject 
in the first place {before the Verb), as : 

Srfjtiu ift ba§ SScttcr Beute nid)t, The weather is not (at 
all) fine to-day (i. e., it is far from fine). 


Sofbot ift mem Srubcr, nid)t s JJtatrofc, My brother is a 

soldier, not a sailor. 
<Sittgcn rotCC id) mob, l, abcr mcfyt fpielcn, I will sing, but 

not play. 

Note. — The Separable Prefix and the Participle are, however, rarely 
placed in this position, except in elevated or poetic diction, or for con- 
trast, as: 

9Hebcr fteio,' id) Ultn Wefed)te, I descend (down I go) to the fight. 

Sutiitfe blcibt ber ,ffnappen %X0§, The retinue of squires remains 

behind (ibid.). 
(f lit fdjtoffcn ift cr nlfobatb, He is resolved at once (ibid.). 
©Cgeben babe id) iljm bac* 93utf) nidjt, jonbent nut nclichcn, I did 
not give him the book, I only lent it to him. 

296. Position of Objects and Cases. 

i. Objects (not governed by a preposition) precede adjects 
(objects governed by a preposition), as : 

$d) babe einen SBrief on Unt (an mcinen ^atcr) gcfd>rtcbcn, 
I have written a letter to him (to my father). 

2. Pronouns (unless governed by prepositions) precede 
substantives, as : 

^d) §ab<t iljtn einen 33rief gefebrieben, I have written him 
a letter. 

3. Of Pronouns, Personal before other Pronouns, as : 

3d? fyabc iljtn bo§ (ettoa§) gegeben, I have given him 
that (something). 

4. Of the cases of Personal Pronouns, the Accusative precedes 
the Dative, and both precede the Genitive ; but the reflexive 
fid) usually precedes all others, as : 

@r bat fid) (Dat.) e§ gemerlt, He has taken w a_note_of 
it (for himself). 

35^ LESSON L. )§§ 296- 

5. Of Substantives, the Person (unless governed by a pre- 
position) precedes the thing; the Indirect precedes the Direct 
Object, and the Remoter Object (in the Genitive) follows 
both, as : 

3<$ babe $l)rcr Sdjtocftcr bas 33ucb, I have lent 
your sister the book. 

Gr bat bicfen SUiaim bc3 2Mebftabl§ bcfdmlbtgt, He has 
accused this man of theft. 

6. The persona/ (or subjective) Genitive (compare § 243, 2) 
may either precede or follow the substantive which governs it, 
as : 

SReittCS iBaterS §au§, My father's house ; or : 
2)a3 £au§ mcince $ater«s. 

7. The limiting Genitive (see § 243, 3) follows, except in 
elevated or poetic diction, as : 

Xa§ @nbe bc8 ftricgeg, The end of the war. 

8. Cases governed by adjectives precede the adjective, but 
a substantive with a preposition may follow the predicative ad- 
jective, as : 

3$ bin if)m banfbar fin* feme ©emu^ungen, I am grate- 
ful to him for his exertion. 

297. Position of Adverbs and Adverbial Expressions. 

1. In general, adverbs precede the word they modify, as : 

3cb bin fcfjr miibe geroorben, I have become very tired. 
@r bat ba§ 33utf) md)t gelefen, He has not read the book. 

2. Adverbs of Time precede objects (except pronouns) and 
all other Adverbs or Adverbial expressions, as : 

Time. Object. Place. Manner. 
©r bat flcftcrn ba§ 53ucb, -at £>aufe febr fleijjig ftubtert, 
He studied the book very diligently at home yesterday. 


3. Adverbs of place precede those of manner, and both 
follow objects, as in the above example. 

4. Of several Adverbs of like kind, the more general precede 
the special, as : 

SKorflcn urn jebn Ul)r, At ten o'clock to-morrow. 

Remarks. — 1. Any object, adject, adverb or adverbial 
phrase may occupy the normal position of the subject at the 
head of a principal sentence (before the verb, compare § 295, 
Rem., above), as : 

DJictncn JUotcr f>abe icb ntcfyt gefeben, I did not see my 

©cftcru ifttn id) ju fptit, I came too late yesterday. 

2. The relative position of objects, abverbs, etc., is the same 
in principal and subordinate sentences. 

298. Position of other Members of the Sentence. 

1. Attributive Adjectives and Participles immediately 
precede the substantive they modify, as : 

©in jur 33erteibigung febr fliinfttgcr Drr, A place very 
favourable for defence. 

$>a3 auf bem £>ugel ftc^Cltbc £aus, The house standing 
on the hill. 

2. Prepositions precede their case, with the exceptions 
given in the lists (see §§ 46 ; 51 ; 223). 

3. Conjunctions come between the words or clauses they 
connect, as : 

5Retn 93ruber unb feine 5 am ^ e Ttnb bier, My brother 
and his family are here. 

3d) toeift, baf; Sic ntcbt fommen iuerben, I know that 
you will not come. 

35^ LESSON L. | §§ 298- 

Note. — In dependent clauses that precede the sentence on which 
they depend the conjunction is first, as: 

2Betl id) franf wax, fountc id) itidjt foimncii, Because I was ill, I 
could not come. 

291). Construction of Incomplete Clauses. 

The Word-order of Incomplete or Elliptical Clauses is the 
same as that of Complete Clauses, there being no Verb in the 
former. In Infinitive Clauses the Infinitive comes last; and in 
Appositive Clauses, the Adjective or Participle comes last, thus : 

©ute greunbe (ju) Ijaben tft ein grofjeS ©liid, To have 

good friends is a great blessing. 
SDie $unft in DI JU mttten, The art of painting in oil. 
^d) tucrbe mid) freuen, ©ie moigcn 311 jeljen, I shall be 

glad to see you to-morrow. 

SDieS atfe§ bet mir brnfenb, fd;lief id) eirt, Thinking all 

this to myself, I fell asleep. 
58on bem Sarin aufgcjdjretft, fpiang er au3 bem SBette, 

Aroused by the noise, he jumped out of bed. 

300. Interrogative Sentences. 

1. Direct Questions always begin with the qnestioti-word, the 
other members of the sentence occupying the same relative 
position as in principal sentences. For the position of the 
Verb and Subject, see §§ 293, 294, above. 

2. Questions in German very frequently have the form of a 
principal assertive sentence, the question being marked only 
by the rising inflexion of the voice, as : 

2)u tjaft beine Seftion nid)t gelernt? You have not 
learnt your lesson ? 
Notes. — 1. This construction often occurs with a uod) in the sen- 
tence, as : 


2)11 tuivft Dud) fouimenV You will be sure to come (will you 

Sr ifl tiodf nid)t franf ? He is not ill (is he ? I hope not). 

2. Exclamatory sentences frequently have the construction of depen- 
dent questions, but may also have that of direct questions, as : 

SBev mitachcn Bitrfte ! (Happy he) who might go with you ! 
2Bte tfl ba8 JBettcr fcfjbll ! How beautiful is the weather ! 

301. General Remarks on German Construction. 

The following are the principal points in which German 
differs from English Construction : 

i. The Verb (containing the Copula) is the hinge on 
which the sentence turns, and has its position most absolutely 

2. The Subject does not, as in English, necessarily precede 
the Verb in Principal Sentences ; but if any other member of 
the sentence precede the Verb, an inversion of the subject 
takes place, and it is thrown after the verb. 

Notes. — I . The terms inversion, inverted sentence, often used by 
grammarians, refer to the Subject only, not to the Verb. 

2. This inversion of the Subject is also found in Interrogative and 
Imperative Sentences (see §§ 293 ; 294 ; 300, above). 

3. The relative rank of sentences is marked by the varying position of 
the Verb, which is last in Dependent Sentences. 

4. All the other parts of the sentence, except what precedes the Verb, 
are included or bracketed between the Verb and the Predicate. 

5. Dependent Sentences (including Infinitive and Appositive Clauses; 
see § 299, above) are marked off from the sentences on which they depend 
by commas. 



302. Compound and Complex Sentences. 

1. A sentence is compound when it contains more than one coordinate 
clause ; complex when it contains a subordinate clause, thus : 

Compound : 3d) ging an ib,m Dorbei, fannte ibn abcr nicht, 
I went past him, but did not know him. 

Complex : Gr fagte nitr, baf? er fomntcn tueibe, 
He told me that he would come. 

2. Any subordinate clause may itself be complex, having another clause 
dependent upon it, as : 

3d) erroartcte ibn geftevn, toetl er miv gefefivieben batte, fcafe feinc 

©cfchiifte batb beenbigt fcin roiirben, I expected him yesterday, 

because he had written me, that his business would soon be 


Note. — In the above example, the clause roetl er, etc., depends on the principal 

clause preceding it; whereas the clause bafj feme ©efdjafte, etc., depends on the clause 

toeil cr, etc., which is itself subordinate. 

Remark. — In the following observations as to the relative position 
or order of clauses, the term " principal sentence " includes all sentences, 
though themselves subordinate, which occupy the relation of a principal 
or governing sentence to the clauses dependent upon them. 

303. 1. In Complex Sentences, the position of the various depen- 
dent clauses is regulated by the following general principle : 

Finish the principal sentence before introducing the sub- 
ordinate clause. 

2. Thus, in the example in § 302, 2, above, it would be wrong to insert 
the last clause (bnfj . . . tttiirben) within the preceding clause on which 
it depends, thus : 

SBeit er mtr, bafj feine ©efdjafte beenbigt fein wurben, gejehrieben 

3. Similarly the following construction would make the complex sen- 
tence quite unintelligible: 

3?ie (Seroobnbeit mufj bie gertigfeit eine @ad)e obne iibev bte fflegel 
ju benfen iu tljutt Berletljen. 
The observance of the above rule will require the clauses of this sen- 
tence to be arranged as follows : 


lie ©rtuoljnljeit mufj bie Jertigfcit ucrlciljcn, cine gtadje ju tljun, 

oljne iibcr bie ?Kegcl nadHubenfcn, Habit (practice) must bestow 

the readiness of doing a thing without reflecting upon the rule. 

4. In the following sentence, again, the isolation of the separable prefix 

is very objectionable : 

.^eiter ging bie Sonne an jencm 2Jiorgen, an bem roir abreiften, ouf, 
The sun rose cheerfully on that morning on which we set out. 
The prefix atlf should be inserted after 2Jiorgen. 

304. Appositive Clauses, must, however, stand immediately after 
the particular part of the sentence to which they refer, as: 

2)ie ^Jricftertn, bon tljrer (9bttin felbft getodtflet unb grijetHflt, 

jpridjt jn btr, The priestess, chosen and consecrated by the 

goddess herself, speaks to thee. 
2Boo tbnneit mix, tin fdjtoadjcS 33olf tier §irtett, gegnt 2I(bred)t»j 

^)eete ? What can we, a weak people of herdsmen, [do] against 

Albert's hosts ? 
3d) babe ihm biefen ftebler, bajj et jebe OanMung mifjbeute, ici)oit 

oft ftorgeroorfcii, I have often reproached him with this mis- 
take of misinterpreting every action. 
3d) fonnte bie gragc, 06 to:r famen, nicfct beantroortcn, I could 

not answer the question, whether we were coming. 

305. Relative Clauses must immediately follow the antecedent : 
(a) When the latter (whether subject or not) precedes the verb of a 

principal sentence, as : 

Xer 2Jtonn, toeldjct fleflern l)ier tear, ift beute iniebergefommen, 
The man who was here yesterday came again to-day. 

2>en 2Jiann, tocli-er geflcrn Ijicr tear, babe id) nid)t gcfannt, I did 
not know the man, who was here yesterday. 

Notb. — If the antecedent does not precede the verb, the relative is introduced after 
the conclusion of the principal sentence, except as under (6), below, thus : 
Seute ift ber TOann toiebergetommen, roeldjer u. j. ro. 
3d) Ijabe ben HJlann ntdjt gelannt, roctdjer u. f. id. 
(3) When their separation from the antecedent would cause ambi- 
guity, as: 

©eftcrn babe id) meinen ftreunb, ben id) lange nid)t geietjen, bet 
meinem 33ruber getrofjen, Yesterday I met at my brother's my 
friend, whom I had not seen for^a^long^time. 

Notb. — If the relative clause were placed after the conclusion of the principal sentence, 
the relative ben might refer to ©ruber. 


«'JO<». A Subordinate or Dependent Clause (with the exceptions 
specified in Remarks 3, 4, below) may also, whether subjective, objective 
or adverbial, precede the principal clause, in which case it throws the 
Subject after the Verb, as: 

Ob id) fommen fonn [subjective clause), ifi gtoetfelboft, it is 

doubtful whether I can come. » 

2Ber flor ju oicl bebenft (subjective clause), roirb roenig leiftcn, Me 
who considers too much, will accomplish little. 

Xofe er ntir nidjt flcidjricbcn [subjective clause\ nmd)t mir@orgen, 

[The fact] that he has not written to me, causes me anxiety. 

Db id) tocroc font men fonnen (objective clause), tueift id) uid)t, 

I do not know, whether I shall be able to come. 
£ofj cr front ifl (objective clause), l)abe id) geftern geljbrt, I heard 

yesterday, that he was ill. 
$0 id) front tOOr (adverbial clause), fountc id) nidjt fommen, As 
I was sick, I could not come. 
Remarks. — 1. Such a clause takes the place of a subject, object or 
predicate, as the case may be, before the verb (compare §§ 293, b, 
Rem. 4; 294, Rem. 2; 295, Rem.). 

2. Adverbial clauses in this way bring expressions of time, place, etc., 
but more especially those of cause, nearer to the verb, which is the part 
of the sentence they modify. 

3. Only subjective relative clauses with the compound relative roer, tt)d8, 
can stand at the head of a sentence, as in the second example above. 

Note. — The relative ber is sometimes used instead of lucr as compound relative 
(including both relative and antecedent), especially in the plural, as: 

5>ic fid) mi Ijort eergangen fatten, flotjctt au$ ban £anbe. (Schiller); i.e., 
TtcjciiigciJ, roeldje U. f. m. ; or: 2Bcr fid) *u Ijart oergangni hattc (sing.), 
flof) u. f. ro., Those who had committed too great offences, fled from the 

4. Clauses which modify not the whole sentence but a particular 
member, cannot stand at the head of the sentence, but stand either 
immediately after the word to which they refer, or after the conclusion 
of the sentence (compare § 297, above). This remark applies especially 
to relative clauses (but see Rem. 3, above, and Note), and to comparative 
clauses with flfg, as : 

@ein Ungliicf mar grbfjer, a(8 er c$ ertrogen fonnte (or : ju graft, 
0I8 DOJJ er e8 U. f. tt).), His misfortune was greater than he 
could bear. 


Note — Comparative clauses with rote may precede, as: 
Sic im ^auLi ber Siogcl fingt, 
'.Blag fid) jeber gutlid) tbun, 
As the bird sings amid the boughs, let every one enjoy himself. (Schiller). 


1. It seems impossible, says a great botanist, to give, in the present 
state of our knowledge, a complete definition of what (= that which) is to 
be considered as an animal, in contradistinction to what one must regard 
as a plant. 2. The good king Robert Bruce, who was always watchful 
and prudent, had received information (.Riuibc) of (Don) the intention of 
these men to attack him suddenly. 3. Bruce caused his men to lie down 
to take some sleep at a place about half a mile distant from the river 
(see § 290, c, i), while he himself, with two attendants, went down to watch 
the ford through which the enemy must pass, before they came to the 
place where king Robert's men were lying. 4. "If I go back," thought 
the king, "to call my men to (the) arms, these men will get (fommcu) 
through the ford unhindered; and that would be [a] pity, since it is a 
place so advantageous for defence." 5. In the confusion, five or six of 
the enemy were slain, or, having been borne down by the stream, [were] 
drowned. G. With the natural feeling of a young author (Sdp'iftftcllcv), 
he had ventured (it) to go (fid) aufmachen) secretly and witness (beiftohncu 
-J- dat. ) the first representation of his tragedy at Mannheim. 7. He 
resolved to be free, at whatever risk (auf jebe ©cfabr l)iu) ; to abandon 
(= give up) advantages which he could not buy (er!aufeil) at such a price ; 
toquithisstepdame (ftiepmitterUcf), adj.) home, andgo forth (fortiuanbrrn), 
though friendless and alone, to seek his fortune in the great market 
Luihnnavit) of life. 8. Having well examined the place (Crt), the soldier 
reported his discovery to Marius, and urgently (bliugeilb) advised 
(ailfuteit -+- dat.) him, to make an attack upon the fort from that side 
where he had climbed up, offering (fid) Clbieten) to lead (=show) the way. 
9. He ordered his men to advance against the wall with their shields held 
together in the manner which the Romans named ' testudo ' or tortoise 
(Sdjilbfrotc). 10. His mother was present on (bci) this joyous occasion, 
and she produced (= showed) a paper of (= with) poison, which, as she 
said, she meant to have given her son in his liquor (©ctviiitf, ace.) rather 
than that he should submit (himself) to personal disgrace. 





307. i. New words are formed in a language by two more or less 
distinct processes : Derivation and Composition. 

2. Derivation is of four kinds, viz. : i. without change; 2. by inter- 
nal change ; 3. by Suffixes; 4. by Prefixes. 

Note. — All grammatical terminations (inflexions) are really suffixes, but these are 
not considered under the present head. 


Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, adverbs, etc., by the 
simple addition of the endings of conjugation, as : "Arbeit, labour ; <\X- 
bcit=en, to labour — ©va8, grass ; graven, to graze — tvocfcn, dry; tvocfn en, 
to dry — rtatjer, near (compar.) ; ttdbctn, to approach — fleflen, against ; 
begegn=en, to meet. 

Note. — In many of these derivatives, and in most of those from adjectives, the vowel 
has Umlaut, as : '-Pflug ; pfliig=en, plough — ^omtrter ; ^dmmcr^n, hammer — ftart, strong ; 
ftarf=en, strengthen — tot, dead; tiitsen, kill — offen, open; dffn«en, open — empor, up; 
empor=en, excite. 


Derivative Verbs. — Verbs are derived from other Verbs : 
(a) By change (generally Umlaut) of the root or Stem Vowel, forming 
causative ve?-bs, which are always transitive and weak, as : fallen, fall ; 
fallen, fell (cause to fall) — trinfen, drink; trdnfen, make to drink 
(drench) — fi^en, sit; fetjen, set — liegrn, lie ; legen, lay — fabren, fare, 
proceed ; fiiljreil, lead, cause to proceed. 



(6) By change of consojiant, with or without vowel-change, as : ftef)Clt, 
stand j ftellen, cause to stand, set or place upright — biegeu, bend ; biiaVit, 
bow — nttfleit, incline; nideit, nod (incline the head) Riodjfll, awake ; 
rrjfrfcn, arouse (cause to awake). 

Notb. — Many weak verbs and nearly all strong verbs are primitive ; but derivative 
verbs are generally weak. 

310. Derivative Substantives. — These are derived from Verbs 
by internal vowel-change without suffix, and are mostly masculine, as : 
binbeil, bind ; 33onb, bond, volume ; 93unb, union — jtljCH, sit ; ©at?, 
stake (thing set or laid down), etc. — }ief)cn, draw; 3lia., trait, etc. — 
treten, tread ; Zxitt, step. 

Note. — Observe that in both the Verbs and Substantives above occasional conso- 
nant changes also occur. 


311. Verb Suffixes. 

1. -tin forms derivatives from other verbs, as well as from substan- 
tives and adjectives, usuai/y with Umlaut, implying diminution or con- 
tempt, as: lad) en, laugh; lad) ellt, smile — $unft, art; fitnftellt, affect 
(artfully) — fromm, pious; frijmmcln, affect piety. 

2. =crtt from verbs, substantives and adjectives (sometimes with Um- 
laut), as: fotgen, follow; folg=ern, infer — @d)laf, sleep; fd)laf=crtt, feel 
sleepy — org, bad ; iirg=rrit, vex. 

3. -tcrtn, mostly from foreign stems, without Umlaut, as : mnvfcf) 5 
term, march — regnmit, reign — ftltb=tereit, study. Also from German 
roots, by analogy, as : bucfoftabMercn, spell. 

312. Substantive Suffixes. 

• • ~t (*ftf s ft)f *t, =&C (usually feminine) from verbs, usually with vowel- 
change, as: beug-en, bend; S3ad)-t, bay (bight) — faf)r=en, drive; ^al)v-f, 
drive— U'ag»rn, wear; Xrad) t, costume — fontm-cn, come; Jhttfef t, 
coming CJlltfunft, arrival ; ^ufunft, future) — fonncn, can ; ftun-f t, art 
— bienrtftt, burn; 53ran*I), conflagration — feniten, know; .ftmufce, in- 

2 -i 3- =(^Cn and =Ifin form diminutives, usually with Umlaut, as : §ail9, 
house ; £)du8-d)en, little house, cot — SJtann, man ; 2Jiann=letlt, manikin. 

Notes. — 1. sdjttt (Engl. -kin), originally Low (North) German only, is now more 
common than slcirt, which however is preferred after gutturals, as: Stincjslttlt, 3Hi(f);ltin. 

2. Sometimes a double diminutive suffix, el + t)tn, is used after gutturals, as : Kings 
tLdjtn, 'MdjstLflen. 

366 LESSON LI. [§§3I«- 

4. c forms a very large number of feminine derivatives from verbs, 
often with vowel-change; also, usually with Umlaut, from adjectives, as: 
fltegen, fly; gHeg*, fly (insect)— geben, give; ©obe, gift — fpredjcn, 
speak ; ©prod) c, speech, language — fliit, good ; Wiit=C, goodness - trot, 
faithful; Xreil'C, fidelity. 

5. =ft (from Fr. -ie) forms feminine derivatives, with accent on the 
suffix : 

[a) From verbs in =ellt, =ern, as : frfjmctdjchi, flatter; ©cfjmctchel-ct, 
flattery — jaubent, enchant ; ^nulu'v ct. 

(b) From substantives, indicating state, occupation, etc., most fre- 
quently from those in ? cr, as: 3ii(icv, hunter; c 3'd%tt*ti, hunting 
— 2)ntcfcr, printer; 2)nt(f(T=ct, printing (-trade or -office). 

Notes. — 1. It sometimes implies contempt, as: fiinbcrsti, childish nonsense. 

2. I?y analogy with the formations from stems in =tt. there has arisen the double suffix 
-ttti, added to other stems, as : SflttDsfrtl, slavery (from Stlaoc). 

6. 'd, from verbs (sometimes with vowel-change), generally indicating 
the instrument, as: betfen, cover; IDccf Cl, lid — ftiCQClt, fly; ftliiii-cl, 
wing — fdjltcfjen, lock; ©cf)luff=el, key — jifb^ert, pull; .Hiigel, rein, 

7. en, from verbs, including all infinitives, as well as others, e. g. : 
jivabcn, dig ; ©rab-cn (masc), ditch — fdjaben, hurt ; ©d)ab=en (masc), 

8. -tX, often with Umlaut, indicating the actor, chiefly from verbs, but 
also from substantives, as : bctcfen, bake ; s i5ad-tX, baker — llicilen, paint; 
9JiCll=cr, paint-er — tanjCll, dance; £au>er, danc-er — ©artClt, garden; 
©firtll=er, garden-er — @d)af, sheep; @d)(if=er, shepherd. 

Note. — Some derivatives from substantives insert It, as: SBilbsiuer, sculptor (from 
©ilb) — ©lbd=lt*er, bell-ringer (from ©lode) — Slebsltscr, orator (from 9iebe). 

9- *\)tlt (Engl, -head, -hood) forms feminine abstracts from substan- 
tives and adjectives, as : (Sutt J)tii, God-head — jfinb-tyeit, childhood — 
^liiib-^eit, blindness — ^reuljeit, freedom. 

10. =fcit replaces =l)Cit after adjectives in *t\, XX, ig, =Hd), Hx, font, 

as: (Sitcbfeit, vanity — 5Mtter=fett, bitterness 4UUtfl--fctt, cheapness — 
— £cinilid)--fttt, secrecy — 93raud)bor>fcit, usefulness — @parfam=feit, 

Note. — Some derivatives from adjectives insert -i((s before sfeit, especially from those 
in *I)0.ft and =(oo, as: Suftiiflilcit, sweetness — ©tanbhaftsiflifeit, steadfastness — Ireu? 
|ofsig«feit, unfaithfulness. 


11. =tn (compare §89, 2, Note) forms feminine appellatives from mas- 
culine substantives, usually with Umlaut (always so from monosylla- 
bles), as : ©rof, count; ©rftfilt, countess — ftvcilllb, friend; ^rntuMtt, 
(female) friend — ©cirtner, gardener ; @nrtner=in, gardener's wife. 

12. ling forms masculine diminutives (sometimes with .Umlaut) from 
verbs, substantives and adjectives, as: Ichrcil, teach; i'eljvUtlg, appren- 
tice — gllldjt, flight ; (V(iid)t4inj), fugitive — fvcmb, strange ; ftrenib.ltnn, 
stranger — jung, young; Sitligltllfl, youth. 

13. =ttiJ (Engl, -ness) forms abstracts from verbs; also from a few 
adjectives, usually with Umlaut, as: begvaben, bury; 23egrob=nt$, funeral 
— bittbem, hinder ; ^inbetMttS, obstacle — gefaugcu, captive ; ©cffing= 
nig, prison — filiftCV, dark ; ^infjtev»ni$, darkness. 

14. =fol, =fcl form neuter abstracts, chiefly from verbs, but also from a 
few substantives and adjectives, as : fd)irfen, send ; ©rf)tcf=fol, fate — 
ratcn, guess ; 9tftt=fel, riddle — 9JHH)f, trouble ; 2ftiil)=fal, fatigue — triibe, 
sad; ;£riib=fttl, tribulation. 

15. fd)ttft (Engl. -ship, -scape) forms feminine abstracts from verbs 
and adjectives, as : 2Bailber=fd)oft, wandering — $ l'Cimb-fd)af t, friend- 
ship — ?anb=f^O-ft' land-scape — ©cmchufdjafi, community — @igcrt= 
fdjuff, peculiarity ; also some collectives, as: ^riefter^djaft, priesthood; 
@cfcU=fd)ajt, society. 

16. =tttlll (Engl, -dom) forms (generally neuter) abstracts from verbs, 
substantives and adjectives, as : 2Bad)Mum, growth — (Sigemlum, pro- 
perty — 9?etd) turn (masc), wealth — $oitig=tttm, royalty (king-dom). 

17. 'Uttfl (= Engl, -ing in verbal nouns) forms a large number of 
feminine abstracts, chiefly from verbs, as : S3clcbr=ung, instruction — 5Ber= 
geb=t»n$J, forgiveness. 

18. The suffixes =enb, -ig, =td)t, =iltg are only found after stems which 
no longer have an independent existence, as : 9lb=enft, 2)Uj3=cnlJ, (5ff=ig, 
tfaf-ig, £ab4d)t (hawk). 

313. Adjective Suffixes. 

I- 'bat (connected with bdren, ' bear ') from verbs (= Engl, -able) and 
substantives, also (rarely) from adjectives, as : cfj bflv, eat-able — fnid)t- 
6or, fruitful — furd)t=bttr, frightful — offen'bttr, evident. 

2. =eit, =ftll form adjectives denoting material or kind from substantives, 
as : golb=en, golden — blcuew, leaden — filbert, silver — l)olj5=crn, wooden. 

Note. — Stfcrn, 'iron,' from Eifcrt, is anomalous. 

368 LESSON LI. [§§313- 

3- "Ijoft (connected with Pjttbcn, 'have') forms adjectives, denoting the 
quality of the primitive, chiefly from substantives (also from a few verbs 
and adjectives), as: jiillb haft, sinful — tllflCVtb baft, virtuous — ttiobn- 
haft, resident — botf haft, malicious — uml)r=haft, true. 

Note. — The suffix st(j is often added to adjectives in ;l)ajt, as: nmt)i'f)aft = i(j (compare 
also § 312, 10, Note, above). 

4. id)t sometimes replaces ijj (see below) after names of materials, as 
bovrt tdjt, thorny — fteitl»id)t, stony; also in tbl=id)t, foolish. 

5. *jjj (= Engl, -y, as in might-y, etc.) forms a very numerous class of 
adjectives, usually with Umlaut, from verbs, substantives and particles, 
and from other adjectives (including the possessive pronouns, see 
§119, r), as: nnd)3icb=tg, yielding — ciunf>io„ favourable — niiid)t if, 
might-y — fdjlllb'ijl, guilt-y — fliit ia,, kind — Bblbtfl, complete — bait if , 
of to-day — t»or?ig, former. 

Note. — For =lfl before =!elt, see § 312, 10, Note ; for =i(j after =ljaft, see 3, above. 

6. =ifd) (= Engl, -ish) forms adjectives: 

(a) From proper names, denoting origin, as : tlltherMfd), Lutheran 
— pmtfHfd), Prussian. 

(6) From substantives, as: bieb=ifd), thiev-ish — bimmbtflh, heav- 
enly ; sometimes also with depreciatory sense, as in English, 
e. g. : fhlb=tfd), childish — rncib't'd), woman-ish (compare ftnb* 
lid), child-like — njeiblid), woman-ly). 

(c) From foreign words (= Lat. -icus ; Engl, -ic, -ical), as : biftov= 
tfd), histor-ical — logifdj, log-ical. 

7. =(fi forms variative numerals ; see § 182, (c). 

8. ?Iid) (Engl, -like, -ly) forms numerous adjectives from verbs (with 
active or passive sense), substantives (usually with Umlaut) and other 
adjectives (generally with diminutive meaning, like Eng. -ish), as: erflfll* 
(id), delightful — fdjab-lid), injurious — begreif=Iid), intelligible — glaitb* 
(id), credible — tiertid)t4id), contemptible — jal)i lift), yearly — indnn (id), 
manly — nntiiv lid), natural — i°bt°ltd), redd-ish — Iftmvlid), long-ish. 

9- 'faitt (Engl, -some) from verbs and substantives (also from a few 
adjectives), as : aitfmerf fatll, attentive — fjetbfam, whole-some — fltrd)t= 
fam, timid — cirufam, lone-some. 


314. Verb Prefixes. 

The Verb Prefixes coming under the head of derivation are those 
which are always inseparable, viz: bf>, Cnt= or cntp , tX-t Qt*, Jllijj-, tff , 
$cr=. Their various meanings are given below. 


'• \t- (connected with the prep, bei) is intensive, and 

{a) forms transitive verbs from intransitive (its most frequent use), 
as : fallen, fall ; be-fallen, be-fall — gehen, go ; bc-gchen, commit 
(a crime, etc.) — flagen, mourn; be=f(ageti, mourn for; 
|7<) it forms verbs from substantives and adjectives, with the mean- 
ing 'provide with,' 'make,' as : be=freunbcn, be-friend — bf=ftdr= 
fen, make strong, strengthen. 

2. tnt- (ttttp' before an f, akin to atlt=, as in antroorten) corresponds 
frequently to the (Latin) prefixes dis-, de- in English words and denotes 

(a) 'in return,' as: cmjl-fcnigcn, receive; cmpfehlen, recommend; 

(6) 'contrary,' 'against,' ' away from,' having privative force, from 
verbs, substantives and adjectives, as : ent^billbeil, relieve — 
ent»becfen, discover — ent=geb,ert, ent=laufen, get away, escape; 

(e) transition, origin, as : Ctlt'fdjiafen, fall asleep — ent=fleb,en, arise, 

3. tt- (Engl, a-, as in a-rouse, a-rise, etc.) denotes : 

(a) 'out from,' 'upwards,' as: er=t)ebeit, raise — er=roecfen, a- waken; 
(6) transition (compare tat', above), as : er=bebert, begin to tremble 

— er-bluhen, come out in blossom — cr-falten, grow cold; 
(e) acquisition or attainment by the action of the verb (a very common 
use), as : er=bette(n, get by begging — cr4iften, get by cunning; 
(d) accomplishment, as: er=fd)tefjen, shoot (kill by shooting) — 
er'trinfen, be drowned. 
4. ge= often has no perceptible force, as in : jje-nejen, recover (from ill- 
ness) — gt=niefjen, enjoy; but commonly it is frequentative and intensive, 
as : ge=bietert, command — ge=bentetl, remember, mention — (je=loben, vow. 
5- Bltjj- (Engl, mis-) has negative force, sometimes with the notion of 
falsehood or failure, as: tntjj=ad)ten, despise — mt{j=fallen, displease — 
mi§=glitcfen, fail — mife-Derftchen, mis-understand. 

6. ticr» (Engl, for- in for-get, for-give) has the general meaning of 
'away' and often, like tnt-, answers to a dis- or de- in English. 

(a) It is intensive, and expresses excess, etc., as : bfT=blubeit, fade 
away — tJtr=fommen, go to ruin — ber^agen, despair. 

(b) It denotes a mistake, etc., as: Ber s fub,ren, lead astray— Der- 
laufen (refl.), lose one's way — beiMegen, mis-lay. 

(c) It is privative (its most frequent use), and denotes loss, parting, 
waste, dissolution, as : bcr=geben, pass away — Bfr=trinfeii, 
waste in drink — tofffpteletl, gamble away. 

370 LESSON LI. [§§314- 

(d) It forms verbs from substantives and adjectives denoting a 
change or transition into the state of the primitive, as : ttCT- 
onilfll, grow poor — OCT iiolbrit, gild. 
7. $cr= denotes separation, destruction, 'to pieces,' as: jef'bvcrhen, 
break to pieces — jjernilicbent, dis-member. 

315. Substantive Prefixes. 

1. (grj= (= Engl, arch-), as: (?r«hifd)o|, arch-bishop — 6rj-fciiib, 

. ®c* forms usually neuter derivatives : 

(a) Collectives, from substantives, as: (j)e birge, mountain-range 
— Ocficbcv, feathers — ©c-ftrciud), bushes. 

(b) Associatives (of persons), from verbs and substantives, as: 
©Hptclc, playmate — ©C-fd)nJifter, brothers and sisters (of a 
family) — ©c idle, fellow. 

(c) Frequentative or intensive abstracts, also from verbs, as: 
©efpviid), conversation — ©c-fliiftcr, (continued) whispering — 
©C tol'c, uproar. 

Note. — The substantives ©=ui(f, ©4ciubc contain this prefix. 

3. 2JU&-, with the same force as in verbs, e.g.: 9Riffe=tbat, misdeed — 
SRijj--gunft, envy. 

4- tilt' is negative prefix, as in English, e. g. : Ult'glucf, bad luck — 
tltt rcd)t, wrong — tltl-ftnu, nonsense. It also expresses something 
monstrous or unnatural, as : UlHhat, unnatural or monstrous deed — 
Utt=rnenjd), inhuman monster. 

5- tlr= (akin to n=, see above) denotes 

(a) origin, as in Uracil (cr=tcilen), sentence, judgment — Ut4atlb 

(Ct'laubcn), furlough, leave of absence ; 
(a) primitncness, as : tlf=fad)e (original thing), cause — ltr*mertfd), 
primitive man — Ur-ttmlb, primeval forest. 
Remark. — Substantives with Verb Prefixes (see §314, above) are 
derived from verb-stems having these prefixes (e. g. : 2lb-jug, SJe jug, 
from abjichett, be»tcben), except those with gc (see 2, above). 

316. Adjective Prefixes. 

The Prefixes of Adjectives are the same as those of substantives, and 
with the same force, except ge*, which forms : 

318] COMPOSITION. 371 

(a) Past Participles, some without corresponding verbs, as : jjf fittet, 
well-behaved gc fticfflt, booted ; 

(b) adjectives from verb-stems, as : gfsitehm, agreeable, acceptable 
— gt^roiB (from rntffen, ' know '), certain ; 

(c) from other Adjectives, as: (jc=rccf)t, just — jjf=treil, faithful. 
Note. — g=tetcf> also contains this prefix. 

317. Other Parts of Speech. 

Pronouns, Numerals, Prepositions, Conjunctions and Interjections are 
for the most part either primitive or compound ; for Derivative Num- 
erals and Numeral Adverbs, see §§ 182, 183; for the derivation of other 
Adverbs, § 189. 


318. 1. A compound word is one made up of two or more words, 
each of which maintains its separate form and meaning. 

2. In genuine compounds, the last component only is inflected ; but 
there are also spurious compounds, in which one or more of the pre- 
ceding components takes an inflectional ending (see § 319, 1, Notes 2, 
3, below), without liability to further variation. 

Note. — In a few words arbitrarily written as compounds, both elements are inflected ; 
see § 319, 2, Note, below. 

3. Compounds are made with much greater freedom in German than 
in English. Words that in English are written separately, are often 
written as one word in German, forming compounds of alength and com- 
plexity unknown in the English language, as : 5 c Ucmi'ftct)mmg§gejeiljd)aft, 
fire insurance company — ?uftri3f)renjd)ininbfucf)t, bronchial consump- 

Note. — These long compounds are generally broken up by one or more hyphens 
as: fteueroerfidjenincjSsMcfellfdjaft, a capital letter usually following the hyphen. 

4. When the last component is common to several successive com- 
pounds, it is expressed with the last component word only, the omission 
being indicated in the other cases by a hyphen, as: 9lpfel=, Aiddj= unb 
93trnbdume, apple, cherry and pear-trees — cine frcubetu unb nutjlofe 
9Iuf(inbe, a joyless and profitless task. 

5. The Composition of Verbs is fully treated of in Less. XXXVI, 
and Supp. Less. E. ; that of Numerals in Less. XXVIII, and also 
jn §§ 182, 183. The compound Prepositions will be found in Less. 
XXXVIII, and Conjunctions in Less. XL, and require no special ex- 

372 LESSON LI. l§§3«9 

310. Composition of Substantives. 

The last element is (with exceptions noted under 5, below) a Substan- 
tive, which determines the gender, and is alone inflected; the first ele- 
ment generally having the principal accent. The varieties of Compound 
Substantives are : 

1. Substantive -+- Substantive, the first element being in apposition or 
in some case or other relation (usually genitive) to the other, as below, as : 
^pimmcl veid), kingdom of heaven (apposition) — 3titg=cipfel, eye-ball — 
i'aiibcfl herr, sovereign — ^reuben=fcft, joyous festival — ^inbcr-fhibe, 

nursery (genitive elation) — £inten=faf5/ inkstand (stand/or ink) — X(inj= 
ftltllbe, dancinglesson (dative relation) •— SRattert-ftingcr, rat-catcher — 
SBcg Wcifcv, guide, finger-post (accusative relation) — Oft=tt)inb, East wind 

— ^veubert=tl)railC, tear of joy (origin) — j^ufMtitt, kick (instrument) 

— 3)ncf)=fenfter, window in the roof (place) — £age»roerf, day's work. 

Notes. — 1. Primary Compounds are those composed of stem -f- substantives, either 
with the stem-suffix -t, as: lageroert ; or without . suffix, as: §anb=roerl, trade — 3ogb 5 
Ijorn, hunting-horn. 

2. Secondary Compounds are made up with a Genitive case, Singular or Plural ; if sin- 
gular, the first component takes z8 after strong masculines and neuters, and ;tll after weak 
substantives, whether sing, or plur. ; thus: Sonntag;8stIetb, sunday-dress — ^freubstlt; 
gefdjrei, cry of joy — 2Bbrter=bud), dictionary. 

j. The suffix ;B is also added to feminities in -A, ;f)eM, =fttt, =(lf)aft, sUllfl, and the 
foreign endings =ion, tot, as : WeburUgstag, birthday — ^rcif)eit=3jliebe, love of liberty 

— SBiafeigtcitigsnerein, temperance society — SHeltgioruiMrieg, religious war — Unioer; 
fitat;(j=flebaube, University building. 

2. Qualifying Adjective -f- Substantive, as: (Sbcl=ftetn, precious stone, 
jewel — 3ungfrau, virgin — £>odHeit, wedding (high time) — SUoII=monb, 

Note. — In a few spurious compounds of this kind, the adjective is declined, as: 
ein $o()er=pricfter, high-priest; bcr ©ofjtpriefter — bie 2ange*rocUe, tedium, ennui; Gen. 
ber Slangenroetlc. 

3. Adverb or Preposition -+- Substantive, usually from compound 
verbs, but not always, as : §cr-fimft, origin — 2Bohl-tf)at, benefit — 9In^ 
jabl, number — $ei=jpicl, example — - §intcr4ijt, cunning — Uber=mad)t, 

4. Verb-stem -\- Substantive, sometimes with connecting suffix -f, 
as: Ve\ ebnd), Sdjmb-febcr, ©iiig uogel. 

5. Other Compound Substantives. There is a special class of 
substantive compounds of a character different from those enumerated 
above, and of various composition, consisting of: 


(a) A limiting word (nut asubst.) -f- Substantive, as: 3Minbc=litl), 
blind man 's-buff — ftaf)l fopf, bald-head — (Svofj maul, boaster 

— Sang-bein, long-legged person — ■ ©d)reUl)al«, bawler — "iiin- 
erf, square. 

(b) Limiting word + Adjective, as : bcr 9ttmmcr>fatt f the glutton 

— ba§ 3mmcr=flvun, the evergreen. 

Note. — These compounds are masculine when referring to persons, otherwise neuter. 
The same rule holds good for the compounds under (c), below. 

(c) Verb + Object, limiting word or phrase, as : fcer Jamie 
Uid)t8, the good-for-nothing — tier @pring*iH8=felb, the romp — 
fcer ©torerufrieb, the kill-joy — bad @tcU-bid)=ein, the rendez- 

320. Composition of Adjectives. 

Compound Adjectives consist of an Adjective preceded by a limiting 
word, viz. : 

1. Adjective -+- Adjective, as: taub-ftumin, deaf-mute — bunfebbfait, 
dark-blue — vot bdefig, red-cheeked. 

2. Substantive -f- Adjective : 

(a) with connecting inflexional suffix (compare {? 319, 1, Note 2, 
above), as: (iebcMratlf, love-sick — gebanfen-uoll, pensive — 
f)offmntg84o8, hopeless ; 

(b) without suffix, as : liebc=DOlI, affectionate — bulb reid), gracious 

— freubc=lccv, joyless. 

Notes. — 1. The Adjectives loft, rttdj, bof( are of such constant occurrence as to have 
almost acquired the character of suffixes. 

2. In some of these compounds, the substantive expresses comparison, or has intensive 
force, as : !retberoet&, white as chalk — f eberletd)t, light as a feather — felfeiifeft, firm as 
a rock. 

3. Verb -\- Adjective, as : roif3=begierig, eager for knowledge — meet 
luiirbifl, remarkable (noteworthy). 

Note. — In Compound Adjectives like banteitBstucrt, ' welcome ' (' thankworthy '), the 
first element is the infinitive used as a Substantive. 

4. Adverb or Preposition -\- Adjective, as: l)od) geborat, high-born 
— roobbfeU, cheap -- unter4l)an, subject — iibctr-flua,, overwise. 

321. Composition of Adverbs. 

Adverbs are compounded of various parts of speech : 

1. With Nouns (mostly in the Genitive) affixed to other parts of 
speech, as : gall : gleid)=faU8, likewise ; jebru=fafl$, in any case — 

374 ' ESSON LII. [§§32i- 

2Jtafj(c) : cinlger«mo|en, in some degree — ©cite : ciitev fcttfl . . . anbtec* 

fcttt*, '>n the one hand . . . on the other hand — £cil : llicifteit UilS, chiefly; 
nu'iiu'0 tcilt\ on my part — 8Bf fl : a,evabctf foegg, straightway; fcincS= 
tDCgtf, by no means — 2Bci(e: finft iDCtlcn, mittlcr-toeiU, meanwhile, mean- 
time — 2Bdjc: flliitfUd)CV=tOeifC, fortunately; tteitJtDCifc, crosswise; 
tl)i)rid)teiMt)Ci|C, foolishly. 

Note. — The masc. and neuter genitive-inflection =8, from its frequent use in adverbial 
genitives, has become an adverbial suffix, and is sometimes attached to fern, substs., as : 
btc Stsdjt, adv. liadjttJ, by night. So also has the suffix UliirtO, as: IjimmeHudrtB, 
heavenward — norb;tUOrt8, northward. 

2. With Prepositions (or original Adverbs) prefixed or suffixed to 
other parts of speech, as : JU fl(cid), at the same time — gcrabe»iu, straight 
on — OUf=luartS, upward; biTg.MHtf f uphill — UlttMMuegS, |on the way; 
bcig=unter, downhill — Jjeuiju4age, nowadays — jabre=Ioitfl, for years. 

3. With Pronouns (or Stems originally Pronominal) compounded 
with each other, as: rDol)iuV whither? babul, bortbin, thither— tuobcr? 
whence ? baljer, bultllill, thence, etc. 

For Numeral Adverbs, see §182. 


322. Relation between German and English. 

1. A comparison of German words and forms with their English equi- 
valents will serve to show that a very large number of both words and 
grammatical forms are common to both languages. Though rarely ab- 
solutely identical in form, the resemblances are both so close and so 
numerous that they cannot be the result of mere borrowing on the part of 
either language from the other, but must imply relatio?ishi/>, or, in other 
words, a descent from a common source, a common origin. 

English and German are therefore Modern Dialects of one 
and the same original language. 

2. This original language is no longer extant, either as a spoken or as 
a written language. There are, however, other languages — some still 
spoken, some known to us only as written which were once also 


dialects of this common ancestor, or ©nuiufprad)e, as German philolo- 
gists call it. This group or sub-family of languages is called the Ger- 
man ic or Teutonic, the common source or (Svuubjpiud)o of which was 
itself a dialect of a larger family, all of whose members were dialects of, 
and derived from, one common primitive source (Urfpl'ildjc). This family 
is called the Indo-Germanic, Indo-European or Aryan family, and 
includes most European and several Asiatic languages. 

3. The divisions of this great family, with the chief representatives, 
ancient (written) and modern (spoken), of each, are as follows, beginning 
from the East : 

(a) Indic — ancient: Sanskrit, etc. ; modern: Hindustani, etc. 

(b) Persic — " Zend, etc. ; " Persian, etc. 

(c) Greek — ancient and modem. 

(d) Italic — ancient: Latin, etc.; modern: the Romance lan- 
guages (Italian, French, Spanish, etc.). 


(/) Slavonic — Russian, Polish, Bohemian, etc. 
(g) Germanic — see below. 

323. The Germanic Languages. 

The Germanic or Teutonic group of languages may be classified as 
follows : 

1. Gothic or East Germanic, once spoken by the Goths of Mcesia, 
on the Danube, represented only by a translation of portions of the 
Bible, made by Ulfilas, Bishop of the Goths, in the 4th century, a. n. 

2. Scandinavian or North Germanic— ancient: Old Norse; 
modern : Icelandic, Danish (Norwegian), Swedish. 

3. LuwGerman or West Germanic — ancient: Frisian, Low Saxon, 
Low Frankish, Old English (Anglo-Saxon), Middle English; modem: 
Dutch, English. 

Note. — The modern representatives of the other Low German languages are mere 
dialects — known as Plattdeutsch (i. e., Flat German), the present (High) German literary 
language having displaced them. 

4. High German or South Germanic, including the (no longer 
spoken) Old and Middle High German, and the GERMAN, as spoken 
and written at the present day. 

The following diagram will serve further to illustrate the relationships 
of the German language : 




O O ."2 O 






1— 1 " — ' 

in .. « 

S "O 5 

-to- 2. 
c O 12 

w - g 

— H 


01 « 

Z 2 

5 S 

3 < 

a 6 

* 5 

v a. 

J5 „ 

.£ ~ 

<U ^ 
C ~ 

a Ji 
S ^ 

3 s 

Ml £ 

I M O C 

IP • V 

5 S a .r 

324] history of high german. 377 

324. History of High German. 

The High German (including the Middle German) branch of the 
Germanic sub-family has passed through three stages, as follows : 

1. Old High German, to the 12th century. Its literature is chiefly 
ecclesiastical — its principal authors being monks, such as Otfrid, the 
Frank, author of a rhyming harmony of the Gospels, and Notker, of St. 
Gallen in Switzerland. Each author wrote in his own dialect. 

Note. — The chief characteristic of this Old High German, which distinguishes it from 
the subsequent stages, is the comparative fulness and distinctiveness of its grammatical 
forms. Thus Xagm, €bbnen, &abtn (dat. pi.) = O. H. G. tag-um, sun-um, geb-6m re- 
spectively; and the pres. indie, of neman (nefimen) is as follows: nim-u, nim-is, nim-it, 
nemam-(es), nem-at, nem-ant. It also has a fifth case (the Instrumental). 

2. Middle High German (a. d. 1 100—1500). Literature during this 
period passed from the hands of the clergy into those of the nobles; hence its 
courtly character. The branches of poetic composition therein represented 
were Epic and Lyric Poetry, the former comprising not only the great 
National Epics of the 'Nibelungenlied' and 'Gudrun,' but also the 
Courtly or Art Epics of Chivalry, such as Wolfram von Eschenbach's 
' Parcival ' and Gottfried ' von Straszburg's ' Tristan unci Isolde ' ; the 
latter comprising the productions of the ' Minnesinger,' of whom the 
greatest was Walther von der Vogelweide. The Dialect of Snabia 
(which included Baden, Wurtemberg and parts of Bavaria) became the 
leading literary language. 

Note. — Middle is distinguished from Old High German chiefly by the loss of the 
full vowels of inflectional syllables, which were for the most part changed into t. Thus 
the O. H. G. datives pi. tag-um, geb-6m are in Mid. H. G. tag-en, geb-en ; and the 
pres. indie, of ne'men is: nim-e, nim-est, nim-et, nem-en, nem-et, nem-ent. It is 
further distinguished from O. H. G. by the spread of the Umlaut (see § 326, below), which 
in the former is confined to the vowel a, to the vowels o and u also ; and from both 
O. H. G. and Modern German by the large number of its diphthongal sounds (ai, ei, oi, 
bi, au, ou, ou, eu, ia, ie, io, iu ; ua, ue, lie, uo), the greater number of which are unknown 
in both the preceding and the later stage of the language. 

3. New or Modern High German, from 1500 to the present day, 
forming, since before the beginning of the 16th century, the standard 
literary language of all German-speaking people. Its basis is Doctor 
Martin Luther's translation of the Bible (1522 — 34), in which he 
adopted the „$antfeif|Drad)e" or official court language particularly of 
the Duchy of Saxony, as being, in his own words, „&ic flcmcittc uCutfft)C 
2t)ra<f)C, roelcfjer nachfolgen alle gurften unb $Snige in gonj 2)eutfd)= 

378 lesson lii. l§§ 324- 

Notb. — The chief characteristic which distinguishes Modern (New) High German 
from Middle High German is the lengthening of all stem-vowels before a single consonant. 
Thus faiii'ii, fpi'Cld), lobetl, all have the stem-vowel long in Modern German, but short in 
Middle High German. To this maybe added the use of the letter I) to mark a preced- 
ing long vowel, as in ncljmen, M. H G. nemen (with short e); the change of [ into jrt| be- 
fore 1, n, as . Sffjlaf, Srtince, M H. G. slaf, sne; and that of the long vowels i, fi, into the 
diphthongs ei, au respectively, as: mtiit, bcin, brci, SQJeib, TOauS, §ou3, £aut, lout, 
M II. G. min, din, dri, wib, mtis, litis, hut, lut. 

3125. Grimm's Law of fiautbcrjdjjicbunfl. 

1. The law of the progression or shifting of mutes, Germ. JJoilts 
bcrfdjicblllltj, also called Grimm's Law after its chief discoverer, Jakob 
Grimm, the illustrious grammarian, is one of the most striking features 
of the Germanic languages. 

2. The Mutes are divided into three classes, according to the organ 
with which they are uttered, viz. : Linguals (or Dentals): t, th, d; 
Labials: p, ph (f), b; and Palatals (or Gutturals): k (c), ch (h), 
g. Each of these classes contains a tenuis (or surd), an aspirate or 
spirant, and a media (or sonant), thus: 


Palatals : 

3. In the majority of the Germanic languages — Gothic, Scandinavian, 
Low German (including therefore English) — as compared with the other 
members of the Indo- Germanic family (Greek, Latin, etc. ; see § 322, 3, 
above), each of these mutes has undergone one "shifting," or been 
pushed forward one stage in its own class, the tenues having been changed 
into aspirates (or more strictly spirants), the aspirates into mediae, and 
the mediae into tenues. In High German alone they have undergone a 
second "shifting" in the same direction. 

Note.— The accompanying diagram will serve further to illustrate ^fa^j 

this process, showing how the mutes observe the following rotation f 
from primitive Indo-Germanic through general Germanic (including / 
English) to High German, viz.: Tenuis, Aspirate, Media; Aspirate,^ 
Media, Tenuis; Media, Tenuis, Aspirate. /£$,. 

3. Taking Latin or Greek as representing the first or 'K j^ 

primitive Indo-Germanic stage, and English as repre- ^^ 

senting the second, or general Germanic stage (the first shifting), the 
following scheme will show the theoretical working of this law: 


or Spirants. 






ph, f 


k, c 

kh, ch (h) 


325] grimm's law of Bautberfdjiebung. 379 

Ljnguals. Labials. Palatals. 

Latin, Greek, etc. : t, th, d p, ph, b k, kh, g 

.dish, etc. : th, d. t ph, b, p kh, g. k 

= (High) German : d, t, th b, p, ph g, k, kh 

5. The operation of the law is, however, subject to the following 
general exceptions : 

(a) p and k were changed in the second shifting, not into aspirates 
proper, but into the spirants f and h (= d)i respectively, and 
these spirants were not subjected to any further change. 

(b) The lingual aspirate is represented in High German by J, 0, ff, or §. 

(c) The second shifting of media to tenuis took place in High Ger- 
man in the lingual series only, except in one dialect (the Ale- 

(d) The aspirate lor spirant) rf) is never found in Modern German at 
the beginning of a word. 

6. Hence the modified scheme below will represent approximately the 
actual working of the law : 

Linguals. Labials. 1'alatals. 

Latin, Greek, etc. ; t, th, d p, ph (f), b k, kh (h), g 

= English, etc. : th, d, t f, b, p h, g, k 

= (High) German : d, t, z, s, ss, sz f, b, f h(d)) g, k (d)) 

Note. — Latin has c, f, and h for k, ph and kh respectively ; and the (1) at the bottom 
of the last column does not occur at the beginning of words ; see 5, (d), above. 

EXAMPLES OF «auiocrfd)iebung. 
(Note. — Kxamples from Lat. unless otherwise specified.) 
i. LiiNGiALs: (a) t th — (I ; as : tectum — tliatch — £ad); tenuis - 
thin biinn; tu — thou — fcu; tres — three — fcrci; frater — brother 

— 33iut>ev ; (b) th — d— t, as: thygater (Gr.) —daughter - Jod)tcv; 
thyra (Gr.) — door — Xiire; ter (Gr.) — deer — %kx; (c) d — t— z, s, 
ss, sz, as: domus — timber — dimmer; dakr-y (Gr.) tear — ^dljrc; 
sedere— sit -ft|eit; edere — eat — effen. 

2. Labials: (a) p— f — f, as: pugno — fight — fed) ten; pedem- 
foot — gfllf;; piscis - fish Ji'd); (/<) ph (Lat. f) - p b, as: frater 

— hrother — Igriiber; f agus — heech — Jfludje; (c) b — p — f, as: can- 
nabis — hemp £hiii[. 

3. Palatals: («) k (Lat. c) — h — d) (h if initial), as : canis — hound 

— #uub; octo — eight ud)t; noc-tem — night — "JJudjt; (b) kh (Lat. h) 

— g — g, as: liostis — guest — ®uft; tortus garden — ©artctt; (c) 

38O LESSON LI I. [§326 

g k(c) — d) (k if initial) as; gelidus — cold — fait; genu — knee 
Jfltic; jugum — yoke— 3od); frango break — brcd)Ctl. 

Note. — A further class of exceptions is caused by the fact that the mutes are some- 
times protected from change by an adjacent consonant, as: wander — luanfiern, stone — 
Stein ; baste — \io ft ; night — 91ad)t ; craft — ftvaft. There are also other deviations 
from the strict rule too numerous to be mentioned here. 

326. Umlaut. 

1. Umlaut is the modification of an accented a, 0, U, 0U into a (f), 
0, it, OU respectively, and is caused by the influence of an i or j in the 
following syllable. 

Remarks.— i. The vowels 0, 0, It, with the diphthong OU, are guttural 
or "back" vowels, and approach the sound of the following i, which is 
a palatal or " front " vowel. 

2. This t or j appears in Old High German, but has disappeared — 
with some exceptions, as under (</), (e), (/), below — in Modern Ger- 
man, and even in Middle High German. The following are a few exam- 
ples of the origin and working of this law: 

(a) In the plur. of Substantives of the ©obrt Model (§ 21), the ter- 
mination e is in O. H. G. -i, as : @0l"tC, O. II. G. gast-i; RriftC, 
O. II. G. krafti. 
Note. — Not all substantives with Umlaut in the plural have this origin ; a number of 
them (e.g., Sot)n), which originally belonged to declension-forms without an -i, having 
followed the analogy of the others. 

(/>) In the plur. of the 2)orf Model (§ 36), the ending -tl is in 
O. H. G. -ir, as: tftlbcv, O. H. G. kalbir. 

(c) In diminutives in ={1)011 (orig. -kin) and 4citt (orig. -lin), as: 
Mndl'djcn, .ftuoblein, from ftiiabe. 

(J) In fern, appellatives in =ilt, as ©refill, from ©rof. 

(e) In substs. in =IU£3, as 33cgroblU«, from groben. 

(/) In adjs. in ig, as giitig, tl)0tig, from gut, Shot. 

{g) In the impf. subj. of strong verbs, the final -t is in O. H. G. -i, 
as: giibe, O. H. G. gabi. 

3. Sometimes the Umlaut of a is represented by c instead of a, as in 
(£ngel (angel), from angil, Gr. angelos ; (glteru, parents, from Qlt. 

4. Instances of Umlaut occur in English also, as in mouse, mice ; 
goose, geese; old, elder; but they are comparatively rare, and the in- 
fluence of Umlaut ceased in English at a very early period. In German 
on the contrary it is still an active principle. 


A. Substantives of tylalcx Model with Umlaut in Plural. 

Meter, field 
Sruber, brother 
jammer, hammer 
6d)roager, brother-in-law 
Safer, father 

Soben, bottom, loft 
ftabett, thread 
©arten, garden 
©raben, ditch 

(Lesson V, § 17.) 

£afcn, harbour 
fiaben, shop 
Cfett, stove 
©cbctben, damage 

Mpfct, apple 
£ammel, wether 
£anbel, affair, quarrel 
TOantct, cloak 
JJabcl, navel 

iKagel, nail 
Sattel, saddle 
Scbnabcl, beak 
Sogcl, bird 

Hhittcr, mother 
Xocbter, daughter 

JUoftcr, cloister 

B. Masculine Monosyllables of §unb Model (without Umlaut). 

Hal, eel 

Har, eagle 

Hrm, arm 

Sorb, board, shelf 

Sorn, well 

3)od)t, wick 

2)old), dagger 

S5om, dome, cathedral 

Drucf, pressure, print 

©rab, degree 

©urt, girth 

£ag, hedge 

•frail, sound 

£mlm, blade (of grass), etc. 

£>auc&, breath 

#orft, eyry 

$ort, refuge 

fiuf, hoof 

§unb, dog 

(Less. VII, §22, 1.) 

Rait, lime 
Sort, cork 
flrahn, crane 
£acfi§, salmon 
£ad, lac 
£aut, sound 
S!ud)o, lynx 
SJloIcb, salamander 
SDlonb, moon 
SKorb, murder 
Drt, place 
SJSarf , park 
Sfab, path 
Sfau, peacock 
Sol, pole 
S"13, pulse 
Sunft, point 
^Juiifcf), punch 

Quarj, quartz 

Duaft, tassel 

Sd)uft, mean fellow 

Scbufj, shoe 

©pat, spar (mineral) 

Staar, starling 

Stahl, steel 

©tOff, material 

©Utlb, strait, sound 

2aft, taffeta 

%aa, day 

Xalt, tact, bar (in music) 

Salt, talc 

2bran, train-oil 

Sbron, throne 

Xorf, peat 

Zujd), flourish of trumpets 

3oU, inch 




C. Feminines ok Soljn Model. 

(AH with Umlaut; Less. VII, § 22, 3.) 

Slngft, anguish 
Dlusflttdtt, evasion 
9Ijt, axe 
Sattt, bench 
SBraut, bride 
SBruft, breast 

A'llllft, fist 
7\riKl)t, fruit 
Will iv, goose 
(Mmft, grave 
£anb, hand 

4>aut, skin 
Atluft, cleft 
Jlruft, strength 
.Rut), cow 
flllltft, art 
ii<xm, louse 
Sluft, air 
fiuft, desire 
a)!nd)t, power 
*JJiao.b, maid-servant 
5Dlau§, mouse 
Also those ending in -nt3 and -fal. 

9Jad)t, night 

91al)t, seam 

91ot, need 

9!ufs, nut 

San, sow 

Sdjnur, string 

Stabt, town 

SJanb, wall 

SBurft, sausage 

•8'inft, guild 

gufammenrunft, meeting 

D. Irregular Foreign Substantives. 

(Less. VII, §22,6.) 

1. Tev Kaplan, chaplain, pi. flaplane. 

2. The following foreign substs. with accent on last syll. follow the £>unb Model: ber 
SMonolog', soliloquy; bcr Tialoo/, dialogue; also those in -or accented, as: ber 
$umov', humour; ber iDiajor', major. 

3. The following are mixed (Ofor Model) : ber SlUiga'tor, alligator; ber Diimon, 
demon; ber Jtotl'ful, consul ; bao Stereoffop', stereoscope ; ba6 deleft op', telescope; also 
those from the Lat. in -or unaccented, as : ber Softer, ber ^rofeffor. 

4. The following are weak or mixed (Dbr Model): bcr 2lbamanf, adamant; ber £ia = 
mant' (or ©emant), diamond; ber 5Diagnet', magnet. 

E. Neuter Monosyllables of §un& Model. 

(Less. VII, § 22, 5.) 

Beet, flower-bed 
SSeil, hatchet 
33ein, leg 
SSier, beer 
£)led), tin-plate 
Slot, lead 
Boot, 1 boat 
'SBrot, bread 
Sing, 2 thing 
Grj, ore 
Sell, hide 
gfeft, festival 
Sett, fat 
g!o*, J raft 

Sift, poison 
OileiG, rut 
f>eft, handle 
£orn, 2 horn 
Sod), yoke 
Jhtie, knee 
flreuj, cross 
S.'anb, 2 land 
£id)t, 2 light 
£oo§, lot 
9Ka(a)l, mole, mark; 

2Bafs, measure 
SWoor, moor 

SD!oo3, moss 
9ie$, net 
CI, oil 
SBferb, horse 
s .J5funb, pound 
$ult, desk 
9ted)t, right 
9ier>, roe-deer 
JReid), empire 
Stiff, reef 
Dtofe, horse 
(Sals, salt 
Sdjaf, sheep 
Sd)i|'i, ship 

Sd)i(f, rush 
Scfjrot, shot 
Sd)tuein, pig 
Seil, rope 
Sieb, sieve 
Spiel, game 
Stiicf, piece 
Xau, cable 
Seil, share 
SSBeljr, weir 
Sfikrf, work 
2Bort, 2 word 
3elt, tent 
,Seug, stuff 
3iel. goal 



Jit in 
4>aar, hair 
£eer, army 

,~\alir, year 
Dtecr, Bca 

with Umlaut. 

yaav, pair 
5Kot)V, reed 
: See aK 

tier, animal 
If) or, gate 

F. Weak Masculines not ENDING in -c. 

Sar, bear 
Saier, Bavarian 
SBulgar', Bulgarian 
SBurfd), lad 
Gfjrift, Christian 
ginl, finch 
giirft, prince 

(Less. XIV, § 57, 2.) 

0ecf, fop 
©efetl, fellow 
(Sraf, count 
^ageftol}, old bachelor 
£elb, hero 
fterr, master 
•Sjirt, herdsman 

flaffer, Caffir 
SDfenjd), man 
SDlobr, Moor 
9larr, fool 
9iero, nerve 
D(f>5, ox 

%x\v.\, prince 
©pa§, sparrow 
Steinmef;, stone- 
2f)or, fool [mason 
Ungar, Hungarian 
SBorfahr, ancestor 

^omtner, Pomeranian 

G. Substantives of Mixed Declension. 

(Less. XV, §§ 61-63.) 
(a) 9iomc Model (Masc). 

SBalfe(n), beam CSIuube, faith 

23ud)ftabe, letter of the alphabet ftaufe, heap 

3elf(cn), rock 9Jome. name 
^riebe, peace Same, seed 

©ebante, thought 

Also one neut. : baa .£>ct'i, (;. be-i .\>encnc 

Scfiabe, injury (pi. Sdjdbcn) 
Scbrccf(cn), fright 
Iropfc(u), drop 
2BiUe, will 

(/>) 91ad)b;r Model. 

ibauer, peasant fcorbcer, laurel *$OntoffeI, slipper *Stiefcl, boot 

iter, godfather 5!od)bar, neighbour 3tacf)el, sting Better, cousin 

Jtou'jul, consul 
2. Neuters : 2luge, eye Gnbe, end 

* Also after SJlaler Model. 

1. Masculines: 
2lt)n, ancestor 
ftorft, forest 
OSau,* district 
£ufar, J hussar 

2. Neuters: 

(c) Df>t Model. 

s l»aft, mast 
^(fau, 1 peacock 
Sdjmer?, pain 
See, lake 
Sett, bed 

oporn, spur 

(also Sporen) 
Stoat, state 
Strafjl, beam 
£emb, shirt 

Strang, 3 ostrich 
Unterttjan, 2 subject 
Qierat, ornament 
3in3, interest 
Cf)r, ear 

1 Also after .£unb Model. 2 Also after flnabe Model. 
To these may be added the foreign substantives in Ap; 

,V S I 


(A* Double Plurals with different mkanings. 

(Less. XV, § 

ba5 53anb : Wdnber, ribbons 

bie SflanI : Sdnfe, benches 

brto Z)ing : Jimic, things 

bet roni : Tonic <<r Joiner, thorns 

ba$ Wcfidjt : Wcfid)tcr, faces 

brto .s>orn : Corner, horns 

bcr i.'abcii : Siben, simps 

bao Sanb : fldllbtr, separate countries ' 

btt3 Sid;t : i'icfitc, candles 

bcr Diann : Wanner, men 

bcr SDionb : s JJlonbe, satellites 

ber Drt : Otter, (single) places 2 

bie Snu : Stiue, sows 

bcr Straufs : Straufec or Straufscn, os- 

ba3 Zud) : SCiidjcr, cloths 

ba<5 SEBort : SFBdvter, single words 

bcr '30U : 3°Ue, inches 


# !Hanbc, ties 
^nnfen, commercial banks 
2 s tinier, creatures 
Cornell, thorns (collectively) 
WejidltC, visions 
.£oinc, kinds of hern 
SJaben, shutters 
finnbe, provinces or districts 
Std)tcr, lights 
Dfanncn, vassals 
Sioubeit, months (poetic) 
Drte, places (collectively) 
©Otieit, wild boars 
Strdnfje, nosegays 

Xucfjf, kinds of cloth 
SBartC, coherent words 
3oiie, tolls 

1 For instance — bie fidnber GuropaS, the countries of Europe (individually consi- 
dered); but bie Tcutfdien i'anbe, the German districts or provinces; bie 92icberlanbc, 
the Netherlands. Poets use the latter form also in the sense of the former. 

2 For instance — in alien Crtcrn ber SJSrotrinj, in all (inhabited) places of the province; 
but an alien Crtcn, in all places generally, everywhere. 

H. Nouns {rnostly abstract) which form their Plural by means of 


(Supp. Less. B., 
ber 53au, building 
(ber S3au, burrow, etc. 
baS SOcftrebcn, effort 
ber SBetrug, deceit, fraud 
ber 33unb, alliance 
bcr Saul, thanks 
baS ©rbe, inheritance 
ber AViebc, treaty of peace 
bie ®emalt, force, violence 
bie ©ttnft, favour 
ber .Uuinmcr, affliction, trouble 
baQ SoB, praise 
bcr aRorb, murder 
bev i)(ot, counsel, advice 

§ 66, 3, Note.) 

bie SBauten 
bie 5Uauc) 
bie S3etriigcrcicn 
bie 93iinbnifjc 
bie Tattffafinnflcn 
bie <Srbfd)aften 
bie rtticbensvertrdge 
bie (SJeroalttlmtiateitcn 
bie Wunftbcjciigungcn 
bie Uutnmcmifjc 
bie i!obfpriid)e 
bie Ilorbtfjaten 
bie 3tatfd>ldge 




(ber 'Hat, councillor 
ber Stotlb, robbery 
bcr -scgen, blessing 
ber Streit, quarrel, dispute 
ber Job, death, decease 
bas Unglucf, misfortune 
ber Serbrufc, vexation 
ber 3 a nt< quarrel 


bie ROte) 

bic StSubereien 

bic Segnuttgen 

bic Strettigtcitcn 
bic XobesfaUe 
bic UngliidsfaUc 
bic Skrbrie6lid)teiten 
bie 3ante"'C" 


. XVII, XVIII, §§80, 89, 90.) 
:. (a) Fern.: bic ilJailltopcrfon, male-person. .Vent: all diminutives in -d)cn 
and -tela. 

2. (a) Neui.: boo ffieib, woman; bas aJlettl'd), wench: 
and all diminutives in -(f;cn and -It'itt. 
(b) Trees, etc. : 
ber Slborn, maple 
ber 2tpfel, apple 
bas ©pbcu, ivy 
bas ©eranium, geranium 
ber §afer, oats 
ber £ianf, hemp 
ber JUee, clover 

bas Sroucnjimmer, woman ; 

ber Aloljl, cabbage 

ber Kohlrabi, Brussels-spouts 

bas ilorn, grain 

ber Sand), leek 

ber iorbeer, laurel 

ber SDlais, maize 

bas 2Jioos, moss 
ber fltoggen, rye 
ber Spargel, asparagus 
ber 3pinat, spinach 
ber Zabal, tobacco 
ber SBeigen, wheat 

Also Compounds, as: ber sdiroarjborn, blackthorn; bas ©ei&blatt. honey-suckle; 
bos 33ergi|mcinnicbt, forget-me-not ; bas 2aufenbidjbn, daisy ; and diminutives, as : bas 
33ei(d)en, violet. 

3. (a) Metals — Mate. : ber Jlobalt, cobalt; ber Stabl, steel; ber Zombad, pinch- 
beck; ber SBismut, bismuth ; ber 3i nt , zinc - Fern.; bie ^latina, platina. 
(6) Countries, etc. — Max. : ber ^eloponnes, Peloponnesus; ber ijaag, the Hague; 
also those in -gau, as: Margau. Fern.: bic Mrim, Crimea; bie fcepante, the 
Levant; bic Utraiue, the Ukraine ; and those in -et, -0U, -J. 

»i9. 1. (a) Neut. : 
(6) Feminities in 

3td)fel, shoulder 

SSmpel, lamp 

Sim j el, black-bird 

SIngel, fish-hook 

Sibel, bible 

23udel, boss (of a 

Gtjmbcl, cymbal 

battel, date 

2eia)fcl, carriage- 

bas DJteffing, brass. 

2i[tel, thistle 
XroiicI, thrush 
Gid)et, acorn 
tfabel, fable 
gadet, torch 
ftefiel, fetter 
Sibcl, spelling-book 
Sormcl, formula 
©abel, fork 
©eifeel, scourge 
©onbel, gondola 

©urgel, throat 
Jpummel, humble- 
Snfel, island 
flannel, pulpit 
•Rartoifel, potato 
ftoppcl, leash ; brace 

(of <': 
.Huge!, ball 
■ftuppel, cupola 
SRanbel, almond 

Mangel, mangle 
SDliftel, mistletoe 
OTufcfjer, shell 
iftabel, needle 
9teffel, nettle 
Drgel, organ 
$appel, poplar 
'JSarabcl, parable 
^rimel, primrose 
•Jlafpcl, rasp 
Siegel, rule 

3 86 


Stunjel, wrinkle 

■-=dmd)tel, band-box 
5illiUI!Cl, shovel 

Sdjaiifel, swing 
©d)illbc[, shingle 
©d)itfjel, dish 

In -cr : 
SIber, vein 
Sifter, aster 
Mutter, oyster 

Blatter, blister 
Sutter, butter 
Gebcr, cedar 
2>auer, duration 
Sifter, magpie 
gofer, fibre 
■Jvcbcr, feather, pen 
geict", celebration 

©emmet, roll of bread Zafel, table 

Sidjel, sickle 
©pittbel, spindle 

©taffel, step of a 

©toppel, stubble 

Xrobbel, tassel 
Jrommel, drum 
Jviifjel, truffle 
9Bad)tcl, quail 

SJaffel, waffle 
SCiiibcl, swaddling- 

SUurjel, root 
3n>iebel, onion 

goiter, rack SDlorter, torture 

£>alftcr, halter TOoucr, wall 

Rammer, chamber 2)!llttcr, mother 
Jleltcr, wine-press 9!atter, adder 
Hiefcr, pine Rummer, number 

Slammer, cramp-iron Dpev, opera 
illapuer, rattle Dttcr, otter 

Sauer, lurking-place swifter, elm 
Se'ier, liver Sdjeuer, barn 

Eeier, lyre Sdjleitber, sling 

better, ladder Sd)ultcr, shoulder 

Note. — The names of rivers ending in -er or -el are also feminine, e.g 
cfer, bic SJlofel. 
Neuters in -el : 

SBilnbel, bundle fiapitel, chapter 

Sunfel, darkness 9JHttel, means 

©jcmpcl, example Qrafel, oracle ©eget, sail 

In -en: 

Mlmofcn, alms 

SBctfen, basin 

Gifcn, iron 

©teuer, tax 
£od)ter, daughter 
Zraucr, mourning 
SSeSper, even -tide, 

2Bimper, eyelash 
differ, cipher 
3tther, guitar 

bieDber, bte 

SRubel, herd, flock ©iegel, seal 
©djarmii^el, skirmish libel, evil 

fiafen, sheet (bed- 
Seben, fief 
And all infinitives when used as substantives. 

gitUen, colt 
Stiffen, cushion 

SBiefcl, weasel 

9Bappen, coat-of- 

3ctdjcn, token 

In -er : 

Mbenteuer, adven- ©otter, grate, rail- 'Jliefjer, knife ©ceptcr or favtex, 

ture ing UJlieber, bodice sceptre 

Miter, age ©itter, trellis SWufter, pattern ©tlber, silver 

Sauer, bird-cage ftlofter, cloister Opfcv, sacrifice ©teuer, helm 

Gitcr, pus fiupfcr, copper ^Sftaftcr, plaster Sbeatcr, theatre 

Gutcr, udder £agcr, couch ^olftcr, cushion Ufer, shore 

(Jenftcr, window £after, vice Bufpcr, powder Staffer, water 

geuer, fire Ceber, leather Wegifter, register, aBettcr, weather 

gicber, fever Suber, carrion index SBititber, wonder 

Attber, load Ulaltcr, a grain mea- 31ubcr, oar 3'.mmcr, apartment 
gutter, fodder sure 5d)auer, shower 
Note. — SRUnfter, 'minster,' occurs both as masculine — from its present form — and 
as neuter — from its derivation from the Latin monastcrimn. 

(f) Feminities : 

Md)t, proscription 33ant, bench ©runft, conflagration 33nrg, castle 

Mrt, manner, kind Vai, bay SBntt, brood A'lhrt, expedition 

9}af)lt, path Brant, bride 93ud)t, bay ,>lud)t, flight 



fflur, field 
Slut, flood 
i^orm, form 
Sracbt, freight 
(<frau, woman 
thrift, time 
gurdjt, fear 
Surt, ford 
©eife, goat 
@id)t, gout 
©ier, eagerness 
©lut, glow 
©unft, favour 
$aft, custody 
§aft, haste 
$>ulb, grace 
£ut, guard 
3agb, chase 
floft, food 

Neuters : 
Sta§, carrion 
91 mt, office 
SJab, bath 
SBanb, ribbon 
99ett, bed 
S9i(b, picture 
JBfatt, leaf 
Slut, blood 
SBud), book 
Sunb, bundle 
3>ad), roof 
2)ing, thing 
2)orf, village 
SiS, ice 

t)fad), compartment 
gafe, cask 
ftelb, field 
gleifd), flesh 
©am, yarn 
©elb, money 
©la§, glass 
0Iei5, groove, rut 
©lieb, limb 

.Kraft, strengtli 
Slut), cow 

.Uur, (obsolete), elec- 
fiaft, load 
fiift, cunning 
SDlarf, boundary 
3Rarfd), marsh, fen 
SDlauth, excise 
3Jlild), milk 
9Jaf)t, seam 
9luU, zero 
!Pein, torment 
?Pflid)t, duty 
qjoft, post 
Spracf)t, splendour 
Dual, torment 
Waft, rest 
©aat, seed 

Also those in 

Sd)am, shame 
©d)ar, host, troop 
Sd)au, show 
Sdjeu, dread 
Gd)id)t, layer, stratum 
©d)Iad)t, battle 
©d)lud)t, ravine 
Sd)mad), disgrace 
Sd)rift, writing 
Sdjulb, guilt, debt 
©djroulft, swelling 
See, sea 
©id)t, sight 
©preu, chaff 
Spur, trace 
Statt, stead, place 
Sttrn, brow 
©treu, litter [sion 
©Ud)t, longing, pas- 
App. C. 

Gliid*, luck fieib, suffering 

©olb, gold Sieb, song 

©rab, grave Sob, praise 

©ra§, grass Sod), hole 

©ut, property, estate fiobn, wages 

4?ai°), resin £ot, plumb-line 

$aupt, head 9JJaljl, meal, repast 

§au§, house Sftalj, malt 

$ejl, prosperity 9Rarf, marrow 

$emb, shirt SDlaut, mouth (of 
§erj, heart beasts) 

§eu, hay ajJehl, flour 

§irn, brain SJieufd), wench 

$ol}, wood 2Jtu3, pap, jam 

.fiufin, fowl 91eft, nest 

Ralb, calf Cbft, fruit 

Slinb, child Dbr, ear 

ilillll, chin Sped), pitch 

flleib, garment SPfanb, pledge 

jlorit, corn 9iab, wheel 

Jtraut, herb JReiS, twig 

Samm, lamb Siiefj, ream 

Sanb, land 9tinb, head of cattle 

Siaub, foliage ©d)Cit, log of wood 
Also those in App. E. 
2. (a) ttt $ornung, February; ooa Spetfdjaft, seal. 
(b) $tr Slbcnb, evening ; bits 3>utjenb, dozen. 

Jbat, deed 

Xb,iir, door 

Xxad)t, load, cos- 

Jl'ift, pasturage 

U()r, watch 

SBadjt, guard 

3&at)l, choice 

2Bebr, defence 

SBelt, world 

2Budjt, bulk, heavy 

SHJulft, pad 

SBllt, rage 

3af)I, number 

3eit, time 

3ier, ornament 

3ud)t, discipline 

3unft, guild 

©cbilb, sign-board 

Sdjlofs, lock ; cas- 

Scfjmalj, grease, 

Sd)roert, sword 

©tift, foundation 

©trob, straw 

Xijal, valley 

2ud), cloth 

SBief), cattle 

SSolt, nation 

2Bad)0, wax 

3Bainm5, jacket, 

SEBefi, woe 

SBeib, woman 

2Berg, tow 

2Mb, game , 

2Bot)(, wellbeing 

SBort, word 

'Brad, wreck 

3elt, tent 

3inn, tin 

3 88 


(i ) Masculines : 
JBudjfta&e, letter of 

the alphabet 
ftrtebe, peace 

Aimtc, spark 

0ebante, thought 

(Slaube, faitb 

$aufe, heap 
Blame, name 

Same, seed 
Sa)abe, injury 

SEQtQe, will 
21 f f c , monkey 
$ra$e, dragon 
galte, falcon 
4>afe, hare 

iibroe, lion 
Stabc, raven 
flafe, cheese 

And names of males, as: bcr Bote, messenger; ber flnabe, boy, etc. 
Neuters: Singe, eye; Gnbe, end; Grbe, inheritance. 
(<■) Icr flatbolit', Catholic. 

(,M Masculines : 3rrtum, error ; !Heid)tum, wealth. 
(c) Feminities in -lliS : 

Grlaubni3, permission 
©rfpovni'j, savings 
j5fSuliii$, putrefaction 
*^-brbermO, furtherance 
ginftemiS, darkness 
fteitntttiS, knowledge 
♦Sdji-erfniS, terror 
SrocfntO, drought 
* Also neuter. 
Feminities in -Jul : 2>ratta,fal, tribulation ; TOUfjfal, trouble ; Xriibfal, affliction. 
Masculine tit — Jcl : Stopfel, stopper, etc. 

90. 4. Feminine compounds of 3)lut : Stntnut, grace ; 2)cmut, humility; ©ro&mitt, 
generosity ; fictnomut, long-suffering ; ©anftmut, meekness ; Sdjmcrmut, melancholy ; 
iffiefjmut, sorrowfulness. 

•BebrfingniS, distress 
*Bcfuflnt<5, authority 
Ski it mm mi ic>, sorrow 
Bcjorgnio, apprehension 
BetriibniS, affliction 
BeipaitbtntS, conjuncture 
Gmpfdngttio, conception 
Gt'fcimtutO, cognition 

*Berbammntsi, damnation 
Berbcrbnio, corruption (is 
also used as neuter) 

Bcrfiiumiiis, neglect, 

SBtlblliO, wilderness 

J. Nouns which 

ber Banb (pi. Banbc), volumes 
ber Bunb (pi. Biiltbe), confederacy 
ber SSaucr (pi. Bnucrn), peasant 
ber Ghor (pi. Gljbre), chorus 
bcr Grbc (pi. Grbeit), heir 
bie (SrtcnntniS, intuition • 
ber ©eifef, hostage 
bie ©ift (TOitnift), dowry 

ber ^arj, Hartz mountains 
ber .§cibe (pi. ^ictbcit), heathen 
ber £ut (pi. .friite), hat 
ber iliefer, jaw 

bcr jtlinbe, customer 

bcr Setter, guide 

ber OTaitgcl, want 

ba3 OTarf, marrow 

bcr TOeffcr, measurer, surveyor 

ber iHcis, rice 

have a DOUBLE Gender. 

XVIII, §91.) 

boo SJaitb (pi. Baitber), ribbon 

ba§ Bunb (pi. Biinbe), bundle 

ba§ Bauer, cage 

ba§. Gbor (pi. Gljore), choir 

ba§ Grbe, inheritance 

baS GrtenntniS, verdict 

btc ©eijjel, scourge 

ba3 ©ift, poison 

ba§ Joarj, resin 

bie £cibe, heath 

btc £mt, heed, guard 

bie flicfer (pi. fliefern), pine-tree 

bie fiutlbe, knowledge, tidings 

bie Setter, ladder 

bie 5Raitgel, mangle 

bie 3Rart(pl. kartell), border-land 

ba6 yjU'ffcr, knife 

ba3 9tei3 (pi. SReifer), twig 



bcr ictyilb (pi. 3d)ilbc), shield 

ber Stc (pi. Seen), lake 

bcr Sprofje, offspring 

bie Steuer,.tax, duty 

ber Stift, pencil, tack 

ber Jetl, part 

ber £bor (pi. Sljoren), fool 

ber SBerbieuft, gain 

bit* -Siijilb (pi. Scbilber), sign-board 

bic See, sea, ocean 

bic Sproffe, step (in a ladder) 

baS ©tcuer, helm 

ba3 ©tift, pious foundation 
ba3 2cil, share, portion 
baS Xljor (pi. %$Btt), gate 
bag SBcrbtcnft, merit 

K. Monosyllabic Adjectives without Umlaut. 

(Less. XXV, § 125.) 

burfeb, harsh rjo^I, hollow pfatt, flat fdjroff, rugged 

bran, good bolb, favourable plump, clumsy ftarr, stiff 

bunt, variegated (abl, bald rafd), quick ftol}, proud 

bumpf, dull (said farfl, stingy rol), raw ftruff, tight, stretched 

of sound) tnapp, tight runb, round ftumpf, blunt 

falb, fallow lahm, lame fad)t, gentle, low toll, mad 

falfd), false lag, tired fanft, soft . voll, full 

flad), flat tnatt, wearied fott, satiated tDOf;r, true 

frob, joyful morfd), rotten fdjlaff, slack jabm, tame 
glatt, smooth tiacft, naked fd)Ian(, slender 

The practice varies with bong or bungc, afraid ; blafj, pale; fromm, pious; gefunb, 
sound; liar, clear; nafe, wet; }Cirt, tender. 

L. Strong Verbs not given in the Lists. 

• (Less. XXXII, § 192. — Rare forms in [ J.) 

1. bingen (W.), hire 

2. ga(b)ren (W.), ferment 

3. gebiiren, 1 bear, bring forth 

4. feifen (W.), chide, scold 

6. flicben(W.), split, cleave 

6. tneipcn 2 (W.), pinch 

7. pflcgcit, 3 practise 

8. jaugen 4 (W.), suck 

9. fajinben (W.), flay 

10. fcblci&en (W.), fray 

11. fo)nauben (W.), snort 

12. fdjrauben (W.), screw 

13. fdjroaren, 6 fester 

14. fplei&en (W.), split 

15. fteden (W. N.), stick, be stuck 

16. ftieben(W.N.), scatter 

17. ftinfcn, stink 
1 gebicrft, etc. 2 Rarely strong. 3 Weak in other meanings. 

faugft, faugt. 5 fcfjioicrt. G fttdft, etc. ; generally weak. 



( [pflag] S 

< [f(6anbi 
( [fdjunb] 



5 fdjroor , 
I [fajimtr] ' 












ffiugft, f.iugt, 


Explanations. — i. References are to the §. 

2. Words in Italics are not to be translated. 

3. Words connected by ^_, if followed by a note, are included in that note ; otherwise 
such connected words are to be rendered by a (ingle word in German. 

4. The gender is not given, where it is according to rule. 

I. One may 1 say of the metaphysicians 2 what Scaliger 
said of the natives 3 of the Basque 4 Provinces ' : "lam told 6 
that they understand each^other, but I do not believe it." 

''can.' 2 i)ictnp()t)ftfcv. 3 bev (fiitgcborciic. 4 bnitfijd). 5 ^rooinj, /. 

6 113. 2 - . 

II. " A friend of mine," ' says Lord Erskine, " suffered 
from 2 continual '' sleeplessness. 1 Various s means f ' were tried "' 
to_send_him_to_sleep s — but in^vain. 9 Atjast his physicians 
resorted 10 to an experiment" which succeeded perfectly. 12 
They dressed 13 him in a watchman's^coat," put 1S a lantern 
into his 1G hand, placed " him in a sentry-box, 18 and — he was 
asleep 19 in ten minutes." 

'ng, 3(^). 2 nn -+- dat. » forttoBljrenb. * ©djtaffoftgfeit. 5 ucrfdjicben. 
6 9Jiittcl, n. 7 oerf udjeu. 8 il)it rinuijd)la|'cin. 9 tirrgeben8. 10 ocrfallcn auf 
+ ace. " inulud), m. I2 uoUftaubig. ,3 anu>b,cn + dat. of pers. and 
ace. of thing. u Dtfadjhufidjtevfittef, m. IS ftcden. I6 44, 6(d). "fteUert. 
,8 2Bod)t[)aujd)cn. I9 cuigcjd)lafen. 

III. The great Goethe was not particularly l fond 2 of music. 
When a pianist 3 once, at a Court^concert in Weimar, was 
in^the w middle s o/a. very long sonata/' the poet suddenly "' rose 8 
up and, to the horror ° of the assembled 10 ladies and gentle- 
men, exclaimed " : " If it lasts 12 three minutes longer, I shall 
confess 13 everything." 

1 bejonbev, adj. 2 greunb*. 3 $(aoierft)ieter. 4 .£>of, m. ; use compound 
word, 'mitten in. 6 @onate, / 7 ploiMtd). "ftctyen. 9 ©djrccfeii, m. 
10 Bcrfommeln. "rufen. ,2 boncrtt. "qeftcben. 


IV. In the first piece ' Theodore Hook wrote for the stage, 2 
a traveller' 1 comes up^to 4 the door of an inn, 5 and says: 
" Excuse me, my friend, are you the master of this house ? " 
— " Yes, sir," is ° the reply ; " my wife has-been ' dead these 8 
three weeks." 

1 @tiid, n. 2 iBitrjne. 3 bcr SWcifertbc. 4 auf . . \\\, 224, 4. s ©afthauS. 
6 tailtet. 7 257, 4, Note. 8 ' for the last three weeks ' ; 46. 

V. " Ven you're a married man, Samivel," said old 1 Wel- 
ler, " you'll understand a_good^many w things 2 as 3 you don't 
understand now ; but vether it's worth-while ' going^through r> 
so much to learn so little, as the charity^boy G said ven he 
got w to_the^end_of ' the alphabet, is a matter_o'_taste. 8 I 
rayther think it isn't. 9 " 

1 a proper name preceded by an adj. takes the art. 2 33iek8. 3 'that,' 
96, 5. * bcr SRiihe rocrt. s bitrd)'inad)cn. 6 'Mnrtenjdjuler. 7 fertig fein 
mit. 8 ©efd)macf3iad)e. 9 ' I scarcely think (glcutben) it.' 

VI. George Selwyn's morbid ' passion 2 for public executions 3 
and similar 4 horrors 5 was notorious. 6 He paid^a w visit w to 
Lord Holland while the latter lay on his 7 deathbed. 8 When 
his w lordship ; ' was told 10 that Mr. Selwyn had called, 11 he said : 
" Should he come again, please bring him up. 12 If I am still 
alive 13 1 shall be^happy u to see him. If I am dead he will 
be happy to see me." 

1 frcmfhaft. * i'eibenfdjaft. 3 §inrid)tuug. 4 a()itlid). s ©rauel, m. 
6 aUgcmein bffamit. 7 44, 6(a). 3 gtcvbebett. 9 @e. ©nabert. I0 bcnnd)» 
ridjtigert. " ' been there.' 12 210, 3, (b). 13 am ?cben. l * fid) fveuen. 

VII. At 1 the time when Napoleon the Third lived as an 
exile 2 in London, he was always a welcome guest at 3 Lady 
Blessington's, at 4 Gore House. Very soon after his return 5 


to Paris, while his political ' prospects 7 were still rather K 
doubtful, 9 her_ladyship "' paid_a_.visit._to 11 that capital, and 
met 12 the Prince driving " in the Bois de Boulogne. It was an 
embarrassing " encounter, 16 for the future lfi Emperor of the 
French had shown " himself anything_but " grateful for her 
ladyship's 1 " courtesy. 19 He saluted 20 her, however," with 
forced politeness, 22 and asked : " Countess, 23 shall you stay 
long in Paris?" — "I really 2I cannot say," answered Lady 
Blessington, with a bewitching 26 smile ; " and you ? " 

'227, (/'), 2. 2 bev Skrbannte. 3 bet. 4 iu. 5 9iiicffehr,/. 6 politifd). 
rffoefUfy,/ "jicmUd). 9 $iucifcU)aft. :o ' the lady.' " bcjuchen. ,2 tref= 
fen (irons.). " axif einer ©pajietfatyrt. u »erlrgen. » ^ufammcntreffen. 
16 uifiinftig. "ewoetfen. ,8 nid)t« wenigcrale. " ftmmbtidjteit. 2 ° flviifjcn. 
21 inbeffen. 22 £>bflid)feit. 23 gudbige ©rafin. 24 rotrflid). 2S bejaubernb. 

VIII. Talleyrand was bored 1 for 2 his 3 autograph 4 by a 
dull 6 English nobleman. 6 At_last 7 he sent him the following 
invitation 8 : "Dear Lord, — Will you honour 9 me with your 
company 10 next Wednesday evening, at eight o'clock. I 
have invited a number u of exceedingly clever 12 people, and 
I do not like 13 to be the only fool 14 among them." 

' \\\m Ubcrbvufj beftiivmen. 2 um. 3 'an.' * Autograph, n. s einfattig. 
6 ©belniann. 7 eubltd). "(Sinlabung. 'beeljrcu, imper. IO ©cgcmuart 
(presence). "Sngaty,/ I2 gciftretd). I3 geuie mogen. u 2)ummfopf. 

XI. At a dinner-party 1 in Paris, a dull 2 and ugly 3 ba- 
ron 4 sat between Madame de Stael and Madame Re'camier 
(the acknowleged belle 6 of the day), and whispered 6 to the 
former : " Am I not fortunate to be ' sitting between beauty 
and genius 8 ? " — "-Not so very fortunate," replied the of- 
fended authoress, 9 " for you possess 10 neither the one nor 
the other ! " 

•SKiier (Fr.), «. 2 bitiiun. 3 l)cifslid). 4t 8aron'. s Sdjbiiheit. 6 ing 
ChrfUtftevn. 7 fid) befinben. 8 @cme, «• 9 (Schriftftelkviu. '"befifcen. 


X. When the dramatist Gilbert was one day descending 1 
in the greatest hurry 2 the steps 3 fronting 4 the Savage Club, 5 
a stranger, in a state c of excitement 7 which defied 8 regular 9 
construction, 10 addressed him thus : " Excuse me, have you 
seen a gentleman with one eye of_the_name_of u X. — ?" 
Gilbert answered 12 this question with another : " Stop 13 a 
moment. What's the name of his other eye ? " 

* bcrunterflcigcii. 2 Gilc, /. 3 Xrcppc, sing. *oor. s use the Engl, 
words. 6 3ni"tonb, m. 7 ?{ufrcgung. 8 fpottcn 4- gen. 9 regelrecf/t. I0 SBort- 
folge. " 9iamene. ,2 beantworten. "ertauben. 

XI. When Charles Lamb was still a clerk ! in the India- 
House, 2 he was one day rebuked 3 asjollows ' by a superior 5 : 
" I have remarked, Mr. Lamb, that you always come to 6 the 
office 1 very late." — "That's true, to_be_sure, h " answered 
Elia ; " but you must not forget that I always go away very 
early." Of^course 9 such an explanation 10 was more than 
enough. 11 

1 ©djreiber ; 44, 5. 2 use the Engl, words. 3 jur 9?ebe ftctlen. 4 fot» 
genbcrmafeen. 5 ber 2.>ovgcjetjte. 6 auf. 7 bureau, n. 8 roorjt (after the 
verb ' is '). 9 natiirUcb. I0 Grfldrung. " hinrcicbenb. 

XII. I never in my life committed 1 more than one act of 
folly, 9 " said Rulhiere one day in the presence of Talleyrand. 
" But when will it end 3 ?" inquired the latter. 

'bcgefjcn, trans. 2 2orb,cit. 3 enben. 

XIII. While Sheridan was staying ' at the country-house 3 of 
a friend, he was one morning asked 3 by a lady to accompany 
her on a walk. The lady was neither witty nor beautiful, 
and the author of the ' School for Scandal ' 4 was at_a_loss 6 
for an excuse, until he luckily 6 discovered and announced 1 
to her that it was raining. His disappointed 8 persecutress 9 


retired, 10 but shortly " came back to^announce 12 that the 
weather had cleared_up. 13 "So_it_has," madam, 1 '" said 
Sheridan, driven " to despair 1T ; "but it has only l8 cleared up 
enough for one — not yet for two." 

1 auf 33efud) fcin. 2 ?anbl)au$. 3 bitten. 4 l'aftcrjd)itle. s oerlegen urn. 
6 gliicfUdjci-iDfifc. ' mtttciten + dat 8 in tljveii (Svnjartungen (expecta- 
tions) actdufcijt ; 283,4. 9 SSerfolgcritL I0 ficf) juriicfjieljen. "balb. 
,2 mtt ber Wndjvidjt. I3 fid) aufftfiren. u aUerbiugs. Is gnabigc ftran. 
,6 2gg. ,7 25cruucif(ung; use dcf. art. ,8 bod)ften8. 

XIV. Foote, being annoyed 1 one day by an itinerant* 
fiddler/ who produced * harsh f ' discords 6 under his window, 
threw him down a coin 7 and bade him be^gone, 8 as one 
scraper 9 at 10 a door was quite sufficient. 11 

1 belciftigcn; 284, 1, («)• * bcrumjiebcnb. 3 ©eigenjpicler. 4 bernor> 
bringcu. s id)rtll. 6 2Nifjton, m. 7 @elbfturf, «. 8 fidf) au« bent ©taube 
madjcn. 9 flrafeer. ,0 on. " genug. 

XV. A certain nobleman was detected 1 trying 2 to cheat 3 
at 4 cards, 6 and turned 6 out of the house with the threat 7 
that he should be thrown out^of the window if he came again. 
He related his misfortune " to Talleyrand, protested 9 his inno- 
cence, 10 and asked u him at the same time 12 for 13 advice. 11 
" Well, my dear friend, I advise you to play in^future u only 
on_the_ground_floor. 16 " 

1 entbccfeit. 2 "in the attempt." 3 betriigen. 4 im. 5 tfattenfpie!, «. 
6 tt)eifen. 7 2)rohung. 8 SWifigcfdjicf, n. 9 beteuern. "Unfdnilb,/. " bit= 
ten. I2 uigleid). I3 nm. u 9tat, m. I5 fiinftig. 16 ju ebener (Srbe. 

XVI. A barrister l entered 2 the court 3 one morning with his 
wig * stuck quite on one side. Not being w aware ° how ridic- 
ulous 6 he looked, 7 he was^surprised* at 9 the observations 10 
made 11 upon^it, 12 and at^length 13 he asked Curran : "Do 


you see anything ridiculous M in this wig, Mr. Curran ? " — 
" Nothing except the head," was the consolatory w answer. 

1 'Jtbiiofot'. 2 trctcn in + ace. 3 ©eridjtefaal, m. * s J$errfidfe,/ 5 totffen, 
284, 1 (b). Madjerltd). 7 ausfeben. 8 fid) hninbcrn. 9 iiber 4- ace. 10 93e= 
mertnng. " 290, 2 (*). ,2 bariibcr. I3 enblicfj. M 12a, 11. IS trbftlid). 

XVII. After a duel 1 with young O'Connell, Lord Alvanley 
gave a guinea 2 to the coachman* who had driven him to and 
from the scene of the encounter. 4 Surprised at 5 the largeness 
of the sum, 6 the man said: "My lord, 7 l^on\y^took^,you^Xo 8 " 

" Alvanley interrupted him with the words : " My 

friend, the guinea is for bringing 9 me back, not for tak- 
ing 10 me." 

1 2)ueU', n. 2 @iunee', / 3 §. utjefier ; 45, Rule 2. 4 "to the scene of 

the encounter (@tetlbid)Cin, ;/.) and from there back. " s bnrcf). 6 " large 

sum (Snminc)." 7 gndbtger §crr. 8 id) babe ©te jo nur bin — . * 277. 
10 binneljmcn, use the perf. 

XVIII. A gentleman, who had been w worsted J in a dispute 2 
with Porson, lost his^temper. 3 " Professor, 4 " said he, " my 
opinion 5 of you is most 1 "' contemptible."' — "Sir," returned 
the great Grecian, 8 " I never yet met 9 with any 10 of your 
opinions that was " not contemptible." 

1 ben tftrqern jieljen. 2 SHSpntation. 3 bie ©ebnlb. * §err ^pvofeffor. 
s SDceinnng. 6 127, 2. 7 cerdd)tlid). 8 ©rieebc. 9 ttorfommen (impers. 4- 
dat. of pers.). 10 eill (nom.). " plupf. subj. ; 268, 4. 

XIX. The English, 1 says Sydney Smith, are a calm, 2 
reflecting 3 people ; they are ready to give time and money 
as soon as they are convinced 4 of a thing; but they love 
dates, 5 names, and certificates. 6 In^the_midst of the most 
heartrending 1 narratives, 8 John Bull requires 9 the day' of 
the month, the year 11 of our Lord, the name of the parish, 12 


and the countersign " of three or four respectable 14 house- 
holders. 1 '' As soon as these affecting "' circumstances l1 
have been stated, 1 " he can no longer hold^out, 19 but 20 gives 
way :1 to his natural kindness — puffs, 22 blubbers, 23 and sub- 

1 (Sngtanber. 2 uttjtg. 3 fiberle'genb. * iiberjeu'gen. 5 3 fl M /• 
6 ©eglanbigungSfdjein, m. 7 b^erjjetrcifeenb. 8 Gv^dtilung. 9 ucrlangcit. 
10 Saturn. " 3abrc^nt)l. ,2 $ird)[ptcl, «. I3 Untcrjdjrift, / u angejcben. 
15 §aueb,err. I6 riihrcnb. !7 Umfianb, m. I8 angcbcn. I9 cS ausbattcn. 
20 236, 1, Rem. 1. 2I frcicn i'auf laffcu. 22 fdjnauben. 23 fd)tud)jcn. 

XX. A young poet once came to Piron to read 1 him a 
couple of new sonnets 2 written 3 by him, and ask him which 
he preferred. 1 The_moment 6 he had finished the first, Piron 
said hastily 8 : "I prefer the other," and positively 1 refused 8 
to listen even 9 to a line 10 of_it. 

1 uovlcfcn. 2 ©omtett', n. 3 oerfaffen ; 290, 2 (/>). * tjoi^icfjcn. s @o* 
batb . . . mtr. 6 ljaftig. 7 buvdjcutS. 8 (id) tuctgcnt. 9 audi) nur. I0 3eUc. 

XXI. Wewitzer, the well-known actor 1 and wag, 2 was 
joking 3 and laughing at 4 rehearsal 5 one day, instead of 
minding" his part. 7 Raymond, the stage-manager," took 9 
him to w task, 10 saying : " Mr. Wewitzer, I wish u you would 
pay 12 a little attention. 13 " — "Well, 14 sir, 1 "'" answered 
Wewitzer, " so I am 16 ; I'm paying as little attention as 

1 ©djaufpicler. 2 2Bit3bo(b, m. 3 fd)er;,ctt. 4 anf. s <(5robe, use def. art. 
6 paffcn + auf, with ace. ; 224, 2, {b). 7 9tollc. 8 SRegtffeuv. 9 fteHeu. 
10 jtrc ffiebc. " rooUte. 12 geben. I3 Hdjt. I4 SKun. ,s ©err 9tcgiffeur. 
16 baS tbuc id) ja and). 

XXII. The younger Dumas once perpetrated ' a cruel 2 
joke 3 at w the w expense 4 of the Manzanares, 6 the rivulet 6 that 


runs^through " Madrid and is called a river by the grandilo- 
quent 1 * inhabitants of this city. When the famous dramatist 9 
was I0 one day present 10 at a bullfight, 11 either the heat, or 
some 12 revolting u incident " in the show, 1 ' overcame 16 him 
to w such^an_extent 17 that he fainted. 1 " On 19 somebody bring- 
ing him a glass of water, as he was recovering, 20 Dumas 
declined 21 it, saying 22 in 23 a faint 21 voice: "Go and pour 
it into the Manzanares ; the river needs 25 it much more 
than I ! " 

1 madjen. 2 bitter. 3 2Bit3. * auf $ often. s masc. 6 SBad). 7 burd)= 
lau'fen. 8 gvofjfpredjevifd). 9 2)rama'tifer. I0 bcimofjncu + dat. " ©tier* 
gefecf)t. ,2 157. " emporenb. u 93orfaU, m. I5 ©d)anjpie(, ?i. I6 iibcv= 
waTtigcn. 17 bermafjen. IS ohnmadjtig roerben. I9 277, Rem. 6. 2 ° fid) 
erboleit. 2I ablcbnen. "284, 1 (a). 23 mtt. 24 fd)»uad). 2s notig baben + ace. 

XXIII. Frank Talfourd, who rejoiced_in ] a stature 2 of six 
feet and several inches, was playfully 3 challenged 4 at the 
Savage Club one evening to raise his foot as_high^as B the 
chandelier 6 that hung in the middle of the room. Lifting 7 
his foot with^rather_too_much w vigour, s he knocked down 
one of the glass_globes, 9 which fell to the ground and 
was_smashed 10 to atoms. 11 Frank rang the bell instantly, 
and asked the responding 12 waiter for 13 the amount u of 
his bill. ,s "Pray, sir, what have you had?" — "Oh!" said 
Talfourd, pointing 16 up to 17 the chandelier, "only a glass of 

1 fid) erfreucn + gen. 2 §obe. 3 tm ©cberge. 4 ouffotbern. s bis gu. 
6 fronteitrijtcr. 7 in bie £ohe luerfcn, 284, 1 {b). 8 ctiuo'? 511 frdftig. 9 ©la&> 
tllppd, /. IO gcrjd)ctlcil, neut. " "into a thousand pieces." I2 crfdjcitien. 
13 nad). u SSctrog, m. Is JKedjmtng. I6 bingcigen, 284, 1 {a). I7 auf. 

XXIV. Douglas Jerrold once said to a young gentleman 
who burned with ' an ardent ^desire 2 to see himself in_print s : 

398 exercises in composition. 

"I!e advised 4 by me, young man; don't take down 5 the 
shutters until you have something in the window worth _look- 
ing^at. 6 " 

1 Dor + dat. 2 SQegierbc. s gebntrft. * use laffen, with refl. form, 
114, (b). s ab. 6 fehensraert, 122, 11. 

XXV. Alexandre Dumas had a well-won ' reputation in 
Paris 2 society as a teller^of_anecdotes. At a large even- 
ing-party, he was 3 rather 4 annoyed 3 at the persistent B efforts 
of his hostess to^induce_him 6 to exhibit 1 his power 8 in this 
accomplishment. 9 At last, tired of refusing, 10 he said : " Every 
one has his trade, 11 madam. 12 The gentleman who entered " 
the room just before me is a distinguished " artillery ^.officer. 
Let him bring a cannon here and fire 15 it ; then I will tell 
one of my little stories." 

1 moljtDerbicnt. 2 $arifer, 122, 9. 3 fid) nrgcnx -f- iiber with ace. * nid)t 
wenig. s luiablcijfig. 6 ilnt babju ju bvingen. 7 jeigen. 8 gertigteit. 
9 god), ;/. I0 subst. inf. " §anbtt>erf. ,2 gncibige grau. " eintretcn in. 
14 auSgejeidjnet. ls abfeuern. 

XXVI. Some brainless l acquaintance s of Rivarol's was 
boasting 3 of 4 his having B mastered 6 four languages. " I con- 
gratulate 7 you," said Rivarol ; "you'll have in^future 8 four 
words for one idea. 9 " 

1 gebonfenonn. 2 bev 93efannte, 122, 1, 2. 3 prableit. * 277, Rem. 1. 
s baf3 clause. 6 fid) tootlig aneignen. 7 gratutiercn + dat. 8 hinftig. 
9 ©ebanfe. 

XXVII. On the day after the first representation J of 
' L'Ami des Femmes, 2 ' a comedy 3 by Alexandre Dumas 
(the second), the author's father sent him a letter, congratu- 
lating 4 him on 5 the success 6 of his piece, 1 and volunteering 8 
his own collaboration 9 on 10 some future " one. 12 The letter 


closed with a grandiloquent phrase": "If a gua- 
rantee " is desired " for my ability,""' I beg to refer 17 you to 17 
1 Monte Christo ' and ' The Three Musketeers.' '" " The son 
replied : " Even if I did not know the great works you l9 
mention, 20 I should gladly 21 accept your offer, 22 on^account 
of the high opinion 23 my father evidently 24 entertains K 
of you." 

* Stitffufjrung. 2 bcr jyrauenfrennb. 3 Oufrfpiel, n. 4 " in which he con- 
gratulated." s at. 6 Grfolg, m. 7 Stiicf, «. 8 ftd) erbicteii. '"to colla- 
borate (mitarbeiten)." IO an. "footer. I2 122, 4, Note, "^hraic. u ©firg« 
fdjaft. IS Dcrlnnqcn. ,6 gafyiflfeit. I7 tjinioeiien nuf -f-acc. 13 iDiitefctier. 
"96,7. Obs. 20 eiinabnnt. 2I m it greuben. 22 2tnerbicten, n. 23 2)icinuiig. 
** QugenfcfjeinUd). 25 "has." 

XXVIII. Curran happened^to^tell ' Sir 2 Thomas Turton 
that he could never speak in^public 3 a quarter w of_an^hour 
without moistening ' his lips. 5 Sir Thomas declared that he 
had spoken for five hours in the House_of_Commons ' on 7 
the Nabob of Oude without feeling" the least 9 thirst. "That 
is very remarkable indeed, 10 " observed" Curran, "for every- 
body 12 agrees 13 that it" was the driest 15 speech of the 
session.' 6 " 

1 eqcihlte gclegentttd). 2 bem @ir. 3 offcnttid). * anfencfjten: 224, 2, (/<). 
s i'ippc, /. 6 UntcrbmiS. 7 iibcv + ace. 8 oerfpurrn. 9 gcring. IO \a 
(immediately after the verb). " bcinerfen. ,2 Me(pl.). I3 bavin iiber= 
einfhmmen. u ba$. ,s tvocfen. I6 Seifiou. 

XXIX. A gentleman praising 1 the personal 2 charms 3 of a 
very^plain 4 lady in Foote's presence, the latter 5 said : " Why 
don't you lay 6 claim 7 to 8 such a beauty ? " — "What right 
have I to 9 do so?" was 10 the counter- question. 11 "Every 
right," replied Foote, " by 12 the universal 13 law^oOiations " 
— as the first discoverer. 15 " 

'284, 1 (a). * perfbnUd). 3 :)ici}, m. * "anything but (241, 19, X<>te) 


beautiful." 5 134. 6 ntad)cn. 7 Mufpnid), m. s auf + acc. 9 buju. I0 tan= 
tctc. " (Segeufiagc. I2 unci). " allgcmcin. M SBolferredjt. Is Giitbccfer. 

XXX. One day the poet and banker 1 Rogers took 1 
Thomas Moore and Sydney Smith home in his carriage from 
a breakfast, and insisted 3 on showing them by_the_way 4 
Dryden's house in some obscure 6 street. It was very wet 
weather; the house looked 6 very much like 6 other old houses, 
and, having 7 thin shoes on, they both strongly 8 remonstrated 9 ; 
but in^vain. Rogers got^out l0 himself, 11 expecting 12 them 13 
to do likewise 14 ; but Sydney Smith leaned 15 laughing out of 
the window, and exclaimed : " Oh, 16 now you see why Rogers 
doesn't mind 11 getting 1 " out: he has goloshes 19 on. But, my 
dear Rogers, lend each of us a golosh ; we will then each 
stand upon one leg and admire the house as long as you 
please. 20 " 

1 S3anquier (pron. as in French). 2 bringen. 3 beftcben aiif 4- ace, 277. 
4 untcrroegs. 5 obfeur. 6 ausfeljen ttrte. 7 284, 1 (/>). 8 encrgijd). 9 pro- 
teftteren. I0 auSftcigcn. " 42, 3, Rem. I2 " and expected." "275. u bci8 
©leicbe. IS lebnte. ,6 Cbo. I7 fid) fdjeuen oor -f-.dat. I8 277, Rem. 3. 
19 ©alofebe, /. 2 ° gcfallen, impers., -f- dat. 

XXXI. " When I was going from my house at Enfield to 
the India House one morning," says Charles Lamb, " I met 
Coleridge on his way to pay me a visit. He was brimful x 
of some 2 new idea, and — in^,spite^.of 3 my telling him that 
my time was precious 4 — he drew me into the door of an 
unoccupied 5 garden by the roadside, 6 and ' there — shel- 
tered" by 9 an evergreen 10 hedge 11 from observation 12 — he 
took 13 me by 1 * the button_of_my^coat, 15 closed 16 his 11 
eyes, and commenced an enthusiastic 18 discourse, 19 waving 20 
at_the_same_time 21 his right hand gently, 22 as 23 the musical 24 
words flowed in an unbroken 2r> stream 26 from his 27 lips. I lis- 
tened 28 entranced 2 ; but the striking 3 " of a church^clock re- 


called 31 me to a sense of my duty. 32 I saw it was of no use to 
attempt to break away**; so :1 1 took ^advantage _oP"' his ab- 
sorption 116 in his subject, 37 quietly 3K cut off the button from my 
coat with my pen-knife 9 and decamped. 10 As I was passing 41 
the same garden five hours afterwards on my way_home, 12 I 
heard Coleridge's voice, looked^in, 13 and — there he stood, 
with closed eyes, the button M in his fingers, gracefully waving 
his right hand, just as when I had left'" him. He had never 46 
missed 47 me." 

1 iibcroolT con. 2 irgenb cin. 3 trot^bem bafj. * foftbar. 5 nnbenntjt. 
6 1'attbftrafee. 7 Insert verb and object here. 8 jd)iit3Cil, 291. 5; 299. 
9 bunf). 10 tmmergrun. " S?cdc. I2 SBcobachtnng. " faff en. u 228 (6). 
« 9iocffnopf. I6 fd)Uejjen, 123. I7 44, 6 (a). ,8 begciftcrt. ' 9 Sftebe. 
20 l)in unb her bercegen, 131, B., Rem. 2I mobci. ** anmutig ('gracefully'). 
23 U)cit)venb. ^ rcobltonenb. 2S unaufbdt'fam. 26 Strom. 27 44, 6 (b). 
28 uihbren. 29 cntuicft. 3° ©chlagen, inf. subst. 3I evinnern an + ace. 
32 s }3fiid)t, /. 33 " I saw (evfennen) the uselessness (9?iit}(oftgicit) of an 
attempt to breakaway ("id) toSmfjen)." ^beShalb. 35 bennf^cn (trans.). 
36 "it that he was absorbed (Dbliig Dcrfnnfen in -face.)." 37 ©egenftanb, 
m. 38 rnhig. 39 gebenneffiv, n. *° SReifjouS nebmen. 4I »orbeifommen an 
-f dat. «* ^eimroeg. a Ijineingncfcii. 44 255, 2. « ucrlaffen. 46 garnid)t. 
47 uermiffen. 

Sir Thomas More. 

XXXII. Erasmus describes 1 this great man thus 2 : — 
" More seems to be made 3 and born for Friendship 4 ; of this 
virtue he is a sincere 5 follower 6 and very strict observer. 7 
He is not afraid " to be accused 9 of 10 having many friends, 
which, 11 according^to Hesiod, is said 12 to be no great 
praise. 13 Every_one may n become More's friend ; he is not 
slow 16 in choosing, 16 he is kind " in cherishing, 18 and con- 
stant 19 in keeping 20 them. 21 If by^accident 22 he becomec 
the friend of one 23 whose vices 2I he cannot correct, 25 he 
slackens 26 the reins 27 of friendship towards 2 ' him, divert- 
ing 29 it rather 30 by Jittle^and Jittle/ 1 than entirely 22 dissol- 


ving ™ it. Those 11 ' persons whom he finds" to be sincere"* 
and consonant 31 to his own" virtuous ;9 disposition, 10 he is so 
charmed' 1 with, 4 - that he appears to place" his chief*' 
worldly' 6 pleasure in their conversation ,r ' and company. 
And although More is negligent 47 in 48 his own temporal 49 
concerns, 60 yet 51 no^one is more assiduous 52 in assisting 61 ' 
the suits r ' 4 of his friends than he. What shall I say more ? If 
any_person is^desirous K to have a perfect 6G model "of^friend- 
ship, no one can afford 68 him a better than More. In his 
conversation 5a he shows so much affability G0 and sweet- 
ness^oOnanner, 61 that no^man can be of_so_austere^,a_dis- 
position, 62 buUJhat 63 More's conversation must 6 ' make 66 
him cheerful 65 ; and no matter 66 so unpleasing, 61 but that 
with his wit 6 " he can take^away 69 from it all^disgust. 70 " 

1 bcfdjreibert. 2 folflcnbcrmafjen. 3 fchaffen, 186; 299. '44, \ [b). 5 auf= 
ridjtig [adv.). 6 " to be a follower of" = nacftfolgeu + dat. 7 " and very 
strictly observes (bcobnditcn) it." "277; 291, 11. 9 "of the reproach 
(33orrutivf) of having." io 277, Rem, 1. "96,5. I2 200, 5(c). "9hil)m, 
m. I4 "can." ,5 langfam. I6 SBcihfcn, 270; use def. art. I7 freurtbtid). 
"pflrgcn. I9 uucrfdjiitterltd). 20 f eftl)atten. 21 "of his friends." 22 gu= 
fcillig, 239, Rem. 2. 23 "a man (2ftertfcfj)." 24 Jafter, «. 25 ucrbcffcrn. 
26 locfrrn. 27 Sonb; 64. 28 mit. 29 ablenfen; 284, 1 («). 30 tiebcr. 
31 allmatig. 32 gang. 33 lbfcu. 34 fold). 3S erftnben. 36 aufricbtig. 37 ent= 
fprcdjenb -f- dat. 38 eigcn. 39 tugcnbl)aft. *° ©uuieSart. 4I begaubevn. ** Use 
as prep, before "those persons." 43 ftctlen in + ace. ** " greatest." 
4S roctttid). 46 Untcrbattitng. 47 gtcidjgiltig. 48 gcgert. 49 tuetttid). so Hiu 
gelegenheit. SI bod). 52 ftvebfam. S3 " in the support (Untcrftii^ung) of." 
54 2uigrtegenhcit. s * rounfd)cn. 56 rjoUfontmert. S7 3beat', «.; use compound 
word. s8 Uefern. 59 Umgang, m. ^ ?cutfcligfeit. 6X SieBenSttflrbigfeit. 
62 fo fjcrbe geftnnt. 63 bafj uicbt. 64 f oUte. 65 auffjeitern. 66 ©egenftanb, 
m. 67 roibrig. 68 2J8ij3, m. 69 entfernen toon. 70 2llle8 2Biberh)artige. 



that is. 

I. German : 

Slum. — 2inntertimg, note. 

21. 2. = SUteS Icftnment, Old Testament. 

a. a. C. = nm cingefil&rten Crte, in the 

place referred to. 
bgl., bergl. = bcrglcicben, the like. 

b. = any case of the definite article, 
b. b.= ba<> heifjt, ; 
b. i. = ba8 iff, > 
b. 3. = biefcS SahrcS, of this year, 
b. 9Ji. — bicfeS aJIounto, of this month. 
£r. = 2>oftor, Doctor. 
Gtt>., Gtur. = Guer, Cure, Gurcr (in titles). 
fl. = Oulbcn, florin. 
3r. = ^rau, Mrs. 
ftrhr. = J?rcihcrr, Baron. 
^rt. = grfiuletn, Miss, 
geb. = gcboren, born, 
geft. = geftorben, died. 
Qir. = (Srofdjetl (a coin), 
b., fjeil.= bcilig. holy, saint. 
$r., $rn.= fierr, $errn, Mr. 
i. 3- = '"' 3n&", » n tlle y ear - 
Slap. = flapitcf, chapter. 
Rv. = Rreujet (a coin). 
[.= licG, read. 

9JJ., 9Jlf.. M. = 9Jfart (money). 
9J!flr.= 9J!amiftript, manuscript. 
SWaj. = annjeftat, Majesty. 

II. Latin (in addition to others which are used in English also) : 

A. C. = A titio Christi, in the year of Our Lord (Christ). 
a. c. = anni currenlis, of the current year. 

S. T. = Salvo Ti'uio, without prejudice to the title (used in addresses where the proper 
title of the person addressed is uncertain). 


9!., 91. 9i. = 91ame, name. 
It. (5hr. =rtOd) Gljrifto, after Christ. 
91. S. = 9!ad)fd)rift, postscript. 
91. 2. = 9ieue§ 2eftament, New Testa- 
SPf., 9Jfb. = 93funb, pound. 
l | ! f. = SPfeiinig, penny, 
pp. = unb fo reciter, and so forth. 
3e. 3r. = Seine, Seiner, his (in titles) 
S. = Seite, page. 
St., Sft.= Santt, Saint. 
f. = fiche, see. 
f. 0. = fiehe oben, see above, 
j. u. = ftefje untcn, ) 

f. iu. u. = ficbe loeiter unten, ) 
2., 2b., 21j[.= 2eil, 2f)eil, part. 
2t)[r. = 2t)nler (money), 
u. a. m.= unb anbere mebx 
u. bgl. m.= unb bergleidjen meb,r, 
u. f. f. = unb fo fort, 
u. f. ro. = unb fo roeiter, 
5J. = 93ers, verse. 

p. Ghr. = cor Gbrifto, before Christ 
oergl., r>g(. = nergleidje, compare. 
0. 0.= Don oben, from the top. 
u. u. = non unten, from the bottom, 
j. S3. = }um S3eifpiel, for example. 

see below. 





Explanations. — i. The numerals refer to the §. 

2. All verbs are weak and regular, unless referred to a § ; the conjugation of ethers will 
be found under the § indicated. 

3. A — indicates that the word in question is to be supplied; under masc. and neuter 
substantives, the terminations of the gen. sing, and nom. plur. are given ; thus : SSagen 
(-§ ; — ) means that the gen. sing, of SBagett is SffiagenS, and the nom. plur. the same 
as the nom. sing. The sign £ indicates Umlaut in the pi., e. g. : (Sarten, (-§ ; u ) means 
that the gen. sing, of this word is ©artetld, and the nom. pi. ©d'rten ; <Sol)t\ (-c<> ; a e) 
means: gen. sing. <Botynti, nom. pi. ©Olme ; under fem. substs. the pi. only is given. 

4. With adjectives, "er indicates Umlaut in the compar. and superl. 

5. Proper names are not given when they are the same in German as in English. 


91 b, off. 

SJ'benb, m. (-e§ ; -e), even- 
ing ; fjeute — , this evening. 

abenbS, in the evening. 

aber, but ; however. 

abfaljren (186; fein), to set 
off, depart, go ; set sail. 

abfjalten (188), to hinder, 

abljelfen (159), to help, re- 
medy ; bem ift leid)t abs 
juljelfcit, that is easily re- 

abfjolen, to call for. 

abfttfjlen (fid)), to (get) cool. 

abreifen (fein), to set out, 
start, depart. 

abfdjneiben (118), to cut off. 

ad)t, eight; — Xage,aweek. 

2Id)t, /., attention, care ; fid) 
in — nebmen, to be care- 
ful, take care. 

abbieren, to add. 

Sbreffe, / (-n), address. 

SU'gebra, /., algebra. 

alletrt', adj., alone, only; 
conj., but, only. 

alf(er, e, e§), all, (the) whole ; 
atte Sage, every day ; 

?lUe§, n. sing., all, every- 

allerbingS', adv., certainly, 
of course. 

al§, than, as ; as a ; when ; 
atS ob, as if. 

alfo, thus, so; so then, ac- 

aft ( u er), old, ancient. 

Sitter, «. (-S), age, old age. 

Jlmerilaner, m. (-§, — ), 

an (dot. or ace, 65), on, 
at (227), to, towards, in, 
by, near, of; er ftarb am 
tjieber, he died of fever 
(231, c). 

anbieten (131), to offer. 

auber, other ; bie Slnbern, 
the others. 

anbern, to alter, change ; e§ 
ISfjt fid) tlid)t — , it cannot 
be helped. 

anbcrtljalb, one and a half. 

Sfnfang, m. (-e3; K e), com- 
mencement, beginning. 

anfangen (188), to begin, 

anfang3, in the beginning, at 

angenebm (dat.), pleasant, 

Sngfttid), frightened, timid, 

anbatten (188), to continue. 

Slnbbbe,/ (-ti), hill. 

anfaufen (fid)), to settle, buy 
up property. 

attlleiben (fid)), to dress. 

anfommen (167 ; fein), to ar- 
rive; in S3, (dat.) — , to 
arrive at B. 

anrid)ten, to cause. 

anfd)affen, to provide, pro- 



antvcffeu (167), to meet 

with, find. 

Statroort, /. (-en), answer, 


antruorten (tint.), to answer, 

anjidjCll (131), to draw on; 
put on (clothes). 

Kpfel, m. (-5; "), apple. 

JlpfeUmum, m. (—3 ; "c), 

2lprU', m. (-S), April. 

Str'beit,/ (-en), work; la- 
bour; task. 

arbeiten, to work. 

Slrbciter, >«. (-§; — ), work- 

2Ird)ttctt', »i. (-en ; -en), 

SHrie (trisyll.), /. (-n), air, 

arm ("er), poor 

2lrm, >«. (-es ; -c), arm. 

artig, well behaved; — fein, 
to behave one's self pro- 
perly (of children). 

Htjt, m. (-C3 ; "e), physician, 
doctor. [rella. 

2ffd)enputtel, «. (-6), Cinde- 

2lft, m. (-es; u t), bough, 

2IftroIog', »i. (-en ; -en), 

Qud), also, too, even; tuer — , 
whoever; voir ftnb CO — , 
so are we. 

auf, (dtit. or ace.) on, upon 
(65); for, in (230); at (227, 
3) ; to ; open ; — brei 2Bos 
d)en, for three weeks (fut., 
229, b, 2) ; — bajj, in order 
that ; — bem £anbe, in the 

aufblciben (120), to stay up, 
sit up, remain up. 

Stufentbalt, m. (-es; -e), so- 
journ, stay; delay. 

2fufgabe,y. (-n), task, lesson, 

aitjiieben (181), to give up 
auffjttngen, to hang up. 

nufbeben (131), to raise up, 
lift u)i, pick up ; abolish, 
annul, cancel. 

aufljorcn, to cease, stop. 

aufmad)en, to open. 

aufmertfam, attentive ; cincn 
auf etioaS — mad)cn, to 
call the attention of any- 
one to anything. 

Sfufmerlfamf cit, / (-en), at- 
tention ; kindness. 

auffdjieben (131), to put off, 
postpone, delay. 

auffetjen, to put up; put on 
(of a hat). 

aufftcrjen (186; fein), to rise, 
get up. 

nuffteigen (120 ; fein), to 
rise, ascend, mount. 

nuftreten (181; fein), to ap- 

aufjiefjen (131), to wind up 
(of a time-piece). 

Stage, «. (-5 ; -it), eye. 

21ugenblicf, m. (-es ; -e), mo- 
ment, instant. 

aus (dat., 46), out of; from, 
of; out. 

2(usbrud, m. (-es ; "e), ex- 

2(uofIug, m. (-es ; "e), excur- 
sion, pleasure-trip; einen 
— mad)en, to take a plea- 

2lusgabc, f. (-n), edition. 

ausgejeidmet, excellent. 

ausgleiten (118; fein), to 
slide, slip. 

auslaffen (188), to omit, 
leave out. 

auslbjdjen, to put out, ex- 
tinguish, [nad)). 

ausfefjen (181), to look (like, 

2Iusfid)t, /. (-en), view, pro- 

ausfpredjen (107), to pro- 

SlusfteUuna, /. (-en), exhi- 


nufjer (46), outside of ; conj. 
except, besides. 

aufjerbalb (gen.), outside of. 

ausroenbig, by heart. 

ausjeidjnen, to distinguish. 

ausjicben (131; fein), to re- 
move (intr.). 

3t£t, / (H) axe. 


baclen(i86), to bake. 

'■Badftein, m. (-es ; -e), brick. 

23af)nf)of, m. (-es ; *e), rail- 

balb (cfjer, am eljeften), soon, 

SBanb, «. (-es ; "er), ribbon ; 
m. (-es; "e), volume. 

SBanf, / (-en), bank; (^e), 

bar, (paid in) cash, ready (of 

23 ar, m. (-en ; -en), bear. 

23arbier, m. (-es; -e), bar- 

bauen, to build. 

23auer, m. (-n or -s ; -n), 
peasant, countryman. 

23aum, m. (-es ; "e), tree. 

23aupla$, m. (-es ; u e), site. 

bebauern, to pity; regret; 
(id)) bebaure, I am sorry. 

bebenfen (99, 2), to consider. 

bebienen, to serve, wait up- 
on ; fid) — , to help one's 

23ebingung, f. (-en), condi- 

beeilen (fid)), to hasten.hurry. 

23eere,y: (-en), berry. 

23efef)I, m. (-es ; -e), com- 
mand, order ; }U — , at 
(your) service, what is 
(your) pleasure ? 

befefjlen (167), to command. 

befleifjen (fid), 118), to apply 
one's self 



befriebigi'il, to satisfy, con- 

begegnen, (dat. ; fein), to 

begiefjett (123), to water 
(flowers, etc.). 

beginncn (1 58), to begin. 

begleiten, to accompany. 

S3egleitwtg,y: (-en), accom- 

begniigert (fid) — mit), to 
be satisfied, be contented 

Segriff, m. (-es ; -e), idea, 
notion ; int — fein, to be 
upon the point of, be about 

bebaupten, to assert, affirm ; 
to maintain. 

bei (46), by, at, about : with ; 

— Xifcbe, at table ; — meU 
nem Cnfcl, at my uncle's; 

— mir, with me, at my 
house, about me ; — fcf)8= 
nem Setter, in fine wea- 

beibe, both, two. 

beibes, n. sing., both. 

Seifall, »:. (-es), applause. 

beinabe, almost, nearly. 

beif}en(n8), to bite. 

beifteben (186; dot.), to as- 
sist, aid. 

S3efanntfd)aft, / (-en), ac- 

betennen (99), to acknow- 
ledge ; confess. 

betommen (167), to obtain, 
get, receive, have. 

bemerten, to perceive, ob- 

bemiif)en(fid)), to take pains, 

beouem', convenient, com- 
fortable, commodious. 

SSerg, m. (-es; -e), moun- 
tain, hill. 

bergeit (159), to hide. 

berften (159), to burst. 

bcrufmit, famous, celebrated. 

befcQuTtigett, to occupy, em- 
ploy ; befdjiiftigt, busy, em- 

befinnen (fid); 158), to deli- 
berate, reflect. 

befonbers, particularly, es- 

beforgen, to attend to. 

befprecben (167), to discuss. 

beffer (see gut), better. 

beft, (superl. of gut, which 
see), best; JUtn Seften, for 
the benefit of ; am beften, 
best (of all). 

beftefjen (186), to undergo, 
pass (an examination); — 
(aus), to consist (of) ; — 
(auf -f- ace), to insist 

befteigen (120), to ascend. 

beftellen, to order. 

beftrafen, to punish. 

beftreiten (118), to defray. 

Sefud), m. (-es; -e), visit, 
visitors ; — baben, to have 
visitors; — e macben, make 
calls; bei Jemanb auf — 
fein, to be on a visit at any 

befud>en, to visit; bie Unu 
perfitot — , to study at the 

beten, to pray, say prayers. 

betragen (186), to amount to. 

SJetragen, n. (-s), behaviour, 

betreffen (167), to concern; 
roas mid) betrifft, as for 

betriigen (131), to cheat, de- 

Settler, m. (-6 ; — ), beggar. 

beroegen (131), to induce; 
to move. 

beroeifen (120), to prove, de- 

berounbern, to admire. 

bejablen, to pay (ace. of 

thing; dat. of person and 
ace. of thing when both 
are present, otherwise ace. 
of person). 

»ejablung,/(-«n), payment. 

Stoliotfje!', / (-en), library. 

biegen (131), to bend. 

33ter, «. (-es ; -e), beer, ale. 

bieten (131), to offer. 

39Ub, ». (-es ; -er), picture, 

Silbung, / (-en), education. 

SiUet' (pron. bill-yett), n. 
(-te§ ; -te), ticket. 

billig, cheap. 

binben (144), to bind, tie, 

binnen (dat.), within. 

bi§ (34), till, until, up to, as 
far as; }ipei — brei, two 
or three ; — }u (dat.), — 
nad) (dat.), as far as. 

Sifdjpf, m. (-es, -e), bishop. 

bitten (181 ; for, urn), to ask, 
beg; (id)) bitte, if you 
please, please (lit., I beg, 
pray) ; wenn id) — barf, if 
you please (lit., if I may 

Mafen(:88), to blow. 

SHatt, «. (-e$ ; "er), leaf. 

blau, blue. 

Meibeit (120; fein), to re- 

Sleiftift, «. (-es; -e), lead- 

blinb, blind. 

33li|, m. (-es; -e), light- 

bli v en, (impers.), to lighten. 

Slume,/ (-en), flower. 

ibtumenfcfjl, m. (-s), cauli- 

bombarbieren, to bombard. 

33oot, n. (-es; 8Bte, or -e), 

bbfe, bad, evil; cross, angry. 

93bferoid)t, m. (-es ; -er), 



lOote, m (-U ; 11), mes- 

braten (iss), to roast. 

braudu'n (£V». or ace), to 
require, want, need, use, 
make use of. 

brnun, brown. 

bredjen (167), to break. 

brcit, broad, wide. 

brennen (99), to bum, be 

S3ricf, m, (-cs ; -e), letter, 

bringen (99, 2), to bring, 

SBrot, n. (-e8 ; -e), bread; 

iDriicfc, /. (-n), bridge. 

SUruber, m. (-8; *), brother. 

33ud), n. (-e8 ; "er), book. 

33ud)erfrcuitb, m. (-e8; -e), 
lover of books. 

Sudjhfinblcr, m. (-8; — ), 

SBud)f)anbIung,/:(-en), book- 

SJiireau (pron. bii-ro'), »• 
(-3; -8), (business) office. 

SJiirgcrmeifter, ;«. (-8 ; — ), 

Sutter, /., butter. 


Gfjofolabe, /., chocolate. 
Gbrift, m. (-en ; -en), Chris- 
Goufine, /. (-n), cousin. 


ba, there, in that place ; 
here; con/., as, when, be- 
cause, since. 

2)ad), n. (-06; -cr), roof. 

bafiir, for that, for it, for 
them (of things). 

baber', thence, hence, there- 

bantit, therewith, with it, 
with that. 

£>ampfcrlinic,/. (-it), steam- 

Danq>ffd)tff, n. (-co; -c), 
steam-boat, steamer. 

bantbar, thankful, grateful. 

Danfbortctt, f, thankful- 

battlen {dot.), to thank; id) 
banfe Q>bnen), (no) thank 

bann, then. 

bnran, thereon. 

barauf, thereon, on it, on 
them (0/ things), etc. 

barin, therein, in that, in it. 

bariibcr, over that, over it; 
about it, at it. 

barum, therefore. 

ba§, n. of ber, which see. 

bafelbft, there, in that place. 

bag, that ; (auf) — , in order 

bacon, thereof, of it. 

bein, bcine, bcin, thy. 

bent en (99 ; gen. or general- 
ly an + ace), to think; 
fid) — , to imagine. 

bettlt, for, conf. 

ber, bte, ba8, def. art., the 
(4; 44); rel. pr., who, 
which, that (92, 93, 95) ; 
dent, pr., the one, he, she, 
it, that (133 ; 140-143). 

berjenige, biejenige, basje= 
mge(i35; 140), that, this, 
the one ; he, she, it. 

berfelbe, bieiclbe, baSfelbe 
(136; 143), adj. and pr., 
the same; he, she, it, etc. 

be3'f)atb, for this or that rea- 
son, therefore, on that ac- 

befto, (all) the, so much the ; 
— befjer, so much the bet- 
ter ; jc mebr — beffcr, the 
inure, the better. 

bcSvocgcn, on that account. 

beiltlid), clear, distinct ; 
clearly, distinctly. 

bctttfdj, German; nuf Detltfd), 

itn Tcuticbcit, in German. 

Ceutfdj'lanb, «. (-«), 


JHamant', m. (-8 or -en; 
-en), diamond. 

bie, f. of ber, which see. 

^ieb, m. (-e8 ; -c), thief. 

3)iener, m. (-8; — ), ser- 

DienStag, m. (-c8; -e), Tues- 

biefer, btefe, biefe8 (bteS), 
(6; 134, 140, 143). this, 
that; the latter. 

bie8'fett8, adv., on this side. 

btngen (App. L.), to hire. 

bitnbieren, to divide. 

bod), yet, however, but, after 
all, pray, well, just. 

2)of tor, m. (-8 ; Solto'ren), 

Donner, m. (-8; — ), thun- 

bonnern, to thunder. 

Sonner8tag, m. (-c8 ; -e), 

2)orf, (-e8 ; ^er), village. 

bort, there, yonder, in that 

brei, three. 

breifad), three-fold, triple, 

bretmal, three times, thrice. 

breifjtg, thirty. 

brefdjen (159), to thresh, 

brtngen (144), to press. 

brittcfialb, two and a half. 

briiben, over there, over the 

2srud, m. (-e8), printing, 

bu, thou, you. 

biinn, thin. 

burd) (34), through ; by. 

burd)au8', absolutely, entire- 
ly; — ntdjt, by no means, 
not at all. 



burd)jud)'cn, to search 

bttrfen (196-202 ; permis- 
sion), to dare ; be permit- 
ted, allowed ; barf id)? may 

SJurft, m. (-es), thirst; — 
fjaben, to be thirsty. 

Du^'enb, «. (-c3; -e), dozen. 


eben, adv., even, just; ex- 
actly ; .f — , just now. 

Gcfe, f. (-n), corner. 

G'belftein, m. (-e<> ; -e), pre- 
cious stone, jewel. 

elje, adv. and con/'., ere, be- 

eljren, to honour, esteem. 

efjtlid), honest; — roaf)rt am 
Idngftctt, honesty is the 
best policy. 

<5t, n. (-es ; -ex), egg. 

Gigentum, (-e5 ; "er), pro- 
perty, possession, estate. 

Gile, f. haste, hurry; roas 
baft bu fur — '< what is 
your hurry ? 

etlen, to hasten, hurry. 

eilig, hasty, speedy ; e3 — 
Robert, to be in a hurry, be 
in haste. 

ctn, etne, ein (9), a, an ; 
one ; bie Ginen, some. 

einanbcr, one another, each 

ISinbanb, nr. (-c5 ; -e), bind- 

einbinben (144), to bind (a 

einbringen (144 ; fein), to 
enter by force ; rush in ; 
press in, penetrate. 

eirter, etne, ein(e)s (150), 
pron., one (equivalent of 

etnfaltig, simple, silly. 

Ginftufe, m. (-cs, ''(), influ- 

ciuige, some, several, a few. 

eiltlabett (186), to invite. 

einmal, once. 

Ginmaleius, n. (indecl), mul- 

einpacf en, to pack up. 

einredmen, to reckon in ; 
comprise in account. 

einfd)Iagen (186), to strike 
(of lightning). 

einfd)reiben (120), to book, 
inscribe, check (luggage). 

einfcfjen (181), to perceive, 

einfeitig, one-sided. 

einfteigen («2o; fein), to 
mount into, get into (car- 
riage, etc.). 

Gin'trittScra'men, «.(-§; — ), 
entrance-examination, ma- 

Ginrooljner, »«• (-3 ; — ), in- 

Gis, n. (-es), ice; ice-cream. 

Gifcn, «. (-5), iron. 

Gifenbafyn, f. (-en), railway. 

elegant', elegant. 

GUe,/. (-n),yard. 

GItern (no sing.), parents. 

empfebjcn (i6j\ dat. offers.), 
to recommend. 

empfinben (144), to feel, ex- 

enblid), at last, finally, at 

englifd), adj., English; auf 
Gnglifdi, in English. 

Gnte, /. (-n), duck ; Gnten= 
bratcu, m. (-5 ; — ), roast 

entge'gengeijen (188; fein; 
da/.), to go to meet. 

entge'genfommen (167 ; fein ; 
dat.), to come to meet. 

entfdjlieftcn (fid); 123), to 
resolve, decide. 

entfdjulbigen, to excuse. 

cntrocber, either; entrocber 
. . . obcr, either ... or. 

entroerfen (159), to draw (a 
plan, etc.); design. 

ent$iidt, delighted, charmed. 

er, he. 

Grbfe,/. (-n), pea. 

Grbbeben, n. (-s ; — ), earth- 

Grbbeere,/ (-n), strawberry. 

Grbe,_/!, earth, ground. 

erftnben (144), to invent. 

Gifinbung, f. (-en), inven- 

Grfolg, m. (-es; -e), success. 

erfrieren (131 ; fein), to 
freeze, be frozen. 

ergreifen (118), to seize. 

erfjalten (188), to receive, 

erinncrn (fid) ; gen. of thing 
remembered), to remem- 

erf alten (fid)), to catch cold. 

Grfaltung, / (-en), cold. 

erfennen (99), to recognize. 

erflareit, to explain. 

erfunbigen (fid)), to inquire ; 
fid) bet jemanb nad) ettnao 
— , to inquire of anyone 
about anything. 

erlauben (dat. of per s.), to 
permit, allow. 

erlebcn, to experience. 

ernenncu (99), to nominate, 
appoint; jum (Souocrneur 
— , to appoint (as) governor. 

erobern, to conquer, over- 

erfdjrecf en (167 ; fein), to be 

erft, first ; furs' erfte, for the 
present ; ber erfte beftc, 
the first which comes to 
hand ; adv., first, only, not 
before, not till. 

erftens, first, in the firstplace. 

crtrinfen (144), to drown, be 

criuaOlcn (ju), to elect (as). 

criuartcn, to expect, wait for. 



cruriiitftlKit, to wish for, de- 

erjiiblen, to relate, narrate, 

t§ (3 s . 39). i{ ; they; there; 
er ift — , it is he j e§ fiub 
SJlSnuer, they are men. 

effen (181), to eat; 511 SDHttag 
— , to dine. 

etiua, nearly, about. 

Gtiuci'3, something, any- 

euer, eure, eucr, your. 

Curopa, «. (-§), Europe. 

Sra'men, »/. (-§ ; — ), exami- 

Sjremptar', n. (-§ ; -e), copy 
(of a work, etc.). 


gabril', /. (-en), factory. 

ftaben, m. (-3; *), thread. 

fab r en (1S6; fein), to go, 
drive, ride (in a convey- 
ance) ; travel ; sail. 

ftatjrt,/ (-en), journey, voy- 
age ; ride, drive. 

^all, m. (-e3; u t), fall ; case, 
event ; in bem ^olle, in 
that case. 

fallen (188; fein), to fall. 

fall§, in case. 

ftami'lie, /. (-n), family. 

fangctt (1S8), to catch. 

f aft, almost, nearly ; — nte, 
hardly ever. 

gebruar, tit. (-§), February. 

fed)ten (124), to fight, fence. 

geber, f. (-n) , feather ; pen ; 

feiern, to celebrate. 

^feiertag, m. (-e3 ; -e), holi- 

geinb, m. (-e§ ; -e), enemy. 

gelb, n. (-e3 ; -er), field. 

^elf(en), »;.(-cn3; -en), rock. 

genflcr, «. (-5; — ), window. 

Jfevten, //. (no sing:), vaca- 
tion, holidays. 

genie, f. (-It), distance ; in 
ba — , at a distance. 

ferttg, ready, done ; — fein 
(mit), to have finished 

^eftlidjf eit,/ (-en), festivity. 
rtdier, «. (-3 ; — ), fire. 

gfteber, «. (-5; — ), fever. 

ftnben (144), to find ; meet 
with ; think, be of opinion ; 
man finbet fief) nicfit leid)t, 
people do not find each 
other easily. 

gifeb, m. (-e§ ; -e), fish. 

^tafebe, /. (-n), bottle. 

flecfjten (124), to weave. 

^tetfeb, n. (-es), meat. 

fleifjig, diligent ; industrious; 
diligently, etc. 

fliegcn (131 ; fein), to fly. 

flieben (131), flee. 

fliefjen (123), flow. 

giBte, /. (-n), flute. 

Slilgel, m. (-3 ; — ), wing. 

glufj, tit. (-e§; ; 'e), river. 

fo!gen(fein ; dat.), to follow. 

^oreUe, f. (-n), trout. 

format', it. (-e3; -c), size (of 
a book). 

fort, forth; away, gone; roir 
miiffen — , we must be off. 

fortgeljen (188 ; fein), to go 

fortiua^renb, perpetual, con- 
tinual, incessant. 

fragen (186), to ask ques- 
tions ; fragen, it. (-3), 
questioning, asking ques- 
tions (action of). 

granfreicf), «. (-3), France. 

franjofifd), French. 

gran, f. (-en), woman, wife, 
lady, madam, mistress, 

ftvaulein, «• (-3; — ), young 
lady, Miss ; meiu — , Miss. 

frcigebig, liberal, generous. 

frcilnffcn (iSS), to set free, 

freilicf), to be sun-, indeed, of 


grcitag, m. (-e3; -e), Friday. 

fremb, strange ; foreign. 

grembc, {adj. subst.) in. or 
/., stranger, foreigner. 

trembling, »/. (-e3 ; -e), 

freffetl (181), to eat (said of 

ftrcube, /. (-n), joy, delight. 

freuen (fid) ; at, iiber + ace), 
to rejoice, be glad ; c6 freut 
mid), I am glad. 

greunb, »«. (-e3; -e), friend ; 
id) bin ein — 0011, I like. 

greunbin, / (-nen), friend 

freunblid), friendly, kind. 

5reunb|d)aft,/ (-en), friend- 

$riebe(n), m. (-n3), peace. 

gricbrid), w/.(-3), Frederick; 
^riebriebftrafje, Frederick- 

friercn(i3i), to freeze; feel 
cold; e3 friert mid), I feel 
cold ; mid) friert, I am 

frifd), fresh. 

ftrifc, m. (-en3), Fred, Fred- 

frofj, joyful, glad ; frozen 
9)hlte3, cheerfully. 

frbblid), joyous, merry. 

grud)t, / ( u e), fruit. 

friib, early; fritter, earlier; 

^riibling, m. (-e3 ; -e), 

friib'ftucfeti, to breakfast. 

1*110)3, m. (-e3; ^e), fox. 

fiibren, to lead ; go, lie. 

fiiUen, to fill. 

fiinf, five. 

fiinftcbalb, four and a half. 

fttnfjig, funfaig, fifty. 

ftuntc(n), tit. (-i;3 ; -n), 



f»r (34), for. 

gurdjt (oor),/. fear (of), 
fiiriten, to fear; ftcb, — oor 

(+ dat.), to fear, be afraid 

Sufj, m. (-e§ ; a e), foot. 


ga(b)ren (App. L.), ferment. 

Bans, a<#., whole, entire; 
the whole of ; adv., quite, 
wholly, altogether, entirely. 

gar, even ; — nid)t, not at 
all; — ntdjtS, nothing at 

©arten, m. (-§ ; "), garden. 

©firtner, m. (-§; — ), garde- 

©aft, m. (-eS; H), guest. 

Saftfyaus, «. (-e§; *er), inn, 

gebaren (167), to bear, bring 

geben (181), to give; v. im- 
pers., e§ giebt, there is, 
there are. 

©ebot', «. (-eS ; -e), com- 

©eburts'tag, m. (-es; -c), 
birthday ; jum — , as a 

©ebante, m. (-n§; -n), 

gebeiben (120), to thrive. 

gebenten (99), to intend. 

©ebidjt, ». (-e§ ; -e), poem. 

gebrangt, packed, com- 
pressed, crowded. 

©ebulb,y!, patience. 

fjefdfarlicb, dangerous ; dan- 

gefatUn (188), to please, 
suit ; rote gefadt e§ 3^ ne " 
in S3 oft on? how do you 
like Boston ? 

gefalltg, pleasing, complai- 
sant, kind; ift bem £errn 
etroas — ? will the gentle- 
man be helped to anything ? 

gcfiilligft, if you please. 

©efiibl, n. (-es; -e), feeling; 

gegen (34), towards, against, 
about ; for. 

geben (188; fein), to go; 
walk ; roie geb,t e§3§nen? 
how do you do? how are 

gepren {dat.), to belong(to). 

©eige, /. (-n), violin; ©eU 
genfpiel, n. (-5), violin- 

gelb, yellow. 

©elb, n. (-e<3 ; -er), money. 

©elbbeutel, >«. (-5; — ), 

gelegen, convenient ; oppor- 
tune; nid)tsfbnntcmirge= 
legener fcin, nothing could 
suit me better. 

gelingen (144; fetn), to suc- 
ceed; e§ getingt mir, I 

gelten (159), to be worth. 

©etntitbe, n. (-3 ; — ), paint- 
ing, picture. 

©emiife, «. (-§; — ), vege- 

genau, precise, exact ; pre- 
cisely, exactly, carefully, 

©eneral', m. (-e§ ; -e), gene- 

gencfen (181 ; fein), to get 
well, recover (from an ill- 

geniefcen (123; fein), to en- 
joy ; eat or drink. 

genug, enough. 

©eometrte', /., geometry. 

©epad, «. (-es), luggage, 

gerabe, adj., straight; adv., 
exactly, just. 

©eraufcf), «. (-e§ ; -e), noise. 

gcring, small, trifling, mean; 
ntd)t tin — ften, not in the 

gem (Ueber, am liebftcn), 
with pleasure, willingly, 
gladly ; etroas — haben, 
to like a thing ; — lernen, 
to like to learn, study ; ba3 
ift — moglia), that is very 

©erfte, f. barley. 

gefaljen, faljen, salt. 

©efang, m. (-e§), singing. 

©efdjdft, n. (-es ; -e), busi- 
ness ; mercantile establish- 
ment ; shop, store. 

©efdjdftsangelegenljeit, f. 
(-en), business matter, bu- 
siness engagement. 

gefdjeljen (1815 fein), to hap- 

@efd)ent, n. (-e§ ; -e), gift, 

©efd)id)te, f. (-n), history, 

©efdjmatf, >«. (-es), taste. 

gefdjult, p.p.,\ djulen, trained, 

©efdjroifter, pi., brothers and 

©efeUfcfjaft, f. (-en), com- 
pany, party. 

©cfidit, «. (-es; -cr and-e), 
face, countenance ; ©efid)= 
ter, faces ; ©eftcfjte, vi- 
I sions. 

©efpiele, m. (-n; -n), play- 
j mate. 

\ geftern, yesterday. 
; ©efunbbcit, f. health. 
I geroinnen (158), to win, gain. 

geroijj (gen.), certain (of); 
certainly, surely. 
I getoiffenhaft, conscientious. 
i ©eroitter, «. (-§; — ), thun- 
| der-storm, storm. 

©eroohnbeit, f. (-en), cus- 
I torn, habit; bie — baben, 
to be accustomed to. 

gerobhnlia), usual, custom- 
ary ; generally, usually. 

giefjen (123).. to ixuir. 

4 I2 


glttngen, to shim-, glitter. 

gltttljenb, brilliant. 

©las, «. (-e3; "ei), glass. 

(jlatt, smooth, slippery. 

glauben {dat. of f>crs.), to 
believe- ; think. 

gleid), at once, at the same 
time, immediately, directly; 
fo — , immediately, etc. 

glcidicn (i iS), to be like, re- 

gleitcn (n8), to glide, slip. 

gltmmcn (123), to glimmer. 

©litcf, «. (-co), (good) for- 
tune, good luck; success; 
— nriinfd)en, to congratu- 
late, wish success to. 

gliicflid), happy, fortunate; 

©olb, it. (-CO), gold. 

golbeit, of gold, golden. 

©ouuerneur', >«. (-c§; -e), 

grabctt (186), to dig. 

fflrab, in. (-C3 ; -c), degree. 

©raf, m. (-fit ; -en), count, 

©rfifin, /. (-non), countess. 

©romma'tif, /. (-en), gram- 

©ra3, n. (-e§ ; "cr), grass. 

gratulieren (dat.), to con- 

grcifen (11S), to grasp. 

©rtccbcntanb, n. (-§), 

grofc ("er, sup. grbfjt), great, 
large, big, tall. 

griin, green. 

griinblid), thoroughly. 

griifjen, to greet, salute, bow 
to; 3&r ft-reunb Infjt ©ie 
— , your friend wishes to 
be remembered to you. 

©uitarre, /. (-11), guitar. 

gut, adj. , good ; kind; adv., 
well ; fo — fcin nub, to be 
so kind as to. 

Wllte<3, «., good (thing). 


$aar, «. (-e8j -e), hair. 

Ijnbcn (24), t<> have; 9)cdbt 
— , to be (in the) right ; Hn- 
redit — , to be (in the) 
wrong ; ronS — Sic ? what 
is the matter with you ? 
nor — , to intend, propose, 

Ijafen, in. (-5; "), port, har- 
bour, haven. 

.frnfer, in. (-3), oats. 

ftageHorn, «. (-eS ; u cr), 

hugelu, to hail. 

bulb, half; — brci, half past 

fcfilfte,/ (-n), half. 

bnltcn (iSS), to hold, think; 
— filr, consider; id) halte 
vie! von ibm, I think high- 
ly of him (esteem, value 
him highly). 

£anb, /. ( u e), hand. 

£>finblcr, 1,1. (-5; — ), dealer, 

.fmitbfdjub, m. (-c3; -c), 

battgen (iSS), to hang, be 
suspended; ba3 33ilb bangt, 
the picture is hanging. 

bangen, to hang, suspend. 

£arfe, /. (-n), harp; $av: 
fensSSeglcitung, accompa- 
niment on the harp. 

bart ("er), hard. 

£>afe, m. (-n; -n), hare. 

baffen, to hate. 

batten (188), to hew. 

$auptftabt, f. ("c), capital. 

£cut$, n. (-co; B er), house; 
gu £>au|c, at home ; nacb 
£aufc, home. 

beben (131), to raise, lift. 

£eer, «. (-e§; -e), army. 

r>cf tig , violent, heavy; hea- 
vily (of rain). 

ftcibe, in. (-it; -n), heathen. 

^eini id), ;n. (-§), Henry. 

Ijcifer, hoarse. 

Ijcifj, hot. 

beijjen (188), to be called, be 
named; mean, signify ; n>ie 
beifjt ba§ auf Eeutfcb? 
how do you say that in 
German? true beifjt? what 
is the name of? id) heifec 
21., my name is A. 

§elb, in. (-en; -en), hero. 

bclfen (159 ; dat.), to help. 

hell, bright; brightly. 

berabftetgen (120; fein), to 

berauSfommen (167 ; fein), to 
come out. 

§erbft, m. (-e§ ; -e), autumn. 

§crbe, /. (-n), flock, herd. 

bereinfommen (167 ; fein), to 
come in. 

•§err, m. (-n; -en), master; 
gentleman ; Lord ; Mr. ; 
3ibr — SSater, your fa- 

£erg, k. (-en§; -en), heart. 

berjlid), heartily, exceed- 

§eu, «. (-e§), hay. 

heute, tc-day ; — Sfbertb, this 
evening; — DJiorgen, this 
morning ; — iiber uierjebn 
Sage, this day fortnight ; 
beutjutage, now-a-days. 

bier, here; — ju fianbe, in 
this country. 

hiermit, herewith, with this. 

■ftimmel, tn. (-3 ; — ), heaven, 

binaufgebett (188; fein), to 
go up. 

btnauSfebett (181), to look 
out (at the window, gum 

fjineingeben (188 ; fein), to 
go in. 

hingeben (188; fein), to go 
(hence) ; go anywhere. 

hintcr (65), behind. 

£">i(}C, f. heat. 



l)od) (loses C in inflection; 

compar. f)bber, sup. t)bd)ft), 

fioffen, to hope. 
Qof/fenttid), adv., (it is) to be 

hoped, I hope, 
^offming, /. (-en), hope, 
hb^cr, compar. of f)0d), 

which see. 
b>Ien, (to go and) bring, 

fetch; get; — laffcu, to 

send for. 
4}t>l}, n. (-e3), wood. 
tjoren, to hear; listen; fagen 

— , to hear say, hear. 
biibfcfi, pretty, 
fcufjn, n. (-e3; u er), fowl; 

£unb, in. (-e§ ; -c), dog. 
bunbert, hundnd. 
£unbert, «. (-3 ; -e), hun- 
hunger, »/.(-§), hunger; id) 

Ijabe — , I am hungry, 
bungrig, hungry. 
#ut, m. (-e§; *e), hat. 
bitten, to guard, keep. 

id), I. 

ibr, pers. pron., to her, her 

(dat. sing.); you (nom. 

ibr, ibre, ibr, poss. adj., her; 

its ; their. 
3br, 3bre, 3br, poss. adj., 


iljrer, ibre, 

ibre (ber, 

bie, bu3), 
ibrige (ber, 

bie, bo§), 
3brer, gbre, 

3bre (ber, bie, 

3ljrige(ber, bie, 


/<?.«. pron., 
hers ; its ; 




3bretn>iUen, for your sake. 

im, contr./or in bem. 

immcr, always ; at all times ; 
nod) — , still. 

in (65 ; dat. or ace), in, at; 
into, to. 

inbem', while, whilst. 

inncvhalb (gen), on the in- 
side, within. 

gnjtramenf, «. (-e§; -e), 
(musical) instrument. 

interefiant', interesting. 

irgenb einer, — jemanb, any 

Jrlanb, «. (-§), Ireland. 

Jtalicn, n. (-5), Italy. 

3a, yes, indeed, 
know; did I (etc.) not; ja* 
roobl, yes indeed, yes to be 
sure, yes certainly. 

jagen, to hunt, chase, pursue. 

3agen, n. (-5), hunting (act 

3ager, in. (-§; — ), hunter, 

3abr, n. (-eS; -e), year. 

Ja'tob, in. (-3), James. 

jamohi, see ja. 

je, ever (at any time) ; the (be- 
fore comparative degree, 
126, 4); — jroei, two at a 

jebenfatlS, certainly, at all 

jeber, jebe, jebe§, every, 
each, every one, any. 

jebermann, everyone, every- 

jentaI5, ever, at any time. 

jemanb, somebody, some one, 
any body, any one. 

jener, jene, jeneS, that, that 
one, that person ; yonder ; 
the former. 

jenfettS, on the other side, 

jetjt, now, at present. 

3obann', m. (-3), John. 
Ju'genb,/., youth. 
3u'Ii, in. (-s), July, 
jung (-er), young. 
3unge, m. (-n; -n), boy, 

3ungling, m. (-e§; -e), 

young man, youth. 
3u'ni, m. (—3), June. 


flaffec, m. (-§), coffee. 

iloifcr, m. (-§ ; — ), emperor. 

flalbsfotelette, / (-n), veal- 

fait (-er), cold. 

flamin', «. (-e§; -e), fire- 

flarbinal', in. (-3; -e), car- 

flarl, m. (-§), Charles. 

Slarte,f (-n), card. 

flartoffel,/. (-n), potato. 

Safe, in. (-3 ; — ), cheese. 

faufen, to buy. 

faum, hardly, scarcely. 

feifen (App. L.), to chide. 

lein, teine, fein, no, not a, 
not any. 

f einer, feine, tein(e)?, pron., 
nobody, not anybody, no 
one, none. 

flellner, m. (-§ ; — ), waiter. 

fennen (99), to know, be ac- 
quainted with. 

flenntmS, f (-e), know- 
ledge ; //. acquirements, 

Jlinb, «. (-e3 ; -er), child. 

Jlircbe,./ (-n), church. 

flat, clear. 

fltaffe, / (-n), class. 

fllaf'frter, m. (-§ ; — ), classic 
writer, classic. 

JMaoier', «. (-§ ; -e), piano. 

flleib, «. (-e§; -er), dress; 
//. clothes. 

flein, small, little. 

flieben (App. L.), to cleave. 



tlimmen (123), t.> climb, 
tliitgclu, to . ring (said of 

small bells); C3 tliugclt, 

there is a ring (at the door, 

tlingcu (144), to sound, 
flnnbe, »i. (-it ; -it), boy. 
flnall, in. (-e3; -0), loud 

quick sound ; clap, thun- 

ftnedjt, ;;.-. f-e8j -e), (farm) 

servant, man-of -all-work. 
Eneifeti ( 1 18), to pinch. 
Ineipen (App. 1..), to i>iucb. 
Jtnodjen, in. (-B; — ), bone. 
RoA), in. (-e§; "e), cook, 
flomct', in. (-en ; -en), 


lommeit (167; fein), to 

come ; arrive ; — luffcit, 
to send for; roie tommt 

ba3 ? how is that? 

Aonig, m. 1 (e)-j; -c), king. 

flblltgilt,./ (-UClt), queen. 

ASnigftrafje, f. King-street, 
tb'nncn (196-202; ability, 

etc.), to be able, can; 

know, be versed in, know 

how . 
Jtonjert', n. (-C3 ; -c), con- 
fiopf, m. (-e§ ; n e), h 
Slovb, 111. (-c3; "c), basket. 
Aoftcn, //., expenses, 
f often (ace. of /ers. and of 

thing), to cost. 
front ( 'er), ill ; sick ; flranfc, 

{adj. subst.), sick person, 

Arnntljcit, f. (—en), disease, 

itrieg, m. (-e3; -e), war. 
triedjen (123), to creep. 
Ari'titer, m. (-3; — ), critic. 
•JUidjc, /: (-11), kitchen. 
Ant),/ ("c), cow. 
Aunft,/. (-c), art. 
Aunftler, in. (-§ ; — ), artist, 
lurj (-er), short. 

fiirjlid), not long ago, lately, 

Mutjdier, tit. (-0; — ), coach- 
man, driver. 

I(ld)Cii (gen. or iiber + acc.), 
to laugh (at). 

Cad)§, tit. (-CO ; -e), salmon 

laben (186), to load; invite. 

Snben, 111. (-3 ; — and "), 
window -shutter (//. — ); 
shop, store (//. -). 

Sanb, n. (-c3; "er and -e), 
land, country ; country (op- 
posed to town) ; euif bent 
— C, in the country ; (Ulf3 
— gelien, to go into the 
country; iu — e, by land; 
liter ju — e, in this country. 

Saubfdjaft, /. (-en), land- 

tang ("er), long. 

lunge, adv. long, a long time 
or while, for a long time; 
jo — , so long as ; er ift — 
nidit bier geroefen, he has 
not been here for a long 
; er ift nioU — bier 
geroefen, he has not been 
hei li 

[angfain, slow ; slowly. 

lit 11 lift, I >ince. 

Cdrm, in. (-e§), noise. 

laffen (iss; 200, 7), to let, 

allow ; leave ; have (a thing 

done) ; fagen — , to send 

word; fomntcu — , to send 

for; id) Inffe ba3 fBudj 

etnbtnbcit, I am having 
the book bound; e3 Ififit 
fid) nidjt rcugnen, it can- 
not be denied. 

Softer, «. (-3; — ), vice. 

Catcin, n. (-0), Latin. 

2auf, m. (-c3; ^e), course. 

laufcn (iSS; fein), to run. 

lautcn, to ring (of large bells), 

leben, to live ; be alive. 
Seben, «. (-0; — ), life. 

Sebcroo^l, n. (-0), farewell, 

Ceber, «. (-3; — ), leather. 
Iegen, to lay, put, place, set. 
fiebrcr, m. (-3; — ), teacher, 

Ieicf)t, light, easy ; easily, 

leib (only used as /red. with 

fetlt and tlntn), sorry, 

grieved; c3 ift, e3 tbut tnir 

— , I am sorry, 
leiben (11S), to suffer; mi 

Ctr»a3 — , to suffer from 

letber, alas! unfortunately! 
[eiftcil (120), to lend. 
Seiften, in. (-3; — ), (shoe- 
maker's) last, 
leiften, to accomplish. 
Settion', f (-en), lesson. 
lei'ltetl, to learn, study. 
Icfen (181), to read. 
Sefen, «. (-§), (act of) read- 
[e|t, last, final. 
Scute, //. (no sing.), people, 

1 >ns. 
8id)t, «. (-e§ ; -er and -c), 

lieb, dear. 
£iebe,y. love, affect i 

jll, love of. 
lieben, to love, 
licber (com/'. ofc\m\); com'., 

rather; tdjgchc — , I prefer 

to walk. 
£ieb, «. (-c3 ; -er), song. 
(iegen (1S1 ; fein, Ijabcn), to 

lie ; be ; be situated, 
lint, left. 

lint 3, to (or on) the left. 
toben, to praise. 
Sod), «. (-e§; -er), hole. 
Siiffel, 111. (-3; — ), spoon. 
Sobcngritt, m . (-£), name of 

an opera by Wagner. 



los, loose, slack ; n>a§ ift — ? 

what is the matter ? 
ISl'cn, to free, redeem ; cirt 

Billet — , buy a ticket, 
(osfpringen (144; fcin ; auf 

-\- ace), to spring upon, 

leap upon. 
Souife, /■ (~ns), Louisa. 
£6roe, m. (-n; -n), lion. 
£ubroi.i, m. (-5), Louis. 
Huit.f. (-c), air, atmosphere, 
liigcu (131), to lie, utter a 

£iigner, m. (-§ ; — ), liar. 

iiber einen — maajen, to 
make sport of one. 



calci .die mir 

barauS, 1 care no- 

— , to • 

) — , to take a 


t time, 

Sftalerei anting. 

matt, pron., one, we, you, 
. people ; — fagt, they 

say, people say, it is said, 
tnandjer, mand)e, mand)e§, 

adj. and prov., many a. 
2Jlangel, m. (-0), want. 
SRamt, . man. 

SDlantel, >«. (-s ; "), cloak, 

Sftargaretc,/. (-n-: 

SKarie, /. (-ns), Mary. 

SJlarf, /. (— ), mark (a coin 
= too Pfennig or about 25 

Diartt, m. (-C5 ; £ e), market. 

marfebteren (fein or baben), 
to march. 

ajlarj, m. (-co), March. 

SHafern, pi., measles. 

aJlatfjemattl,/., mathematics. 

OTatrofe, in. (-n; -11), sailor. 

aJIait§, /. (-e), mouse. 
(-CS), flour. 

mch,r, more; itid)t — , no 

mcfyrcre, several ; m 

■ «d deal, 
meljrmalo, several times, 
mciben (120), to avoid. 
OJlcile, / (-11), mi! 

man), league, 
tttein, meinc, mein, my. 

. mine. 

meincn, to t!.: 

am — Ctl, most, most of all. 
: ; — ), master. 

mellcu (124), to milk. 

SJlelobic', f. (-n), melody, 
tune ; air. 

JHenge,^ (-ti), great quantity 
or number. 

Mci'tid), m. (-en ; -en), a 
human being, man ; per- 
son ; //., mankind, people. 
to measure. 

SJleficr, n. '-:< ; — 1, knife. 

SDtetall', n. (-ee; -e), metal. 

micten, to rent. 

aJltlcb,/ milk. 

million',/. (-€ll), million. 
I SJHnutc, /. (-11), minute. 

aJHnutenjeiger, m. (-3 ; — ), 

mir (dat. of id)), (to) me. 

mit (46), with ; by (in multi- 

Ultttag, m. (-ee; -e), mid- 
day, noon ; }u — effen, to 

DiittagSeffen, «. (-8 ; — ), 

mitten, in the middle or 
midst of ; — im Sinter, in 
the middle of winter. 

DItttroocb, m. (-e§), Wed- 


. to be able ; may; 

like; id) mag bao ntdjt, 

i.ot like that; id) 


gent — , that is very pro- 

', m. (-en ; -en), 

•JNontag, m. (-s ; -e), Mon- 

, , mor- 

guten — , good mor- 

• WOVs 

geno), in the morni 

m org e it , to-morrow ; — i rii fj , 
to-morrow morning. 

mitbc, tired, weary. 

Dliihe,/. trouble; nid)t ber 
— Wert, not worth while. 

aJluble, / (-11), mill. 

multipli^teren, to multiply. 

aRujif, /■ music. 

mufita(ifd), musical. 

miiffett (196-202; necessity), 
to be obliged or forced, 

Ifiut, ;«. (-co), mood, cou- 
rage, spirit : mir ift id)led)t 
}U — e, I feel ill ; froben 
— e-j, cheerfully. 

DJutter, f. (-), mother. 




mid) (46), after; ao 
to: by (of time-piece); past 
(of hour of clay); to (before 
proper names of places); 
— .vrnnjc, home. 

9Jad)bnr, ;«. (-8««rf-nj -11), 

nadjbem', mm/., after. 

nadjgefjen ( lSS ; fein), to go 
after ; go or be too slow (of 
a time-piece). 

Siadjmittog, vi. (-es ; -e), af- 
ternoon ; beS — S, in the af- 

SRadnid)!,/ (-en), news. 

nttd)ft {superl. ofnal)), next. 

9}ad)fte, >«. (adj. subst.), fel- 
low-creature, neighbour. 

nfid)ften5, shortly, soon, very 

Wod)t, / (-e), night. 

naf), (nabcr, uadjft), near. 

9J(it)C, _/", nearness; neigh- 
bourhood ; in meiner — , 
near me ; in my neighbour- 

9lamc, m. (-113 ; -11), name, 

natur'Ud), naturally, of 
course, I suppose. 

neben (65), beside, besides ; 
near, alongside of, by. 

nebft (51), together with, in- 
SFteffe, m. (-n ; -n), nephew, 
nehmen (167), to take ; fid) in 

2td)t — , to take care, be- 

tiein, no. 

lieniicn (99), to call, name. 

ttctto, net (comviercialterni). 

ttcu, new. 

neulid), lately, the other day, 
not long ago. 

neuntefjcitb, eight and a half. 

lttd)t, not ; — niehv, no lon- 
ger; — U'Ol)V? is (it, etc.) 
not (so) ? 

nidito (indecl.), nothing, 
llic, never. 

JHeberfonbe (bie), //., The 

ute'mrtiib, nobody, no one, no 
person, not anybody, etc. 

nod), still, yet, even ; — cin, 
one more, another ; — ets 
mnS, something (anything) 
more ; — einmal, over 
again ; — fjeute, before the 
end of the day, before the 
day is over ; — immer, up 
to the present time, still ; 
— doc oierje&n Sagen, 
only a fortnight ago. 

9lorb'eifenBabn, f. (-en), 

llbtifl, necessary. 

9i0»cntbcr, m. (-5), Novem- 

DJu'mero, «. (-5), number. 

nur, only. just. 

9hlf!, / ("«), nut. 

niitjlid), useful. 


ob, whether, if. 

oben, above, up-stairs ; nad) 

— , upward, 
obglcid/, although, 
obcr, or. 

Dfen, vi. (-5; "), stove, 
offen, open 

Cffiiiev', 'm, (-e§ ; -c), officer, 
offncit (fid)), to open. 
oft ("ci), often, frequently. 
C'tyeim, m. (-es ; -e), uncle, 
obne (34), without ; but for. 
Cufcl, m. (-S; — ), uncle. 

iJJalaft, m. (-es ; -e), palace. 
SPcmtoffel, vi. (-5; -n), slip- 
SJJapier', ». (-co; -c), paper. 
^. ! upft, vi. (-es ; "O. 
^OriS', n. (con — ), Par 
paffcnb, fit, suitable. 

pfcifcu (11S), to whistle. 

pfennig, vi. (-es ; -c), (the 
one hundredth part of a 
mark), penny. . 

i'fetb, «. (-eo; -e), horse. 

^fcrbebafjn, f. (-en), tram- 
way, tram; street -cars, 

^ffnume, f. (-n), plum. 

pflegen (weak), to attend to; 
to be accustomed, wont ; — 
(strong; App. L.), to prac- 
tise, exercise. 

i'funb, n. (-es ; -e), pound. 

^bjlofopbie', f. (-n), philo- 

man, m. (-3 ; -e or u c), 
plan, design. 

planet', m. (-en ; -en), 

$latf, tn. (-es; ^e), place; 
— nefjmen, to sit down, be 

spia v regen, m. (-5; — ), 
shower, down-pour. 

pfaubcrn, to chat, talk. 

portion', f. (-en), portion, 
plate (of meat, etc.). 

$oft, f. (-en), post, post- 

^oftbote, vi. (-n ; -n), post- 

prad)tig, magnificent. 

ilkeis, (-es; -e), price; 

preifen (120), to praise. 

^rocent', «. (-es ; -e), per 

^rofeffor, m. (-5; -en), pro- 

promonieren, to take a de- 
gree, graduate. 

^ublifum, «. (-5), public; 

ilhinit, m. (-es ; -e), point ; 
— jebn Ufjr, at ten o'clock 
l ; iinttlid)feit, punctuality 




Oua'Berftein, >«.(-■ 

cut-stone, freestone. 

quellcn (124; fein), I 


Mabatt, m. (-C5; -e), dis- 
count, abatement. 

Manb, m. (-e§; -er), edge, 
rim, brim. 

Mat, m. (-e5), counsel, ad- 

raten (188), to counsel, ad- 

Maud), m. (-e5), smoke. 

Maupe, /. (-n), caterpillar. 

Medjnen, ». (-5), arithmetic. 

Med)nung, / (-en), account, 
bill, reckoning ; calcula- 
tion; ein Strid) burd) bie 
— , disappointment ; fdjreis 
ben Sie ba3 auf meine — , 
charge that to me. 

red)t, right. 

Med)t, n. (indecl.), right ; 
— fjnbert, to be right, be in 
the right. 

red)t§, to (on) the right. 

redjt'jeitig, at the right time, 

Mebe, / (-n), speech ; ora- 

rebert, to speak, talk. 

^Reformation',./ (-cn), refor- 

Slegen, ;«. (-§), rain. 

Me'gentropfen, m. 1 - 
drop of rain. 

regieren, to reign, rule, go- 

Megierung,./". (-en), govern- 
ment, reign ; miter bcr — , 
in the reign (of). 

Megtmcnt', n. (-e§ ; -er), re- 

regnen, to rain. 

reiben (120), to rub. 

retd), rich, wealthy. 

reidjen, to reach, hand. 

reif, ripe. 

Mcik, f (-n), joum. 
age; eine — madjen, to 
take a journey. 

Meifefoften, //., travelling- 

rcifeit (fein and Ijaben), to 
travel, journey, go. 

Meifenbe {.adj. suist.), tra- 

reifjen (118), to tear, pull. 

veiten(ii8; fein), to ride. 

rennen (99; fein), to run, 

Mcftauration', f. (-en), eat- 
ing-house, restaurant. 

retten, to save, rescue; id) 
rcttete ifjm bas Ceben, I 
saved his life. 

xt\x.i\\(impers.), to repent ; es 
reut mid) (gen.), I repent 

Ml)eumati3mu5, m. (gen. — ), 

rid)tig, right, correct ; cor- 
rectly ; — gefjen, to be cor- 
rect (of a time-piece) ; auf 
bie — e SBeife, in the right 

Midjtung, f. (-en), direction. 

ried)en (123), to smell. 

Miefe, 711. (-n ; -n), giant. 

Minbfteifd), «. (-es), beef. 

Ming, m. (-es ; -e), ring. 

ringen (144), to wring. 

rinnen (158), to run, flow. 

Mod 1 , m. (-e^ ; -e), coat. 

Moman', m. (-3 ; -c), ro- 
mance, novel. 

MBmer, in. (-S ; — ), Roman 

rot, adj. (^er), red. 

Mot'fappdjen, n. (-s ; — ), 
Little Red (Riding) Hood. 

Mot'ioein, m. (-CS), red- 

Mi'tbe, f. (-n), turnip; gelbe 
— , carrot. 

.'Rubin', m. (-es; -c), ruby. 

rubern, to row. 

nifen (188), to call. 

ru^ig, quiet. 

:llul)m, in. (-es), praise. 

runb, round. 

Muffe, m. (-n ; -n), Russian. 

Saaf, m. (-es ; Sale), hall. 

3ad)e,y. (-n), thing, matter, 
affair, business ; bift bu 
beiner — geroifc, are you 
certain of your information, 

fagen, to say, tell ; — boren, 
to hear say, hear. 

3af)ne,f, cream. 

fammt(id), complete (of lite- 
rary' works). 

2an!t Coren}, m., St. Law- 

Sdngerin,/ (-nen), (female) 

Sara,/. (-S), Sarah. 

Sat;, m. (-e§; -"e), sentence. 

faufen (123), to drink (of 

faugen (App. L), to suck. 

Sd)abe(n), m. (-ns ; "n), 
damage, injury, harm, mis- 
chief; es ift fdjabe, it is a 

Sdjafer/w. (-5; — ), shep- 

fdjaffen (186), to create. 

fdjoUen (123), to sound, re- 

Scatter, in. (-5; — ), wick- 
et, ticket-office. 

fdjamen (fid) ; gen. or uber 
+ ace), to be ashamed. 

fdjarf ("er), sharp. 

fdjeiben (120), to separate. 

fdjeinen (120; dat.), to shine ; 
appear, seem. 

fd)elten (159), to scold. 

fdjenlen (dat. of person and 
ace. of thing), to give, 
make a present of, present. 



fdjcrcn (131, B.)i <o shear. 
fdyidcn, to Bend. 

fdjicbcn (i3i),toshc 

fd)icfsen (123), to sl> 

Sdjiff, «. (-eo ; -c), ship, 

Sdjilb, «. (-c3; -cr), sign- 

Sd)ilbfvote,/. (-It), tortoise. 

fcftinbcn (App. L.), to flay. 

6d)(ad)t, / (-en), battle. 

fd)Infen (188), to sleep; fid) 
— Icgctt, to retire to rest, 
go to bed. 

Sdjlafrod, m. (-e3; ^e), 

<Sd)laf'jimmer, n. (-§; — ), 

ftf)(agen (186), to beat, strike. 
fd)lcdit, bad; badly. 
fd)leid)en(u8; fcin), to slink, 

fd)[cifctt (118), to sharpen, 

fdjleifjen (App. L.), to slit. 
fd)licfu'tt (123), to lock, shut, 

close ; conclude, finish, 
fdjlimm, bad. 
fdjlingcn (144), to sling. 
Sdilittcn, m. (-§ ; — ), 

Sdjlitt'jdnihjcuifen, n. (-§), 

(act of) skating, 
©djlofj, «. (-c$ ; u er), castle, 

fdjmecfcn, to taste, relish; 

rote fdjmetft "\hncn bicfco? 

how do you like (the taste 

of) this? 
Srfimt'icfietei', /., flattery. 
fd)tneid)Cln [dat.). to flatter. 
fdjmeifjen (118), to throw, 

fdjmeUen (124)^0 melt, smelt. 
Sc&merj, m. (-e£ or -ens; 



fd)ncibcn (118), to cut; reap; 

fid) in bic ftanb — , to cut 
one's hand. 
odnictbcr, m. (-B ; — ), tai- 
fdjneien, to snow. 
fdmcll, quick; quickly. 
SdjneDgufl, m. (-c§; u e), 

fd)on, already, as early as, 
readily, easily, indeed; — 
Irtttiie, for a long time 
fdjbn, fine, beautiful, hand- 
3d)onf)cit, / (-en), beauty. 
Sdjotte, ;«. (-11 ; -11), Scotch- 
f ctjraubcn (App.L.), to screw, 
fchrccten (167), to be startled, 
fdjreiben (120), to write (to, 
dot. or an -f- ace. of ' pers.). 
fdjreien (120), to cry, scream, 

fd)reiten (118 ; fcin), to stride, 

step, stalk. 
SdjrtftfteUer, m. (-3; — ), 

writer, author. 
Scbritt, ;«. (-e3; -e), stride, 

step, pace. 
Sdiu't'crt, »i. (-§), Schubert 

(German musician). 
Scbui), in. (-c3; -e), shoe. 
Sdjulb,/, guilt ; (-en), debt; 
jdntlb an etroctS fcin, to be 
to blame for anything. 
2dnite, / (-«), school. 
Scfiiiler, ;«. (-§; — ), pupil, 

scholar, school-boy. 
Sdjufter, nt. (-§; — ), shoe- 
maker, cobbler, 
fcbiitteln, to shake. 
fdjmad) (-cr), weak, infirm. 
Sd)ivmd)C, /. (-n), weakness, 

©djioaoer, m. (-§; "), bro- 

"'*,/■ (-"). swallow. 
fdjU'CU'CU (App. I..), to fester. 

fdjwarj ("or), black. 

fd)tueiiien (120), to be silent, 
keep silence. 

@d)roeigen, «. (-0), keeping 
silence, (act of) silence. 

Sdjroet} (bie, gen. bcr 
Sdjmeig), Switzerland. 

fdjrocllen (124; fcin), to swell. 

fdjioer, heavy, hard, difficult. 

fdjrocrltd), hardly, scarcely. 

Sd)roeftev, f. (-11), sister. 

fd)roimmen (158), to swim. 

Sd)roiinmen, ». (-0), swim- 
ming (act of). 

fdjimnben (144), to vanish. 

fdjroingen (144), to swing; fid) 

— , to leap, bound. 

fdjrobren (131), to swear. 

fcf)roiU, sultry, close. 

3ec, m. (-S; -en), lake. 

Seeretfe, f. (-11), voyage. 

Segelfdjiff, «. (-e3; -e), sail- 
ing-vessel, ship. 

fefjen (181), to see, perceive; 
look, behold. 

fefir, very, very much, ex- 

f ein, f cine, fcin, his, its, one's. 

fein (52; fcin), to be; (as 
anx.), to be, have. 

feit (46), since; — lunnn, 
since when, how long; — 
acf)t Xctjjen, for a week 

feitbem', conj., since. 

feI6ft, self ; even. 

fenben (99), to send. 

Serrnette, /. (-n), table- 

f efcen, to set, put, place ; fid) 
— , to seat one's self, sit 

fid), pron. refl. ace. anddat., 
one's self, himself, b 
itself, 1 ' i to him- 

self, themselves, etc. ; re- 
cipr., one am 

: they ; 

Sie (for bu andxhx), 



fteben, seven. 

Sieb'eutel, n. (-3; — ), se- 
venth part. 

fteben (123), to boil. 

©tlbcr, n. (-s), silver. 

fhtgett (144), to sing. 

finfen(i44; fein), to sink. 

ftnncn (158), to reflect. 

fifcen (1S1), to sit. 

©tlaoe, m. (-n ; -n), slave. 

©maragb, m. (-e§ ; -e), eme- 

fo, so, thus, in such a man- 
ner, indeed (not translated 
in the apodosis to a condi- 
tional clause) ; — eben, just, 
just now; — etn, eine, cin, 
such a. 

jobalb, as soon as. 

fofort, immediately, directly. 

fogar, even. 

Sobn, m. (-es ; '■(), son. 

fo!d)(er), adj. and pron., 

©olbat', m. (-en ; -en), sol- 

foUen (106-202 ; duty or obli- 
gation), to be in duty 
bound, be to ; shall ; be 

©ommer, in. (-s ; — ), sum- 

fonbern (after negatives on- 
ly, but. 

©otinabenb, tn. (-e§; -c), 

©onne,./ (-n), sun. 

©onntag, m. (-es; -e), Sun- 

fonft, else, otherwise; — 
nod), any more, any other, 
any be 

fonftig, other, different. 

Sopbje,/. (-nS), Sophia. 

forg'faltig, careful ; care- 

fpiit, late. 

]pai\even(also — gcfj 

to take a walk, go for a 

walk, go walking ; — fafjs 
rcn (<86), to go for a drive. 

Spcuier'gang, m. (-c3; "e), 
walk; einen — madjen, to 
take a walk. 

Sped, m. (-es), bacon. 

fpeien (120), to spit. 

Speifefarte, / (-it), bill of 

fpeifen, to eat, dine. 

Sperling, m. (-e§; -e), 

fpielen, to play. 

fpinncn (158), to spin. 

fpleifjen (App. L.), to split. 

Spradje, /. (-n), language. 

Spreditalent', «. (-es;-e), 
talent for (learning) lan- 

Spracb/ftubium, «.(-£; -ten), 
linguistic study. 

fpredjen (167), to speak, say, 
tell ; to speak or talk to or 

Spredjen, n. (-3), speaking 
(act of), speech. 

3pricf)it)ort y «. (-e3; a er), 

fprieBen (123), to sprout. 

fpringen (144; fein), to 
spring, leap, jump. 

St. So'reng, »i., St. Law- 

Staat, ;«. (-e$; -en), state. 

Stabt, f. ("e), town, city. 

Stnbt'tl)or, «. (-es; -e), 

town-gate, city-gate. 

Stait'iiljr, /. (-en), town- 

Stalil, »i. (-eo), steel. 

Stnnb, m. (-es ; -e), stand; 
condit ; on ; 511 — e tommen, 
to be completed, be done ; 
tm — e fail, to be abb. be 
in a position to. 

■.II, strong, powerful; 

ben (144), to take 
place, happen. 

f;edjen (167), to sting, 
ftcden (App. L.), to stick, 
fteben (186: fein or bnben), 

to stand, be ; be situated, 
fteblcn (167), to steal, 
fteigen (120; fein ; auf + 

ace), to climb, mount, 

ascend , descend, get down 

or off, alight, 
©telle, f. (-n), place, spot, 
ftellen, to put, place, set (up- 
fterben (159; fein), to die. 
ftieben (App. L.), to scatter. 
ftiU, si ill ; quiet. 
Stimme, /. (-n), voice. 
ftinten (App. L.), to stink, 
©tocf, 11:. (-es; a e), stick, 

ftoren, to interrupt, disturb, 

ftofjen (188), to push, kick, 

strike, bump, knock. 
1 Stvnfje, /. (-11), street, road, 
ftreicfjen (118), to stroke, 
ftretten (118), to quarrel, 
ftrcng, severe; severely. 
Strid), ?«. (-es; -e), stroke, 

dash ; ein — burd) bie 

!)ied}iumg, disappointment. 
Strom, m (-e3; u e), 

stream, current. 
Striunpf, m. (-es; "e), 

Stiid, >n. (-es ; -e), piece. 
Stiirfdjen, «. (-s ; — ), little 

morsel, bit. 
Stub en t', m. (-en ; -en), 


©tubtum, «. (-s; Stnbion), 


ftnbieren, to study. 

Stubicreu, n. (-S), studying 
lact of). 

Stuijl, ;«. (-es; -e), chair. 

StUllbe, / (-11), hour, les- 

©tunbenjeiger, m. (-3; — ), 



©turm, m. (-e« ; -c), storm, 

fubtraljieren, to subtract, 
fudjen, to seek, search, look 

©uppc, /. (-n), soup, broth. 


ta'beltt, to blame, find fault 

Stag, m. (-eS; -e), day; ad)t 
— e, a week; fcit ctd)t —en, 
for a week past; cin — urn 
ben anbern, every other 
(alternate) day ; citte brei 
— e, every third day. 

Sa'geSan'brud), m. (-e§), 

Zante, /. (hi), aunt. 

tapf er, brave, valiant ; brave- 
ly, valiantly. 

Zopferfeit, /., courage, va- 

£afd)e,/- (-n), pocket. 

fcaffe//- (-»)/ cup. 

2;au(f)Cr, tn. (-§; — ), diver. 

tauen, to thaw. 

Xe\\, m. (-c§; -e), part, por- 

teilen, to divide, share. 

tetl§, partly, in part; teilS 
. . . tcilS, partly . . . partly. 

Selegrapb/, >«. (-en; -en), 

fcelephon', n. (-§; -e), tele- 

Setter, tn. (-3 ; — ), plate. 

fceppid), m. (-e§; -c), car- 

SEeftamenf, «. (-e§; -c), 
testament, (last) will. 

teuer, dear, costly. 

2fjal, n. (-e§ ; "er), valley. 

SBaler, m. (-§ ; — ), dollar. 

Xfyat, f. (-en), deed; ex- 
ploit, achievement. 

tljauen, to thaw. 

2bee, tn. (-5). tea. 

Zfjemfe. y , Thames. 

2t)or, «. <-e3; -e), gate, 

lljor, >«. (-en; -en), fool. 

Stjron, tn. (-cS; -e), throne. 

tf)tin (196), to do. 

£f)iir(e),/. (-n), door. 

2ier, n. (-e§; -e), beast, 

2ifd), >«. (-e? ; -e), table. 

2itel, tn. (-*; — ), title; mit 
— , with title (printed on 
the back). 

2od)ter, / ("). daughter. 

£od)tcrd)cn, «. (-8 ; — ), lit- 
tle daughter. 

£orontoer, adj., (of) To- 

tot, dead. 

totcn, to kill. 

trage, idle, lazy, indolent. 

tragen (186), to carry. 

traurig, sad, sorrowful, me- 

framing, y (-en), marriage 
(-ceremony) . 

treffen (167), to hit, happen 
upon, meet with; hit upon, 
fall in with. 

treiben (120), to drive. 

Sreppe, /. (-It), stairs, stair- 

treten (181), to tread, step. 

treu, faithful, true. 

triefen (123), to drop, drip. 

trinfen (144), to drink. 

Jrinfen, n. (-5), (act or ha- 
bit of) drinking. 

Jvint'gelb, «. (-e$ ; -ev), 
drinking-money, gratuity, 

trotj (223), in spite of. 

trogbem' icaS, in spite of 

Xrun'fenbolb, m. (-e§; -e), 

lud), «. (-e3 ; "er and -e), 

Xu'genb, / (-en), virtue. 


libel, n. (-5 ; — ), evil. 

liber (63), over, above, at, 
through, by way of; tjcute 
— brei 2Bod)cn, this day 
three weeks. 

iiberljnnpt', in general, gene- 
rally ; as a matter of fact, 
at any rate. 

u'bermorget^the day after to- 

itbcvrc'bcn, to persuade. 

iiberjetj'cn, to translate ; in§ 
Deutfdje — , to translate in- 
to German. 

U'berjiefjer, tn. (-§; — ). 

ii&riQ , remaining, left over; 
bas ilbrigc, the remainder, 
what is left; — blciben, to 
be remaining or left. 

ilbung, /. (-en), exercise; 

Ufer, n. (-5; — ), bank, 

U£)V, /. (-en), clock, watch ; 
tint uier — , at four o'clock ; 
roie oiel — tft e3? what 
o'clock is it ? 

unmog'lia), impossible ; id) 
fann — , I cannot possibly. 

Un'rett)t, «. (-e§), wrong; — 
fjaben, to be (in the) wrong. 

unier, unjere, unfer, our. 

unten, below, down-stairs. 

unter (65), under, beneath, 
below ; among; — ber SRes 
gierung GItfabetbS, in the 
reign of Elizabeth. 

unterneb/men (167), to" un- 

Unterneb/men, n. (-5), 
enterprise, undertaking. 

Un'tcrfd)ieb, tn. (-e§ ; -c), 

Un'iDnfjrfieit, / (-en), un- 
truth, falsehood. 

un'roafyrfdjeinlid), improba- 



un'rccit (gen.), not far from, 
un'jufrieben, discontented, 

ur'teilen, to judge. 
U. f. to., abbrev. for unb fo 

toeiter, and so forth, etc. 


Stater, m. (-5; "), father. 

oevbergen (159), to conceal, 

oerbrennen (99), to burn, con- 
sume with fire. 

oerberben (159), to spoil 
(intr.) ; — (weak), to spoil 
(Jr.), injure. 

oerbriefjen (123), to vex. 

SBereinigten Staaten (bie), 
pi., The United States. 

oergebeus, in vain. 

oergetten (159), to requite, 

oergefjen (181), to forget. 

SSergniigen, n. (-s), pleasure, 
delight, amusement. 

SSetfjfiltniS, «.(-fe§ ; -fe), cir- 

nerbei'raten (fid) tntt), to 

nerlaufen, to sell ; biefeS 
$au§ ift ju — , this house is 
for sale. 

oerlaffen (188), to leave, de- 
sert, quit; fid) — auf (+ 
ace), to rely upon, depend 

oerleiben, to render disagree- 
able, spoil. 

cerlefeen, to hurt, wound 

nerlieren (131), to lose. 

Serluft, m. (-e§ ; -e), loss. 

oermieten, to let, rent. 

nertnittelft (gen.), by means 

nerreifen, to go on a jour- 

oerreift, absent on a journey. 

oerfammeln, to collect, as- 

oerfefjreiben (120), to pre- 
oerfdjtoenben, to squander, 

ocrfdjioinben (144; fcin), to 

disappear, vanish, 
oerfpredjen (167), to promise, 
oerftefpen (:86), to under- 
stand ; fid) — auf (+ ace), 
to be a judge (of). 
oerftorben, deceased, 
oerfudjen, to try. 
SJerroanbte, >«. and /. (adj. 

subst.), relative, 
oerjeitjen (120 ; dat.), to par- 
don, excuse. 
Serjeiijung, f. (-en), pardon, 
forgiveness; urn — bitten, 
to beg pardon, 
oersroetfeln, to despair. 
Setter, m. (-s ; -n), cousin, 
oiel (meb,r, meift), much, 
I many, a great deal of; tote 
I — Ufjr, what o'clock. 
oieQeicfit', perhaps, possibly, 
oielntal, oielmatS, many 
times, frequently, often. 
: Bier, four. 

I SHertel, «. (-§; — ), fourth 
part, quarter. 
SBiertelftun'be, /. (-v.), quar- 
ter of an hour, 
oierjeljn, fourteen ; — 2age, 

a fortnight. 
Siolonced', «. (-e§ ; -e), vio- 
SBogel, m. (-§; *), bird, 
con (gen. or Don), full. 
OoUen'ben^o finish .complete. 
DOtt (46), of, from, by, about, 

oor (65), before, of, in front 
I of, ago; — ad)t lagen, a 
I week ago. 
j oorbei, over, past. 
I oorbeigeben (188), to go by, 

pass by. 
', oorbereiteu (fid)), to prepare 
I (for, auf + ace). 

»or(c[;-ert (1% ; fein), 
drive up to the door, etc. 

corgeben (iSS; fein), to go 
(or be) fast (of a time- 

oor'geftern, the day before 

oorbaben, to contemplate, in- 

25orf)ang, m. (-e§ ; tt e), cur- 

oorig, preceding, last. 

oorlaufig (adv.), temporarily, 
for the present. 

oortefen (181 ; + dat. of per- 
son), to read to. 

S5ormunb, m. (-e§ ; "er), 

33orrat, m. (-e§; "e), stock, 

oorfidjtig, cautious, prudent. 

SSorftabt, / (~e), suburb. 

oorftellen, to present, intro- 

oorteilfjaft, advantageous. 

ooritber, past. 

ooriiberfliefsen (131 ; fein), to 
flow past. 

ooriibergeben (188; fein), to 
go past, pass by ; am §aufe 
— , to go by, go past, the 

oorjieben (131), to prefer 


toadjfen (186), to grow. 

JBagen, m. (-3 ; — ), waggon, 

roagen (131, B.), to weigh. 

roafjlen, to choose, select. 

toafjr, true, real ; tticfjt — ? 
am (I, etc.) not? is it not 

toatjren, to last, continue. 

toafjrenb (gen. ; 223), during ; 

ffiabrbiit, /. (-en), truth. 

roatjrfdjeinlid) (adv.), pro- 



2Baifenf)au3, «. (-e3; »er), 

SIBalb, m. (-e3 ; "er), forest, 

2Banh, / ("e), wall. 

2Banb(e)rer, m. (-3 ; — ), tra- 

matin* when? 

warm ("ev), warm. 

marten (ant -+- ace), to wait 

roanim, why, wherefore. 

teas, what, that which, which, 
that ; — fiir ein, cine, ein, 
what kind of a, what. 

na\6)tn (186), to wash. 

Staffer, «. (-3 ; — ), water ; 
jtl — , by water. 

icebeit (131), to weave. 

mcd)fel[)aft, changeable. 

roecfen, to wake, awake, 

SBecf'uriv, /. (-en), alarm- 

roebev, neither; — ... nod), 
neither . . . nor. 

SBeg, m. (-C'3; -e), way, road ; 

fid) auf ben — macficu, to 

set out, be off. 
mcgcii {gen. ; 223), on account 

of, because of, for the sake 

of, for. 
2Beib, 11. (-Co; -or), woman; 

njeidjen (it8), to yield. 
SBJeibc, /. (-11), pasturage, 

9EBeihnnd)teu, //., Christmas. 
toeil, because. 
SBciit, »i. (-C5 ; -e), wine, 
rociltcii, to weep, cry. 
SBetnfarte, f (-n), wine- 

SBJciff.y. (-n), manner, mode, 
way ; auf biefe — , in tins 

jneifei! 1 oint out, 


meifj, white. 

mcit, far. 

mcitev, farther, further. 

9Bei}en, in. (-3; — ), wheat. 

meldiev, mcldje, meldjci, rcl. 
prci., who, which, that; 
interrogative adj., which? 
what ? ; — , adj. (in excla- 
mations), what a! what I 

Selt, /. (-cit), world; auf 
ber — , in the world. 

mem, of mcx, to whom 

luenbeit (99), to turn; fid) — , 
to apply (to, an -\- ace). 

UH'iiiil, little, few. 

lueitn, when, whenever, as 
soon as; if; — aud), even 

lucr, who ; he who, who- 
ever; who? 

mevbeu (159), to sue. 

mevbeu (159), to become, 
grow; (as aux. of the pass- 
ive voice, 1 12-1 14), to be; 
— au3, to become of. 

mevfen (159), to throw. 

28evf, «. (-e3 ; -e), work. 

IDefJCII, whose ; whose? 
rocSbalb, wherefore? why? 
SBBetter, «. (-§}, weather; bei 

biefem — , in this weather. 
mibev (ace. ; 34), against, 

contrary to. 
line, how; how?; — fel)V 

and), however much. 
micbev, again, once ihore. 

roie'berfeben (181), to see 

again, meet again. 
JBie'berfcf) .11, «.(-c), meeting 

again ; auf — , good-bye till 

we meet again. 
micgen (131), to 
SOSilbelm, m. (-:), William. 
SBille, ?«. (-ii3), will . 

urn . . . milieu (ge. 
I e of. 

2Binb, , 

luinber. (144), to wind. 

mir.biii, windy. 

9Binter, m. (-3 ; — ), winter. 
id if, we. 

mirflid), adv., really, truly. 
SBirtin, f. (-nen), hostess; 


milieu (196), to know (said 
of knowledge) ; nidjt bag 
id) miijjte, not that I know 

Siffenfdjaft, / (-en), sci- 

mijicntlid), knowingly. 

100 ? where ; where ? 

2Sod)e, / (-It), week. 

mold, pred. adj., well (of 
health); mil' if! nid)t — ju 
SDhlt, I do not feel well; — , 
adv., well, then, indeed, I 
^e ; ja — , yes, to be 

roofjneil, to dwell, live, reside. 

SBobnuttg,./ (-eu), dwelling, 
house, residence. 

moll en (196-202), to will, de- 
sire, wish, want, intend, 
mean, like; — Sic ein 
©la* SBafjcv? will you 
have a glass of water ? 

moron, whereon, on which, 
on what, of what. 

morauf, whereon, on which, 
for which, on what. 

morau3, wherefrom, from 
what, of what. 

movitl, wherein, in which, in 

2Bort, n. (-c$; a er and -c), 

moviibev? about what? at 
what ? over what ? 

milllbent (fid)), to wonder, be 
astonished (at, liber -f- 
acc.) ; e§ munbert mid) 

2Sun)c(), in. (-e3 ; -e), wish. 

miillfdlClt, to wish, desire, 
want ; f •!!:': if — , to 

SBurm, m. (-C5; -ev), worm. 



SBurjcI,/ (-it), root. 

2But,_/,, fun. 
roiitenb, furious. 


jablen, to pay. 

3«&Ji, tn. (-e6; "c), tooth. 

3aljnroel>, «. (-e§), tooth- 

jetm, ten. 

3etdjert, ». (-3 ; — ), sign. 

jeigen, to show. 

jeihen (120), to convict. 

3eit, f (-en), time ; }u alien 
— en, in all ages. 

3eitung,y^ (-en), newspaper. 

jerreifscn (11S), to tear (to 

jerrinnen (158), to vanish, 
run away (of liquids). 

jietjen (131), to draw; pull, 

Simmer, «. (-3 ; — ), room. 

ju (46), to, at ; — meincm 
Dntet, to my uncle's ; — 
berfelben 3eit, at the same 
time; adv., too; closed, 

jubringeit (99), to pass, spend 
(said of time). 

3ucfcr, tn. (-§), sugar. 

juerft', first, first of all. 

Sllfolge (gen. or dat. ; 223), 
in consequence of, accord- 
ing to. [fied. 

jufrieben, contented, satis- 

3»ig, tn. (-e§ ; u e), train. 

jumadjen, to shut, close. 

juriicfbringen (99), to bring 

jiirildbleibeu (120; fein), to 
remain behind; remain at 

jurilcttommen (i6;),to return, 
come back. 

juriictlegen, to put by, lay up. 

jufammen, together. 

jufammcnftofeen (188), to col- 

juf d)iden, to send to (dat.). 

•,ufd)[iefjen (123), to lock up, 
fasten, shut. 

3roetf, tn. (-e-j ; -e), aim, ob- 

jiuei, two. 

jroeitenS, secondly. 

jioingen (144), to force. 

jrolfdjeit (65), between. 

jroolf, twelve. 


Note. — The government of verbs is given only where it differs from English usage. 


able, fabig, gefd)tdt; to be 
— , (onneit, 19ft ; tm Stmu 
be fein. 

about, prep, (around), uin, 
34, 226, (a); (the person), 
bei, 46, 226, (d) ; adv., 
(nearly), ungcfcibv ; etiun, 
226, (l<), (c); to be — to, 
tm SB e griff e fein. 

above, prep., iibcv, 65. 

absent, abtnefenb ; — -mind- 
edly, jerffrettt. 

abuse, v., mifjhnn'beln. 

accept, annefjnten, 167. 

accompany, begkitcn 

account ; on — of, roegeit, 
223; bnlb(en), halbcv, 223 ; 

on that — , beSroegcn, bc3s 

accusation, 2tn(Inge,y; (-n). 
accuse (of), onttagcn (gen. 

0/ thing), befd)ulbigen 

(gen. of thing). 
accustomed, gciuoljut ; to be 

— , bie (Seroohufycit fjnbcn. 
acknowledge, anerfenneii, 

acquaintance, 33cfaillttfd)aft, 

f. (-en) ; to make the — 

of, fenneii leviieu. 
acquit (of), [oSfpred)en (167; 

gen. of thi 
act; to— ailbellt. 

add, obbiercn. 

, snbst., 31 1 


address, v., anrcben. 
admire, berouiibern. 
advance, oorriideit (intr.). 
advantage, 9Jorteil, m. (-e$ ; 

advantageous, iior'tciltjnft. 
advice, Stat, tn. (-co), 
advise, raten (1S8; dat.). 
affair, Sad)c, /. (-;'.). 
afraid; to be — (of); fid) 

fiirdjten (nor + dat.). 
after, nod), 46. 
afternoon, 92ctd)mittng, tn. 

(-e§ ; -e). 
afterwards, nacbjjcr, bemad), 

again, wieber, nod)ma(3. 
against, roiber, 
ago, uov (prep. -f- dat), 65 ; 



many years — , uor uiclcn 
ooljren ; a week — to-day, 
beute nor ad)t Xagen. 

agreeable, angencbm. 

ail, fel)len; what — s you? 

alas! ad)! 

all (the), all, 2lUe§ ; aller, alle, 

allc3 ; — the same, cinerlci. 
allow, erlaubcn(<&i/.) ; laffen, 

188; to be — ed, bilrfen, 196. 
Alma (river), 2llma, /. 
almost, faft, bcinahe. 
alone, allcin. 
along, lang3, entlang (223, 

18, 19). 
alphabet, alphabet', n. (-e3; 

already, fd)on. 
also, and). 
always, immer. 
America, Slmerila, n. (-3). 
amiss; to act — , mifj'hatu 

beln, 209. 
among, amongst, Hitter, 65. 
a, an, ein, eine, ein. 
ancient, alt ; the — s, bie 

aiten, pi. 
and, unb. 

anecdote, 2fnelbote,/. (-n). 
angry, bbfe ; be — at, bbff 

fein auf (+ ace). 
animal, lier, n. (-e3 ; -e). 
another (a different one), ein 

anberer; (one more), nod) 

ein, eine, ein. 
answer, subst., 2lntroort, f. 

answer, v., autroorten (da/.); 

beantiuorten (ace. 0/ 

/king, da/, of per s.). 

answering (act of), Mntroors 
ten, «. (-§). 

ant, 2lmeife,/ (-n). 

any (par/i/ive, 2, 2) ; irgcilb, 
ein, eine, ein ; —thing, ir- 
genb etiua3, etroaf> ; — 
thing but, nicbtS rocniger 
als; pi-, roeldje, einige; 

not — body, not — one, nic= 

inaiib ; not — , tcin, feine, 

apartment, ©emad), «. (-c3 ; 

appear, fdjeinen, erfdjeinen, 

apple, 2Ipfel, to. (-3; u ); 

tree, 2lpfelbaum, m. 

(-e3 ; ^'e). 
apply to anyone, fid) an je= 

manben (ace.) roenben, 99. 
appoint (as), ernennen (99; 

jam, jur). 
approval, 23eifall, m. (-e3). 
April, 2lpril', m. (-3). 
architect, 3Jrd)itett', m. (-en; 

arm, 2lrm, to. (-e3 ; -e); 

— s, //., SDJaffen. 
army, 2lrmee, /. (-n). 
arrival, 2lnlunft, / (H). 
arrive, antommen (167 ; fein). 
art, flunft./. (^e). 
article, 2lrti'fel, m. (-3 ; — ). 
artillery, 2Irtillerie, / ; ©e= 

fd)iit}, n. (-e3). 
artist, fliinftler, m. (-3 ; — ). 
as (241, 8-n), al3 ; rote ; fo ; 

ba; — soon — , fobalb 

(roie) ; — a, al3 ; — . . . 

— , (eben)fo . . . roie or al3. 
ascend, auffteigen, fteigen, 

ashamed ; to be — of, fid) 

fd)amen (gen. or iibcr + 

ask, fragen (186) ; — for, 

bitten (181, urn); oerlangen 

asking questions (act of), 

tJragen, «. (-3). 
assert, bebaupten. 
assist, beifteljen (186; fein; 

astonish ; to be — ed (at), fid) 

rounbern (lifter -+- ace.). 
astonishing, erftauneub. 
at (of locali/ys, in, an, auf, 

JU, 227 (a) ; (0/ /ime) um, 
}U, bet, 227, (*); (0/ price) 
um, 227, (c); not — all, 
gar nidjt ; — my brother's, 
bei meincm 23ruber; — 
last, — length, enblid). 

attack, v., angreifen, 118. 

attempt, subs/., SBcrfud), to. 
(-e3 ; -e). 

attendant, SBcgleiter, to. (-3 ; 

attention, 2lufmerffamleit; 
to pay — , 2ld)t geben 
(181; auf -f- ace.). 

attentive, aufmcrffam. 

August, 2luguft', m. (-3). 

aunt, Xante, f. (-n). 

author (of a particular work), 
SBerfaffer, to. (-3 ; -). 

autumn, £erbft, to. (-e3 ; -e). 

avoid, tnetben, nermeiben, 

away, fort, abroefenb ; — 
from home, Don $aufe. 

back, adv., suriid. 

bad, badly, fd)ted)t. 

bag, 6ad, to. (-e3; u e). 

bank, 23ant, /. (-en). 

bark (of trees, etc.), 93aum= 

basket, Jlorb, to. (-e3 ; a e). 

battery, 23atterie, /. (-n). 

battle, Sd)lad)t,y: (-en). 

be, fein (52); roerben (159; 
as aux. 0/ passive, 1 12, 
R. 5); ftef)cn (186); there 
is, there are, e3 giebt, e3 
ift, etc., 220; (ofheal/h) 
fid) bepnben(i44); how are 
you? rote gebt e3 3bnen? 
I am to, id) foil. 

bear, subs/., 23ar, to. (-en; 

bear (bring forth), v., ges 
baren (167). 

beat, v., |d)lagen (186). 



beautiful, fcl)6n; the — , baS 

beauty, Sdjbnfjeit, /. (-en), 
because, roeil; ba. 
become, roerbcn(i59); fteljen 
(186; dat.). 

bed, Sett, «. (-e£; -en); to 
go to — , ju SBette getjen, 
fief) fcMafen legen; in — , 

bee, 23icne, f. (-n). 
beef, SHinbfleifcf), n. (-e3). 
beer, 33ier, «. (-e§; -e). 
before, prep., oor (65; dat. 

or ace); conj., beoor; 

efje (bafj). 
beg (ask), bitten (181; for, 

urn); to — pardon, 11m 

aSerjeifmng bitten; —(for 

alms), bctteln. 
beggar (-man), Settler, to. 

(-§; — ); woman, Sett* 

lerin,./ (-nen). 
begin, anfemgen (18S); Be= 

ginnen (158). 
behave, fid) betragen (186). 
behind, Mnter (65 ; dat. or 

believe, glaitben {dat. 0/ per- 
belong (to), getjoren (dat.). 
beloved, geliebt, inert, 
below, prep., unter (dat. or 

ace. ; 65) ; unterfjalb (gen.; 

223) ; adv., unten. 
besides, adv., aufjerbem. 
between, }tnifd)en (dat. or 

ace. ; 65). 
beverage, ®etranf, n. (-e§; 

bid, v. (order), beifjen (:88). 
big, grog. 

bill, 9led)nuttg, /. (-en), 
bird, SJogel, to. (-§; *). 
bird-cage, SBogelbauer, «. 

(-«; -)• 

birth -day, ©eburtotag, to. 

(-e§ ; -e); as a present, 

jum flSeburtStag. 

bishop, 23ifd)of,m. (-e§; a e). 

bite, v., beifjen (118). 

bitter, bitter. 

black, adj., fcfnoarj ("er). 

black, v. (0/ boots), tnid)fen. 

blame, v., tabeln. 

blindly, MinblingS. 

blow, v., Mafen (188). 

blue, Mail. 

board ; on — (0/ a skip), am 

SB orb. 
boat, Soot, «. (-e§; -e or 

bodily, forpertid). 
bombard, bombarbieren. 
bone, .ftnod>en, to. (-§; — ). ; 
book, Sudj, h. (-e§; ^er). 
bookseller, Sud)F)a'nb(er, to. \ 

H>; -). 
born, part., geboren (167). ! 
borne ; having been — down 

by the stream, com Stros 

me fortgeriffen. 
botanist, Sota'ntfer, to. (-§; 

both, beibe; aUe beibe, bei* 

bough, 21ft, to. (e§; u t). 
Boston, Softoii, «.(-§); the 

— train, ber3«g oon(nad)) 

boy, .Rnabe, to. (-it ; -it), 
brave, tapfer. 
bread, Srot, n. (-e§ ; -e). 
break, bredjeu (167); — 

through, einbredjen. 
breakfast, v., friififtucten ; 

subst., %tfM)ft&t, «. (-e§). 
bridge, Sriid e, f. (-n). 
bring, bringen (99); Ejolen; 

to — with one, — along, 

mitbringen; to — in, |ers 

einbringen; to — up, fjers 

broad, breit. 

brother, Sruber, to (-3; "). 
brother-in-law, Sdjroaiier, in. 

(-»; *). 

build, bnneti 

building, Wobaube, «. (-§; 

— ); (act of), Saueii, ». 

bullet, flugel, / (-n). 
burn, brenneit (99; intr.); 

nerbrennen (99; tr. and 

intr I). 
business, (Sefdjaft, n. (-e5 ; 


business -matter, GSefdjdftS* 
angelegenfjeit,/. (-en). 

but, aber; aUcin (241, 1); 
fonbern (only after a ne- 
gative, 236, R. 1). 

button, £nopf, to. (-e§; "e). 

buy, faufen. 

buying (action of), itaufen, «. 

by, 228 ; (near by) , bei (dat.) \ 
(0/ agent with pass, voice) 
Don (dat.)', (of means or 
instrument) burcb, (ace), 
mit (dat.); — rail(way), 
mit ber (Sifenbabn. 

call (out), rufen 188; (name), 

nennen, 99; be — ed, f)ei= 

fjen, 188. 
call, subst. (visit), Sejiia), 

to. (-e§ ; -e). 
can, fbnnen, 196-202. 
cannon, flanonc,/. (-11). 
capable, fSMg (gen., or + 

capital, subst., §auptftabt,./ 


cardinal-point (see point), 
care, 2ld)t, f. ; to take — , fid) 

in 2ld)t neljmcn (167); do 

you — to? fjaben SieSuft? 

for all I — , meinetroegett. 
carpet, Zeppid), in. (-e§ ; -e). 
carriage, SBagen, to. (-3; 

carry, tragen, 186; to — up, 

case, 7$ail, to. (-e3; "c). 

icMofe, h. (-es; "cr) 



cat, Rate,/ (-11). 

catch, fangen, 188; — cold, 

fid) ertclten, 
cause; to— to, Iajjcn (188; 

+ ii'fi't)- 
celebrate, feiern; — d, be= 

century, Sabriutttbert, «. 

(-eS; -e). 
certain, — ly, geioifj, jeben= 

chair, 2tul)l, m. (-co; u t). 
chancellor, Manjler, m. (-3; 

change, v. tr., attberu ; v. 

iidr., fid) Snbero. 
Charles, flail, m. (-0) ; little 

— , .Uarldicn, «. (-§). 
charming, <2<^/., reijenb 
cheap, billig. 

cheese, Jtaie, m. (-3 ; — ). 
cherry, flivfrte, / (-it). 

i, ».(-e§ ; a er). 
Christmas, Seil)itad)ten, //. 
church, ftirdje,/ (-it). 
Cinderella, 2lfd)enputtet, «., 

tobt, / (*e). 

claim to be, rooUcn, 196. 
clear, tlar. 
clever, gcfd)id*t. 
climate, iilima, «. (-9). 
climb up, htitauftlettem. 
cloak, SBontel, m. (-8 ; «). 
clock, Ul)r, / (-en). 
close, jumcidjcn ; fdjliefcen, 

5ufd)Iief5cn, 123. 
cloth.Iud), «.(-eS; -cor "or). 
clothes, Jtleibcv, n. pi. (see 


cloud, SSBotte, /. (-it), 
coachman., .Slutjdjer, m. (-§; 

coal, flofjle,/ (-it), 
coat, 9tocf, m. (-e3 ; *e). 
coffee, ilaffec, w«. (-3). 
cold, lalt (-er); to catch — , 

fid) ertolten. 

colour ,vavbc, f. (-it). 
combat, Jtantpf, m.(-ti ; "c). 
come, fommcn (167; fein); 

— in, bcreiittommeit; — 
here, ^icrberlomntctt ; — 
down, Ijeruntertommen ; 

— out, [)crau3f ommen ; — 
back, jurudfontmen ; — 
again, luiebcrtommen; what 
is to — , bo3 9}CDorftei)cnbe. 

coining (act of), .flommen, «. 


command, v., bcfctjlen (167 ; 

commandment, Bebot, «., 

(-e3 ; -c). 
company, ©cfcUfd)ait, /., 

complain, tfagen (fiber -+- 

complete, uotlftdnbig. 
concert, Jtoiljert/, n. (-eS; 

condition, 23cbingung, /. 

confusion, 33ern)irruitg, f. 

(-en); SBeftUrjung,/ (-en), 
congratulate, ©[iitf niiinfd)en, 

gratulicrcn {dat.). 
conscious, benntfjt (-f- gen.). 
consequence ; in — of, }u= 

folge (223). 
consider, bc'tradjtcn ; batten 

fur, 1S8. 
consist (of), befteben (au§), 

contented, ^ufricben. 
contradistinction, ©egenfafc, 

m. (-e8 ; *e). 
contrary; on the — , im ®e= 

convent, JUofter, n. (-8 ; u ). 
convince (of), iiberjeu'gen 

(gen. of thing). 
coo!, adj., fuf)l. 
copy, subsl., Grcmplar', n. 

(-e§; -c); v., abfd)reiben, 

corner, <5de, / (-n). 

correct, adj. , rid) tig. 

cost, v., (often (-(- ace. or 

dat. 0/ person). 
counsellor, Slatgebcr, m. (-3; 

Count, subst. ,&x<x\, m. (-en; 

Countess, ©rafin, /. (-nen). 
country, iianb, «. (-e3 ; -"er); 

in the — , auf bem Canbe ; 

man, 93aucr, m. (-n 

or-*> ; -11). 
couple, 'Jtaar, n. (-e$ ; -c). 
courtier, §ofting, m. (-es ; 

cousin, Setter, m. (-5 ; -n). 
cover, v., bedctt. 
create, fd)ctffcn, 186. 
creditor, Wlanbigcr, in. (-3 ; 

creep, fiied)en, 123. 
crime, SScrbred)en, n. (-3 ; 

crop, crops, Grnte, / 
cry (call), rufctt, 1S8; (weep), 

cup, 2afje, / (-n). 
curtain, 3?orf)ang, m. (-cs ; 

c c). 
cut, fd)nctben,nS; — off, abs 

fdmeiben ; to — one's 

hand, fid) in bie £anb 



danger, ©efabr, /. (-en), 
dangerous, gefabrltd). 
dare, fid) untcrftefjen, 186; 

biirfen, 196. 
daughter, 2od)ter, f. ("). 
day, Sag, m. (-e5; -c); in 

broad —light, bei bellem 

dead, tot. 

deal ; a great — of, uiel. 
dealer, £)dnbler, m. (-3; 

dear, lieb, tcner. 
dearly-bought, teucr. 



Mr., fid) entfdjlie&en, 
ci, adj., cntfcbjebcn. 
, Sertcibigung, /. 


definition, Xefinition, /. 

deserve, oerbienen. 
desire, SJerlangen, «. (-3 ; 

-);&*,/ (*e). 
desperate, oerjioetfelt. 
devote, uribmcn. 
diamond, Jiamont', m. (-3 

or -en ; -en), 
dictionary, 28orterbud), n. 

. -cr). 
die, fterben (159; fein). 
difference, Unterfdjieb, >«. 

(-e8; -e). 
difficult, lcbioer. 
raben, 186. 

, n, m. (-eS). 
diligently, fleipig. 
dinner, Ottttagdeffen, n. (-3 ; 

disagreeable, unangenebm. 
disappoint, enttiiufeben. 

r, entbetfcu. 
discoverer, Kntbeder, in. (-5; 

. uoe, y. (-11). 

tied, unjufrieben. 
distant, entfernt. 


diver, Jaucber, m. (-3 ; — ). 

divide, tcilen. 

divine, gottlid). 

do, tbun (196); (make), ma; 
d)eit ; {as aux. is not trans- 
lated by a separate form ; 
sec 31, R- 3) ; how — you 
— ? roie gc()t e-5 ^bnen? 

doctor, 2 ot'tor, m. (-3 ; 
Xoho'tcn); (physician), 
Jirjt, m. (-ea ; u t) ; that is 
Dr. B., baSift bcr 2oltor 

dog, §nnb, >«. (-e5; -e). 
dollar, 2baler, »*. (-3; — ). 
door, 2ljur(c), _/ (-en) ; at 

the — , an bcr Jt)ur(e). 
doubt, subst., .gioeifel, m. 

(-3; -)• 

doubt, v., jtoeifeln (an + 
dat.) ; I have no — of it, 
id) tyabe feinengioeifel bas 

down, Remitter ; — -stairs, 


dozen, £>u Y enb, «. (-e§; -e). 
draw, jicfyen, 131; jeid)nen. 
dress, &Uit>, n. (-e§ ; -cr). 
dress, v. tr., antlcibcn; v. 

intr., fid) anffeiben. 
drink, trinten, 144 ; — (of 

beasts), faufen, 123. 
drive, v. tr., trci&en, 120; 

intr., (go in a conveyance), 

fabre. go for 

a — , fpajieren fa£»rcn. 

Ijren, n. 

drop, Jropfen, in. (-5 ; — ). 
drown, intr. ; be — ed, er= 

trinten, 144. 
duke, $erjog, m. ( -ei ; -e or 


a iiljrcub (^-c«. 5223). 

. (-en). 
.'-house, 2Bobuf)au5, 

«.(-e3; *er). 


each, jeber, jebc, jebeS ; — 

other, einanber. 
eagle, Ulbter, in. (-5 ; — ). 
ear, Cbr, «. (-eS ; -en), 
early, fl'iib. 
earn, oerbienen. 
earth, Grbe, f. ; — -quake, 

Grbbeben, n. (-3; —). 
east, Cft(en), m. 
easy, — ily, leid)t. 
eat, effen, 181; frefjen, 181, 

{said of beasts). 
effort, Mnftrengung,/ (-en). 

SJeir.iiljung,^ (-en) ; iter 5 

fu.-f), m. (—3; -e). 
either, entmeber ; — ... 

or, entroeber . . . ober. 
elect (as), errodhlen ($um). 
elm, Ulme, f. (-n). 
else, or — , fonft. 
embarrassment, SSerlegens 

Ijeit, f. (-en), 
emperor, flaifer, m. {-i; —). 
endure, ausftclje. 
enemy, «einb, in. (-es ; 

engaged, oerfagt; I h 

other engagement, I am —, id) bin a 

too oerjajt. 
English, englifd) ; 

guage), gngli 


Englishman, c. 

(-»; - 

or more gen , 

enough, genug ; be — , suf- 
fice, geniigen. 

err, irren. 

escape, entffieEjen (131 ; dat.). 

esteem, adjten. 

etc., u. f. to. 
for: unb fo n 

Europe, @urooa, n. 

even, adv. fog 
— , nicbt einmal'; — if, 
toenn audj. 

evening, 2lbenb, m. (-cs; -e). 

ever, je, jemals. 

every, jeber, jebe, jebc3 ; 
—body, —one, jebermann, 
jeber, jebiocber, jegUajer ; 
— week, atle adjt lage. 

everywhere, liberal!. 

gerabe, eben. 
examination, Gramen, n. (-§ ; 

examine, ur.terfudi'en, beob's 




g, — ly, luulift, ffliv, 

except, auger (dat. ; 46). 
excuse, v., (tr.), 

oergetyen (dat.) ; subst., 

(Sntfdbulbiaung, /. (-en). 
exercise, subst., Slufgabe, /. 

expect, ertuarten. 
expense, .Uofteit, //. ; at the 

— of, auf ftoften. 
eye, Slugc, «. (-5; -n). 

fail (in business), fallicren. 
fall, fallen (188 j feiu). 
family, gomilte,/ (-11). 

famine, £un'ger8not, / 
far, roeit; as — as, bi3 nad) 

(dat.) ; not— from, unfern, 

umucit (gen. ; 223, 23, 24). 
farewell, Sebcrooht, «. (-3). 
fast (quick), gefd)roinb, 

father, Sater, m. (-3 ; *). 
favour, ©cfaDen, m. (-§ ; — ). 
fear, gurd)t, / ; for — , au3 

feather, jyeber,/. (-11). 
February, gebruar, m. (-§). 
feel, fitljlen ; (perceive), emp= 

finben, 144; v. inir. (of 

health), fid) befinben ; ju 

9Kute f ein ; I — ill, mir ift 

fd)led)t ju 3)Jute. 
few, rocnig, roentge ; a — , 

einige, cin paar. 
field, §cfb, ». (-68 ; -cv). 
fight, fedjten, 124; ftreiten, 

till, fttaen. 
find, finben, 144 ; — out, au§s 

finben; — again, rotebers 

fine, fd)Bn. 

finger, finger, m. (-3 ; — ). 
finish, oollen'ben ; to have 

— ed (with), fertig fein 

(mit) ; — ed, fertig. 

fire, Seuer, ». (-B ; — ). 

first, adj., ber, bic, bus crftc; 
adv., juerft, erften3 ; — of 
all, juerft. 

fish, gifcf), m. (-c3 ; -e). 

fishing, gifdjen, «. (-3). 

fit for, — to, gut ju. 

five, fiinf. 

flatter, fd)meid)eln (dat.). 

flatterer, Sd)ineid)ler, m. (-3; 

fleet, subst., glotte, / (-n). 

floor, gufjboben, m. (-3 ; "). 

flour, SlcbJ, «. (-e3). 

flow, v., fliefjen, 123, fein. 

flower, iUume, f. (-n). 

fly, fliegen 131, fein; — away, 

follow, folgen (fein ; dat.). 

foot, gfuB, >«. (-e3 ; £ e). 

for, 2.2t), prep, (in behalf of), 
fill', ace, 34 ; (<?/" purpose) 
ju, <&/., 46; — reading, 
jum Sefen; (of past time) 
feit, <aVi/., 46 ; — three days 
(past), feit birei Sagen ; (of 
fut. time) auf, ace, 229, 
(6), 2 ; — three days (to 
come), auf brei Sage. 

forbid, oerbieten(i3i; dat.). 

force, jnringen, 144 ; to be 
— d, obliged (to), miiffen, 
196-202 . 

ford, gurt, /. (-en). 

forest, SSalb, ;«. (-e3 ; "er). 

forgery, 23erfalfd)ung, /. 

forget, oergeffen, 181. 

forgive, nergeben(i8i; dat.). 

former, jener, jene, jene3. 

fort, Jyefte,/. (-n). 

fortieth (part), SBierjigftel, «. 


fortnight, oierjefjn Sage. 
fortunately, gliicf lid)ertueife ; 

gliidlidjer SSBeife. 
fortune, good , Olliic!, n. 

four, oier. 

fox, ftud)3, m. (-c5 ; a e). 

France, ivrautrcid), «. (-3). 

Francis, jjfrang, m. (-en3). 

Fred(dy), grf|, m. (-en3). 

Frederick, griebrid), m. 
(-3) ; Frederick-street, bie 

free, fret. 

freeze, 131, frierert. 

French, franjbftfd) ; — (lan- 
guage), ftranjBftfd), «. 
(be3 granjbfifdjen). 

fresh, frifd). 

Friday, grettag, m. (-c3; 

friend, greunb, m. (-e5 ; 

friendless, frcunb!o3. 

friendly, freunblidj. 

friendship, greunbfdjaft, f 

frighten (terrify), erfd)recfen ; 
to be — ed, erfdjrecfen, 167. 

frog, grofd), m. (-e3; -e). 

from (direction), uon, au§ 
(dat. ; 46) ; (cause) au3 ; 
(time) iiber + ace, 65; 
a week — to-day, heute 
fiber ad)t Sage ; (disease) 
an, dat., 65; er ift an 
bicfer firanfljeit geftor* 
ben, he died of that dis- 

front ; in — of ; Dor (dat. 
or ace. ; 65). 

fully, ganj. 

funeral, 99egrabni3, n. (-fe3; 

furious, -ly, roiitenb. 

future, 3lttunft,/ 


gallop, galoppieren. 
garden, ©arten, m. (-§ ; u ). 
gardener, Ofirtner, m. (-3 ; 

gather, fammeln. 
general, ©eneral', m. (-e3 ; 




generally, gerooljnlid). 

generous, freigebig. 
gentleman, £crr m. (-11 ; 

George, ©eorg, m. (-5). 

German, adj., bcutjd) ; — 
(language), Teutfd), «. 
(bes JDeutfdjcn); in — , 
auf 35eutfcb; into — , ins 

Germany, Jentfcblanb, n. 

get (become), roerben, 159. 

girl, 2Kabd)en, «. (-3; — ). 

give, ge&en, iSi; — up, nufs 

glad, frob (gen.); be — , fi.' 1 
frcucn ; lam — , CO front 
mid) ; I should be — to, 
should like to, id) mbc&te 

glass, ©Ias«. (-es; *er). 

glove, .fjanbjc&uh, >*. (-eg ; 

go, ge&en (188; fein); reffen; 
— away, roeggefyen, fort= 
ge&en; — back, juriicf-- 
ge&en; —out, (&in)aus= 
geben; — down, bins 
untcrge&en; — up, &in= 
aufgeljen; — past the 
place, an einem Spia^c cor* 
ii&erge&en ; — for, fetch, 

goal, $\tl, »■ ( _c§ > -e )- 

God, god, ©ott, m. (-es; 

Goethe, ©cettye, m. (-5). 

gold, subst., ©olb, n. (-eO). 

gold, adj., golden, golbcn. 

good, ' gut ; be — enough, 
Ijab'en Sie bic ©iite ; — 
morning, guten 9Jlorgen. 

goodness, ©lite,/ 

graceful, -ly, anmutig. 

grand-parents, ©ro&eltern, 

grapes, 2rattbcn, //. 

grass, GraS, n. (-C3; "cv). 

grateful, banfbar. 
great, gvo& ("cr, gibfjt). 
green, griin; subst., ©riin, 

«• (-3). 
grind, fcfeleifcn, 118. 
ground, Sobcn, m. (-*); 

grow, roac&fen, 186; roerben, 

guess, erraten, 188. 
guest, ©aft, m. (-es; a e). 


habit, ©eroo&n&eit,/: (-en); 

to be in the — of, bie ©Cs 

roo&nbcit fia&en ju, etc. ; 

half, adj., fjalb ; — an hour, 

eine halbe Stnnbe. 
half, suist., §fi[fte,/. (-n). 
hand, 4?anb, f. (-e). 
handsome, fc&on. 
handwriting, ^ianbfdf>rift, f. 

hang, v. tr., bangen; v. 

intr., bangen, 188. 
happy, gliictlid). 
harbour, .ftafen, in. (-S ; -). 
hard, fc&rocr. 
hardly, faum. 
hare, £afe, m. (-n ; -n). 
harvest, subst., (Jrnte, /. ; v., 

haste, Site, /. ; to make — , 

hat, §ut, m. (-es; *e). 
have, baben, 24; fein, 52, 53; 

laffen, 188, 200, 7; to — 

to, be obliged to, miiffen, 

196-202 ; will you — a cup 

of tea? roollcn Sie eine 

STaffc Sfiee? 
hay, £eu, n. (-es). 
he, er ; ber; — who, berje* 

jenige roetc&er, etc., roer. 
head, tfopf, in. (-es ; "e). 
health, ©efunbbcit,/ 
hear, bbren; to — say, fagen 


hearing, ©eljor, n. (-C3). 
heart, §crj, «. (-ens ; -en) ; 

by — , ausroenbig. 
heat, £i Y e, f. 
heath, £eibe, f. (-n). 
heaven, £immel, in. (-3; — ). 
heavy, fc&rocr; — ily, fefcroer; 
(0/ rain) ftarf ; heaviest of 
all, am allcrfcbroerften. 
help, subst., fctlfe. 
help, v., belfen (159; dat.); 
it cannot be — ed, es lafjt 
fid) nic&t anbern. 
Henry, £>einric&, m. (-§). 
her, pers. pron., fie (ace); 

ibr (dat.). 
her, pass, adj., ibr, ifjrc, i&r. 
here, bier. 

hide, v., oerbcrgen, 159. 
high, bod), bb&er, bbd)ft (Uses 
C in injtexion); to think 
— ly of, Diet balten con, 
him, ibn (ace), ibm (dat.). 
himself (he), er fefbft ; (to) 

— , fid) (ace. or dat.). 
his, pass, adj., fein, feine, 

his, pass, pron., feiner, feu 
ne, fetnes ; ber, bie, bas 
feine; ber, bie, baS fei; 
hoarse, beifer. 

hold, balten, 188; — toge- 
ther, jufammenbalten. 
holiday, gciertag, m. (-e3 ; 

-e); — s, %et\tn,pl. 
home, §eimat, /. ; adv., 
nad) ^aufe; at — , }u 
^aufe ; to go — , nacb §aufe 
ge&en, 188. 
honest, e&rltcb, reblid), auf» 

honey, §onig, m. (-C6). 
hope, suist., £offnung, /. 

(-en); v., boffen. 
horse, ?fevb, «. (-cs; -e). 
hospital, ,§ofpitat, 6pital, 
n. (-CS; a (V). 



hostess, SBivtin,/. (-ncti). 
hot, fjeij. 

hour, Stunbe, f. (-11); — 
-hand, Stunbenjeigcr, >«. 

house, $au8, n. (-e3 ; "ev) ; 

at your — , bet S&ltett. 
how, luie ; — do you do ? 

roie ge()t e3 Sfyneu? rote 

oefinbcu Sic fid)? 
however, aber; jebod). 
howl, Ijculcn. 
human, lncnfcbjid) ; — being, 

3Jlenfd), >«. (-en ; -en), 
hundred, hunbert ; subst., 

^unbert, n. (-e8 ; -e). 
hunger, .ftunger, ;«. (-3). 
hungry, bunging; be — , 

^linger baben. 
hunter, ^ager, m - (-*'< — )• 
hunting (act of), 3<W< "• 

(-8); (chase) 3agb,/. ; go 

— , auf bie 3agb gefjen. 
huntsman, Soger, m. (-8; 

hurry, ©lie, f. ; I am in a — , 

id) bin in ber ©Ue, id) Ijabe 

e8 eilig. 
hurt, v., oerlefcen. 
husband, SDlann, m. (-c8; 

hussar, £ufar, tn. (-en or -8; 



I, id). 

ice, ©18, «. (-c8). 

idea, Jjbee,/., (Sebante, m. 

(-n8; -n). 
idle, faut, trdge. 
idleness, idling, 5D(iijsiggang, 

>«. (-e8). 
if, menu; (whether), ob. 
ignorant, unuuffenb. 
ill, (rant; — health, fd)Ied)te 

illness, flrauf t)eit, f. (-en), 
imagine, fid) (dat.) benlen (99, 


I immediately, (jo)gleid). 
importance, 9Bia)tigteit. 
important, tuid)tig, bebeiu 

impossible, unmbglid). 
in, ill, dot., 65; auf, dat., 65, 

230, (a) ; — the country, 

auf bcinCanbe. 
inch, 3oQ, »"• ( -e 3)- 
induce, beroegen, 131, B. 
industrious, — ly, fleifjig. 
industry, ftleifj, *»■ (-«8). 
inform, mitteilen. 
inhabitant, GiniDofjner, m. 

(-8; -). 
ink, JilltC or Dillte,/. 
innocence, Unfdjulb,./ 
inquire, fid) erfunbigen, fra* 

gen, 1S6. 
inside of, innerfjalb (gen. ; 

insist on, befteben (auf + 

instead of, ftatt, anftatt 

(gen.; 223). 
intend, beabfid)tigen, t>or'= 

ftaben, gcbenfen (99, 2). 
intention, 9fbfid)t, / (-en), 
interrupt, untevbred/en, 167. 
into, in (ace. ; 65). 
invent, erfinben, 144. 
invitation, Ginlabung, /. 

invite, eintaben, 186. 
iron, ©ijen, «. (-8); adj., 

it (38, 39), e8; er; fie ; ber, 

bie, baSfelbe ; in — , bavin ; 

for — , bafitr ; of — , ba= 

con ; with — , batntt ; to 

— , basu. 
its, />oss. adj., fein, t§r. 
itself, e8 felbft. 

James, Qafob, m. (-0). 
January, 3anuar, »«. (-8). 
John, Sobann' >«. (-8). 
journey, SReife,./. (-11). 

joyous, frofjltd). 

July, >'li, m. (-8). 

jump, fpringeii, 114; — 

down, fjemnterfpringen, 

June, 3n'ni, m. (-8). 
just, gerabe, eben; — now, 

foeben, — as, ebenfo. 
justify, red)tfertigcn. 


kick, ftofeen, 188. 

kind ; what — of, TO08 fiir 

(ein, cine, ein); of many 

— s, oielerlei; adj., gut, 

frcimblid) ; to be so — as 

to, fo gilt feiu unb. 
kindness, ©iite, ©iitigteit, 

#reutib(id)feit, /. 
king, ilbttig, >n. (-e8; -e); 

King-street, bie flbnigj 

kingdom, flbnigreid), «. (-e8; 

knife, SJleffer, «. (-8;— ). 
knock down, berunterfd)la= 

gen, 186. 
know (0/ acquaintance), fcil= 

lien, 99; (of knowledge 

acquired by mental effort) 

tniffen, 196; — how, fbn= 

nett, 196. 
knowledge, Jlenntni8, f. 

(-fe), 3Bifif nfd)aft,/ (-en), 
known, befannt. 


lady, $)ame, /. (-n); young 

— (Miss), graulein, n. 

lake, ©ee, m. (-8; -en), 
landscape, fianbfdjaft, f. 

language, ©pradje, / (-n). 
lantern, Satente, /. (-n). 
large, gvofj ("er, grbfit). 
last, letyt, uorig ; at — , enb« 

ltd); v., bauern. 
late, fpat. 



lately, nculid), tiirjlid). 

Latin. ',«. (-5). 

latter, the — , 

laugh, Iad)en; — (at), ladjen 
(gen. cr iibcr -+- ace.) ; he 
— s at (makes sport of) you, 
ct macbt fid) iiber £ie 

lawyer, 2(bootat', tn. (-en ; 

lay, legen. 

lazy, faul, trcige. 

lead, 93lei, «. (-e«). 

lead, v ., fufyren. 

lead-pencil, SBleiftift, tn. 
i -e). 

leaf, aiatt, n. (-e§; c er). 

learn, lerncn. 

don oO, Cernen, 

at — , roenigftenS. 

leave, taffen, 1S8 ; — behind, 
desert, abandon, cerlaffen ; 
t, amMaffen. 

left, lint; be — , iibrig bleis 

leg, 33eiu, «. (-e3 ; -e). 

lemonade, 2inu>nabe,y: (-n). 

lend, leiben, 120. 

lesson, 2(ufgabe,/.(-n); fiefs 
tion, / (-en). 

let, taffen, 188. 

letter (of alphabet), Sucfis 
ftabe, tn. (-n§; -n); (epis- 
tle), Brief, tn. (-es; -e). 

liar, Sliigner, tn. (-5; — ). 

library, Sibliotbei',/ (-en). 

lie (be recumbent), liegeu 
181; — down, fid) bjnlegeit. 

life, ficben, «. (-§ ; — ). 

lighten (flash), bligen. 

lightning, Sli§, tn. (-e5;-c). 

like, ntogen, 196-^202; gem 
baben, 24 ; I should — , id) 
mbd)tc (gem) ; to — to 
learn, gem lernen ; I — 
music, id) bin ein $reunb 
rjon yjiitfit ; how do you — 

London ? roie gefallt 3^nen 

lily, fiilie, / (-n). 

Limburg, adj., fiimburger. 

lion, Sbire, (-n; -n). 

listen to, anbbieu (tr.). 

literature, £iteratur', /. 

little (of size), tlcilt ; (of 
quantity) roeuig. 

live, lebeit ; (dwell), rooljnen. 

living, Ic'bcnb, leben'big. 

locality, CSegenb,/". (-en). 

London, fionbon, ». (-9) ; 
adj., fionboner. 

long, adj., (ang (-er); adv., 
lange ("r); have you been 
here — ? fmb 2ie fd)Oit 
longe bier ? hi has not 
been here for a — time, er 
ift lange nidjt bier geroes 
fen; three months — er, 
nod) brei SDJonate; no — er 
{fit., not more), nid)t mef)r. 

long for, v., fid) febnen nad). 

look for, fudjen, fudjen nad); 

— like, au§febcii (roie or 
nad)), 181 ; it — s (appears, 
seems) like rain, e§ fieb,t 
nad) iRegen aus" ; — up, 
fjiimunefjen, 181. 

lose, nerliercn, 131. 

lost, oerloren. 

loud, — ly, laut. 

Louisa, fiouife/ (-n§). 

love, v., lieben. 

lower, unter, nieber (adjs.). 


magnificent, prfidjtig. 
majesty, Blajeftat', f (-en), 
make, mad)en. 
man, SRann, tn. (-e5; "er); 

— (human being), 5Dienfd), 
tn. (-en; -en); —kind, 
SJlenfd), in. ; men (soldiers), 
Solbaten ; little — , 3Kaniu 
lent, k. (-5; — ). 

manikin, 'Diiinnlein, «. (-5; 

manner, SJeife ; in that — , 

out bit- 
many, niele ; — a, — a one, 

mand)er, mandjc, mandjcs. 
March, SDlarj, tn. (-e§). 
Margaret, SMargarete, f 

market, SJJartt, tn. C-es' ; 


marriage (-ceremony), Irau» 

11113, /■ (-en), 
married, oerbeiratet. 
marry, beiraten, nerbeiraten 

(fid) mit). 
marsh, 3umpf, tn. (-es; u t). 
Mary, <JJ{arie,yi (-lis), 
matter, 5a<f)t, f. (-n) ; what 

is the — ? roas giebt5 ? roa§ 

ift loo ? what is the — with 

you? roas feblt 3bnen? 
May (month of), 9Jcai, tn. 

(-es or -eit). 
may, v., biirfen ; fonnen ; 

mbgen, 196-202. 
mayor, Siirgermeifter, tn. 

(-9; -)• 

me, mid) (ace.), mir (dot.). 
mean ; in the — time, miters 

beffen ; by — s of, oermits 

telft; nermoge, gen., 223. ' 
mean, v., metnen; to— to, 

intend to, ltioUeit, 196-202. 
meat, 'gleifcf), «. (-es). 
meet, v., begegnen (dat. ; 

fein); to go to — , entges 

gen gefcen (188; dat.). 
meeting, 9Serfammlung, f 

! mental, geiftig. 
merchant, Aaufmann, tn. 

(-es; -[cute), 
mere, — ly, blofj. 
merry, merrily, luftig. 
messenger, SSote, tn. (-n ; 

metal, iMetau', n. (-es ; -e). 
microscope, SJiifroffou', n. 

(-C5; -e). 
middle, TOitte.y.; in the — 



of summer, mitten nu 

mile, SKeile,/. (-n). 

milk, 9«Ud), /. 

mine, mcincr, meine,mcitte3; 

ber, bio, bao mciue ; bcr, 

bie, bao metnige. 
minute, *)Ruwtc,f. (-n); — 

-hand, SJHnutenjcigcr, >«. 

(-§; -). 

misfortune, llngliicf, «. 

Miss (young lady), graulein, 

»'. (-8; -). 
mistake, fierier:, ;«. (-0; 

mock, fpotten (£-««. or iib'r 

+ ««.). 
moisten, bcitetjen. 
moment, 'Jlugenblicf, m. 

(-eS; -c). 
monarch, TOonarcb/, >«.(-en ; 

Monday, SDlontag, m. (-5; 

money, ©elb, «. (-co; -ci). 
month, SKonat, m. (-cs ; -c) ; 

a — ago, cor eincm s Dfos 

more, mebr; nod); one — , 

uocf) eincv. 
morning, Dlorgen, m. (-eo; 

— ); in the — , bcO 9Jtor« 

geno ; good — , gutcn 3Ror« 

mostly, meifteno. 
mother, flutter,/. (-). 
mountain, S3erg, m. (-es; 

mourning, £rauer, /. 
Mr., $err, »». (-n; -en), 
much, oicl ; very — , fcljr ; 

as—, eben fo niel. 
music, 3Ruf«', / 
musician, SDln'ftfev, m. (-5 ; 

must, miifjen, 196-202. 
my, />oss. adj., ittein, meine, 

mein (a/so expressed by 

dat. 0/ pers. pron. -\- def. 
myself (I), (id)) fclbft. 

name, subst., 9iame, m. (-no; 

-n); ncmien, v., 99; what 

is the — of? luic fjeifet ? 

what is your — ? loie beifjen 

nation, 9!atiou, /. (-en), 
native town, ©eburtsftabt,/ 


natural, natiirUd). 
naughty, mtortig. 
near, prep., ncben (dat. or 

ace. \ 65). 
necessity, 91ot, /. 
need, v., braud)eu ; be in 

— of, bebiirfen (196; gen. 

or ace.) ; in — of, bebiirfs 

tig (gen.). 
neglect, v., r>ernad)laffigen. 
neighbour, 91ad)bar, >«. (-0 ; 

-"); —(Jem.), 9Jad)barin 

neither, roeber ; — ... nor, 

loeber . . . nod), 
nest, Dleft, «. (-ee; -cr). 
never, ltie; niemalo ; — yet, 

nocb nie. 
new, neu. 

news, 92ad)rid)t, /. (-en), 
newspaper, 3eitung,y! (-en), 
next, nad)ft (see nabe). 
Niagara Falls, bie 9Jiagara= 

niece, 91icf)te, /. (-n). 
night, 91ad)t, f. ( a e); at — , 

nachto, bes 9Jacbt5. 
no, adj., fein, fcine, fein; 

adv., ncitl ; —body, — 

person, niemanb, feiiter, 

fcine, feineo ; — more, — 

longer, nicbt mebr ; — , 

thank you, id) banfe (3t)i 

noble, ebel. 
noi i', Viirm, m. (-eo). 

noon, SRittag, m. (-CO ; -e). 
north, 91oib, in. (-es) ; 9iors 

ben, m. (-0). 
not, nid)t; — a, fein, fcine, 

fein ; — yet, nod) nicbt ; — 

at all, gar nicbt ; are (you, 

etc.)—? nid)t roabr? 
nothing, nicbto. 
notwithstanding, ungeacf)tet, 

gen., 223.' 
novel, subst., Woman', m. 

(-e§; -e). 
November, Sloocmber, m. 

now, jetjt. 
nowhere, nirgcubs. 
nut, 91ufj,y: ("e). 


oak, @id)c, /, (-n). 
obey, geborcoen (dat.). 
oblige, uerbinben, 144 ; be 

— d or compelled (to), 

muff en. 
occasion, subst., (Selegenbeit, 
f. (-en); v., ucrurfadjen. 
o'clock, Ubr (invariable) ; 

what — is it? nrie oiel Ubr 

ift eg . <• 

of (231), 0011, dat., 46,231; 

(material) auS, dat., 46; 

(cause) an, dat. ; 231, (d) ; 

the treaty — Paris, ber 

SBertrag ju ilkrio ; the bat- 
tle— Waterloo,bieSd)[ad)t 

bei SSaterloo ; — the Alma, 

an ber 2Uma. 
off, ab. 
offer, bieten, 131, dat. of 

pers.; anbieten, 131, dat. 

0/ pers. 
officer, Cfftjier, m. (-eS ; 

often, oft (-er), oftmals, 

oh ! D ! of) ! 
old, alt (-'er). 
on, 232, anf, an, dat. or ace, 

65; (0/ time) an, dat., 

Mil' LAKY. 


(a) ; {about) fiber, 

once, einmal. 

one, einS ; cin, eine, cin ; 
the small — , ber, bie, baS 
Jtleine ; — and the same, 
einS ; — and a half, an= 

only, nur; {of time) erft; 
not — ... but also, nid)t 
nur . . . fonbern nud). 

open, adj., offen; v., auU 

mad) en. 

opinion, 2J2einung,y! (-en). 
opportunity, OelegenEjeit, f. 

oppressive, briicfenb. 
or, ober ; three — four, brei 

bi§ rrier; either ... — , 

entroeber . . . ober; — 

else, fonft. 
oratorj SHebner, in. (-§; — ). 
order, v. (command), be* 

fefilen, 167, dat. of pers. ; 

(prescribe), nerorbnen ; be; 

other, anber ; every — day, 

etnen Zag um ben anbern. 
otherwise, fonft ; anber§. 
our, adj., unfer, unfere, 

ours, pron., unfer, unfere, 

unfere§; ber, bie, bo.3 

unfere; ber, bie, ba§ 

out of, au§ {dat. ; 46) ; 

(or at) the window, jum 

f<fenfter QinauS. 

Over, iiber {dat. or ace. ; 65); 

— there, — the way, brii= 

overcoat, ii'berrod, m. (-e§ ; 

*e) ; U'berjicfjer, m. (-§ ; 
own, adj., eigen. [ — ). 

paint, malen ; to — (other 
than pictures), cinftreidjen, 

painter, Dialer, m. (-8 ; — ). 

painting (art of), tUaUve\',f 

palace, $alaff, in. (-eS ; 
*e); Sdbtofj, n. (-eo; -er). 

pale, b(eid). 

paper, papier, n. (-eS ; -e) ; 
news—, §eitun$,f. (-en). 

paradise, s J!arabies', «. (-e§). 

pardon, SBcrjeifjung,./ 

parents, Gltern, //. only. 

Paris, Paris', «.(oon ^5ari5). 

Paris, adj. (= Parisian), 

part, Scil, m. (-e§, -c);for 
the most — , mciften€, 

party, 05efcUfd)aft,./ (-en). 

pass, v., tr., {of time, to 
spend, etc.), jubriugen 
(99, 2); — (an examina- 
tion), befteljen, 186; intr., 
oergeben (188, 2, fein); 
oerfficfjen (123; fein); — 
through, burdjfommen 
(167; fein). 

passing, adj., r>oriibergcJ)cn. 

past, oergaugeu, ooriibcr, 
norbei ; to go — the house, 
am £aufe Doriibcrgefjen, 

patient, Jlranfe, adj. siibst., 
in. f. 

pay, bejoblen {ace. of thing, 
dat. of pers. ; ace. of per s. 
when pers. only is men- 
tioned) ; — attention, 2td)t 
gebcii; — a visit, eiiten 
93efucf) macben {dat. of 
pers.) ; bcfud)eu {ace. of 

paying (action of), SSejQbleu, 
n. (-5). 

peace, ftriebe(n), m. (-n£). 

pear, SSirne,./ (-n). 

peasant, SBauer, m. (-n or 
-3 ; -n). 

pen, fteber,/ (-n). 

people (//.), iicute, //. (no 
sing-.); — (indef.), man; 

v, man fagt . 
' ti»n, SJflH, (-03 ; ««r). 
j pepper, ^Jfeffer, in. (-0). 
■ perfect, — ly, ganj, »olI= 
I fommen. 
perhaps, t>icUcicf>t / . 
permission, Svlaufmii,f. 
permit, erlauben {dat. of 

person, tyev]on',f. (-en), 
personal, perfonlid). 
philosopher, ^bt'ofoph', m. 

(-en; -en). 
physician, Slrjt, *«.(-es; "e). 
pick up, auftjeben, 131. 
picture, SMlb, «. (-es ; -er); 

GSemalbe, n. (-0; — ). 
piece, Stiid, (-c§; -c). 
pigeon, iCtube,/; (-It). 

pinch, fneifen, 118. 

pity, v., bebauern; it is a — , 
e<> ift fdjabe. 

place, subst., ^Jlafe, m. (-e3; 

. -"e) ; Crt, m. (-e§; -e or 
-er) ; to take — , ftattftn* 
ben, 144; in that — , bn, 
bajeibft, bort(cn). 

place, v., ftcUen, fefieu. 

plant, ^flanjc,/. (-11). 

plate, Seller, in. (-5 ; — ). 

play, v., fpicleu. 

pleasant, nngeneljm. 

please, gefaUen (188; dat.); 
(if you) please, (id)) bitte, 
wenn id) bitten barf, ge= 

pleasure, SBergniigcn, «. 
(-5); trip, (short) ex- 
cursion, Sluoftug, m. (-c<3; 
u t) ; to take a (short) — 
-trip, etnen Sfusflug ma= 

plum, $f(aume, f (-n). 

poem, ®ebid)t, n. (-eg ; -e). 

]x>et, 3Md)ter, in. (-§ ; — ). 

point ; cardinal — (of the 
compass), .yin-met'Sgegenb, 
f. (-en) ; to be upon the — 
of, im 83egriffe fein. 



i [ifteii. 

icner, m. 

(-3; i mn, m. 

arm ( i'v). 

He, /. (-it); 

, iJJoft, _/! ' — 

-man, Spoftbote, ;;/. (-11; 

-11); by return — , mit 

umgctjenber ^ ! oft. 

■tamp, SBriefmarte, 
/■ (-")• 
postpone, mtffdjiebcn, 131. 
pound, Spfunb, v. (-e3). 
power, .draft, f. (-"e), 
praise, v., lobcn; nreifen, 

pray, v., bctett; inter;., bitte! 
precise, — ly, genau. 
prefer, Dorjteljen, 131; I — 

to walk, id) gefye lieber. 
prepare ; to — for, fid) nor* 

bereiten auf (ace.). 

presence, Picgcnroart,./ 
present, adj., gegenwdrtig ; 

for the — , filr'S CSvfte. 
present, srtbst., ©cfdjenf, n. 

president, SProflbcnt', in. 

(-en ; -en), 
press, v., bringcit, 144. 
pretty, fjUBfd), (dibit; adv. 

(tolerably), jieinlid). 
prevent, nciftinbem. 
price, !prei§, ;«. (-c§ ; -e). 
prince, ^iirft, ;«. (-en; -en); 

$rinj, m. (-en; -en). 
prison, ©efdttgniS, «. (-fe3 ; 

probable, probably, roa[)V; 

fd)einlid); probably, mobl. 
professor, $rof effor, m. (-5 ; 

promise, v., ncrfpredicn, 


, uorfdjlageti 

nf + 

C-c8; »er). 


. 1'ri'iinoii, n. 
Prussian, si<t>st., ipreufjc, >«. 

public, bifcntlid). 
punish, beftrctfen, ftrafen. 
punishment, Strafe,/; (-it). 
pupil, 5d)iiler, m. (->i; — ). 
pure, vein, 
put on (coat, etc.), anjieljen, 

131 ; (bat), ntii= 

fe v en. 


quality, Gigcnfdiaft, f. (-en), 
quarrel, i'., ftreiten, 118; fid) 

fireiteit (mit). 
quarter, SSiertel, «. (-3; — ); 

— of an hour, SMertels 

ftunbe,/ (-u). 
queen, jtbmgin, f. ( 
quick, — ly, f.inteU; quickly, 


quit, v., uerloffen, 188. 
quite, ganj. 


railway-station, 33a£)nbof, m. 

(-C3 ; -«). 
rain, subst., Sicgen, in. (-3) ; 

v., regnen. 
raise, l)eben, 131. 
rather, eher, lieber. 
raven, Dtube, in. (-)t ; -n). 
read, lefen, 1S1 ; to — to, 

uorlefen (dat.). 
reading (act of), fiefen, «. 

ready, fertig, bercit; readily, 

reason, ©rui'.b, in. (-eS; "e). 
receive (get), crfyattcn, 18S; 

befommen, 167 ; — (as a 

. Ijmctt. 

Reformation, Reformation, 

/ (-en). 

intr., fid) nn : 

, fiir + 
; bctvadiicn (nlc-). 
I regret, c3 tf»nt lltir 


ftegierung,./ (-en), 
relate, erjdbjen. 
related, uentmnbt (dat. or 

rely upon, fid) oerlaffi 11 

tttif -\- ace). 
remain, bleiben (iaojfetu); 

— at home, — behind, ju= 

riicfblciben; — over, iibrig 

bleiben ; — standing, fteben 

(186) bleiben. 
remarkable, incrtwiirbig. 
remember, fid) erinncni 

(gen.) ; I wish to be — ed 

to him, id) loffe ifnt gnu 

remind of, erinncrn an (+ 
rent, v., oermieten. [ace). 
repeat, tnieberho'Ien. 
reply, subst., 2lntlD0lt, /. 


reply, v., anttoorteit, crroU 

bcrn, nevfetsen. 
report, v., beriditen. 
representation, SSorftellung, 

/ (-en). 
resemble, dbnlid) \e'u\(dat.)\ 

gtcid)en (118; dat.). 
reside, roobnen. 
resist, roibcrfte'ben (186; 

resolve, v., fid) entfebjiefjen, 

rest; all the — , alle anberu; 

retire to — , fid) fdjtofen 

(188) legen. 



return, oergelten (159); — 

good for evil, vera 

fe§ mit ©utem; by — of 

post, mit umgebenber^Joft, 

reward, mist., Cofjrt, m. 


rheumatism, 9ll)eumati3mii$, 
m. (be$— ). 

ribbon, Sanb, «. (-e§ ; a er). 

rich (in), reid) (an -\- dat.). 

rid, lo3; to get — of, toS 
roerbett (-\- gen. or ace). 

ride, reiten(nS); (in a con- 
veyance), faljren (186). 

riding (act of; not in a con- 
veyance), SReiten, «. (-§). 

right (adj.), red)t; (correct), 
rid)tig ; in the — way, auf 
bie ridjtige 2Beife; subst., 
9tetf)t,«. (-e§;-e); to be (in 
the) — , 9(ed)t baben. 

righteous, gered)t ; the — 
(man), ber ©ercdjte. 

ring, subst., Ming, m. (-e£ ; 
-e); — , v., lautett (of a 
large bell), flingcln (of a 
small bell) ; there is a — 
at the door, es llingelt. 

ripe, retf. 

rise (get up), aufftefjert, (186 ; 
fein); (ascet.d), auffteigen 
(120; fein). 

river, ftlufj, m. (-e§ ; H e). 

road, 2Beg, m. (-e5 ; -c); 
Strafje, /. (-it). 

Roman, SRomer, w. (-3; — ). 

room (apartment), Stube, f. 

(-") ; 3' ntmer / «.(-*; — ). 
rose, 3tofe, /. (-n). 
row, v., rubern. 
run, laufen (188; fein); — 

after, nad)Iaufen (188; 

fein; dat.); — away, bas 

Russia, SJufsIanb, ». (-6). 
Russian, subst., Diuffe, m. 



sad, traurig. 

safe, fi$er. 

sailing-ship, Segelfdjiff, «. 
(-e« ; -e). 

sale ; for — , }u oerfaufen. 

same, adj. and pron., ber, 
bie, baSfelbe; ber, bie, 
ba^felbige; ber, bie, ba3 
namlidje; at the — time, 
ju gteidjer $eit; all the—, 
one and the — , einerlet. 

Sarah, Sara,/ (-§). 

satisfied, jufrieben. 

Saturday, Sonnabenb, m. 
(-e§;-e); SamStag, m. 

save, retten ; I — d his life, 
id) rettete tbtn ba§ fieben. 

say, fagen; to hear — , fagen 
f)bren; (assert, claim to 
be), roollen (196-202); to 
be said, follert (196-202). 

scholar (pupil), Sdjuler, m. 


school, 3d)ule,/(-n); — boy, 

@d)uler, m. (-3; — ). 
scold, fdjelten, 159. 
Scotland, 3d)ottlanb, «. 

scream, fd)reien, 120. 
search (for), fud)en. 
seat one's self, sit down, fid) 

second, num. adj., jroeite. 
second (of time), subst, 3cs 

cunbe, /. (-n). 
secret, — ly, geljeim, f)eim= 

see, fehen, 181. 
seek, fud)en. 
seem, fd)einen, 120. 
self, felbft. 
sell, oerfaufen. 
send, fd)icteu; — to, 511= 

fd)icten; — word to, be= 

nad>rid)ttgen (ace. 0/ per s.): 

— for, fjolen laffen 

f d)iden nad). 

September, September, 111. 

sen-ant, liencr, >«. (-3; 

— ); Xienftbote, m. (-n; 

-n); 5Jlagb,/. ( a e). 
serve, bienen (dat.) ; — (of 

a meal), ferDteren. 
set, tr. (of a time-piece), ftels 

len ; /«rr. (of the sun), utt'= 

tergeben (188; fein); — 

free, bet'reien. 
settler, Slnficbler, m. (-3; 

seven, fieben. 
several, etnige; etlidje; 

shake, fdiiitteln. 
shall, follen (196-202). 
she, fie. 

shield, Sd)Ub, m. (-e$; -e). 
ship, Sd)iff, n. (-e5; -e). 
shoe, Sdjulj, m. (-e3; -e). 
shoemaker, 3d)ufter, m. (-3; 

— ); ®d)ubmod)er, m. (-§; 

shoot, fd)ief5en, 123. 
shop, fiaben, w. (-§;*). 
shore, Ufer, «. (-§; — ). 
short, furs ; — ly, nad)ften3. 
shout, fd)reien, 120. 
show, jeigen. 

shutter, fiaben, m. (-§; — ). 
shy, iritr. (of horses), fdjeu 

tnerben, 159. 
sick, franf ; the — (man), ber 

side, Seite, /. (-11); on this 

— of, prep., biesjeit (£?«.; 

223) ; on that — of, prep., 

jenfeit(£*«. ; 223); on this 

— , adv., bie3feit3;onthat 

— , adv., jenfeitS. 
sign, subst., $tia)en, ?i. (-5; 

— ); v., unterjeicb/nen. 
silence, Sd)n>eigen, n. (-S). 
silent, ftumm. 
silly, etnfoltig. 
silver, Silber, «. (-§). 
since (241, 12), prep., feit. 

43 6 


dat., .)<>; •id?'., feitbem; 
cotij., ba. 

sing, flngen, in. 

singer, Saitgmu,/. (-lien). 

single, cinjig. 

sink, finffii, 144. 

sister, rilnpoftcr,/ (-H). 

sit, fitjcn (181 ; fcin); — 

down, ftd) fc^en; — up, 

remain up, aufbleiben, 120. 
six, fcd)s. 
skate, v., Scbjittfdjub, laus 

fen, 188. 
skill, ©cfcbicflicbjtett,/ 
slave, ©flaoe, tn. {-n; -n). 
slay, tbten. 
sleep, v., fdjlafen, 188; 

subst., Sdjlaf, tn. (-es). 
sleighing, ©d)ltttenbabn, /. 

slipper, Sfantoffel, tn. (-§; 

slow, — ly, langfam. 
small, Hern. 
smelt, fdjmeljeu, 124. 
smile, v., lftd)eln; subst '., 

Bftd&eln, n. (-§). 
sneak, fd)lctd)cn (118; fcin). 
snow, subs/., ®d)nee, tn. (-§); 

v., Jdjneten. 
so, fo; — are we, ruir finb 

es aud). 
soldier, ©otbat', tn. (-en; 

some, einige, etlid)e, n>eld}e, 

mancbe ; ctroas ; ivgenb ein, 

eine, ein ; — one, — body; 

jemanb, — thing, —what, 

etroas; — where, irgenb; 

n>o; — of it, bovon; for — 

time (past), feit einiger 

son, ©obit, tn. (-eo; *e) ; 

little — , ©bbnd)en, n. (-5; 

song, £ieb, n. (-es; -er). 
soon, balb {comp. eber, 

superl. ant efjeften); as — 

as, fobolb. 

Sophia, ©opljic,/: (-115). 
sorry; I am — , CO ift mir 

Icib, eo tl)iit mir leib. 

sound, — ly, f eft. 

sour, fauer. 

South, ©iib(cn), m. (-§). 
Spain, ©panien, «. (-s). 
speak, fpred)en, 167, rebcn; 

— with or to, fprcd)en {ace. 

of per s.). 
speaking (act of), Sprcdjen, 

n. (-B). 
spectacles (pair of), grille, f. 

speech, Siebe, f. (-n). 
spite ; in — of, tro$ {gen. ; 

223, 16). 
spoil, v. tr., nerleiben. 
sport ; to make — of any one, 

fid) fiber jemanb(en) {ace.) 

luftig mad)en. 
spread out, fid) nerbreiteit. 
spring, v., fpringen (144 ; 

fcin); subst., Tvviifjtittit, m. 


square (in a town), %W%, tn. 

(-e§; *e). 
St. Lawrence, Snnct fiorenj, 

stand, ftcben, 186. 
start (for), abrcifen (nad)). 
state (condition), 3uftatlb, in. 

(-es; -t)- 
statesman, Staatsmann, tn. 

(-co; -manner), 
stay, blciben (120; fein) ; — 

up, aufbleiben; — away, 

steal, fteblen, 167. 
steam-engine, 2)ampfmafd)t; 

at,/, (-n). 
steamer, ®ampffd)iff, «.(-es ; 

steel, Stabl, tn. (-es). 
stick, subst., ©tod, tn. (-es; 

still, ,uh'., nod), bod); nod) 

sting, fted)en, 167. 

stocking, ©tnimpf, 111. (-es; 

stop, j/. rW>-., aufEporen. 
storm, Sturm, >«. (-es; "e). 
story, ® efd)td)te, /. (-n). 
stove, Creit, >«. (-5; ^). 
stranger, trembling, >«. (-es ; 

-c); rfrembe {atlj. subst.). 
stream, Strom, hi. (-eg; "e). 
street, Strafje, /. (-11). 
strong, ftavf ("cr). 
student, ©tubent', tn. (-en; 

study, subst., Stubiitm, «. 

(-S; ©tubien); (room), 

©tubierjimmer, «.(-s; — ); 
v., ftubterett; — (pre- 
pare) for, fie!) uorbercitcn 

auf (+ ace), 
studying (act of), subst. , 3tU; 

bieren, «. (-9). 
submit, fid) untenuer'fen, 159. 
subscribe, unterfdjrei'beu, 

succeed, gelingen, impers., 

144; I — , es gclingt mir. 
such, fold), f old)er, jold)es : fo. 
sudden, — ly, plotjlid). 
suffer, letben, 118. 
suffice, geniigen {da/.). 
sufficient, hinrcid)enb. 
summer, ©otnmer, tn. (-S ; 

sun, Sonne,/. (-11); dial, 

Sonnenuijr, /. (-en) ; — 

-set, ©onnenuntergang, tn. 

Sunday, s>onntag, tn. (-eS; 

support, unterftit&'en. 
sure, fid)er; to be — , frets 

ltd); jroar. 
Switzerland, bie Sdjroeij (ber 


table, Sifd), m. (-es; -e). 
tailor, ©djneiber, tn. (-0; — ). 
take, nebmen, i6j ; — a walk, 



eincn Spa^iergang ma; 
d)en; fpajieren get).: 
— a voyage, etne Seereife 
mad)en; — up, (bin)aufs 
neb,men; — care, fid) in 
2d)t nefjmen ; — place, 
flattftnben, 144 ; — cold, 
fidj erfalten. 

talk, fpred)en (167 ; mit). 

tall, grofj ( c er, super!, grofjt). 

tea, 2f>ee, m. (-§). 

teacher, Scorer, to. (-4; — ). 

tear (to pieces), jerrei&en, 

telegram, mist., 2)epefd)e,y: 

tell, fagen (dat. of per s. or 
ju) ; erjabjen (dot. of 

teller, erjdbjer, m. (-§; — ). 

tempest, Sturm, to. (-e§ ; 

ten, jefm. 

terrible, — ly, fiirdjterfid). 

than, als; als baft. 

thank, banfen (dat.); no — 
you, id) bonfe Qbnen). 

that, detnonstr. adj., biefer, 
biefe, biefeS; jener, jene, 
jenes; rel. pron., ber, 
bie, bas; toeldjer, tneld)e, 
n>eld)es; demonstr. pron., 
ber, bie, ba3; <ro«/., bafj. 

the, ber, bie, ba§; a^.jje, 
befto; urn fo. 

their, ifjr, iljr-e, iljr. 

them^a<:<r.), fie; (dat.) i&nen. 

then, bann; since — , feits 

there, ba ; — is, — are, e§ ift, 
e5 finb; e§ giebt, 220. 

therefore, barum. 

thereupon, barauf. 

they, fie, es ; (indef), man. 

thief, £ieb, tn. (-es ; -e). 

thin, burin. 

think, benfen, 99, 2; — of, 
benf en, gen. or an -f- ace. ; 
(believe), glauben ; I should 

— si>, id) follte es meincn; 

— highly of, esteem, etc., 
oie( Ijalteii (188) con. 

third, britte. 

thirst, lurft, tn. (-es). 

thirsty, burftig ; to be — , 

Jurft baben. 
thirty, brei&ig. 
this, adj. and pron., biefer, 

biefe, biefes. 
those, biejenigen; bie; jene. 
though, obgleid). 
thousand, taufenb ; rubst., 

laufenb, «. (-e§; -e). 
three, brei. 

through, burd), ace. ; 34. 
throw, roerfen, 159 ; fd)mei« 

fjen, 118; — away, megs 

thunder-storm, ©emitter, n. 

(-8 ; -)• 

Thursday, Xonnerstag, tn. 

(-e« J -e)- 

tie, binben, 144. 

till, bis, 34. 

time, 3 cis ' /■ (" ert ); (occa- 
sion), 9RuI, n. (-es; -e); 
what — is it? mie piel Ufjr 
ift es? for the third — , 
jum britten Sftale; at the 
right — , red)tjeitig ; at the 
same — , §u gleid)er 3 eit - 

tired, miibe. 

title, Zitcl, tn. (-3 ; — ). 

to, 233, }u (dat. ; 46) ; (with 
names of places) nad) (dat.; 
46); an, auf, in (ace. ; 65, 
233, 2 )'> — the concert, ins 
flonjert; (before inf.) }U, 
272-274 ; (of purpose) um 

}"- 273- 

to-day, beute. 

to-morrow, morgen ; — mor- 
ning, morgen friib. 

too, ju; (also), aud). 

top, «ipfel, tn. (-3; — ). 

tortoise, Sdjilbfrbte, / 

towards, gegen (ace. ; 34). 

town, Btatt f f.( a t); -hall, 

i)liltl)0U<5, «. (-CO, ' 

tragedy, IrauerfpicI, ». (-es; 

-c); Zraaobie.f. (-n). 
train (on a railway), Sl'fl. nt. 

(-es; a e); Boston — , ber 

iJttg non (nad)) S9ofton. 
translate, iiberfefc'en. 
transparent, burd)'fid)tig. 
travel, reifen (fjaben, fein). 
traveller, SReifenbe, adj. 

treasure, Sd)a|, tn. (-e§; "e). 
treatv, Sertrag, tn. (-e§ ; 

tree, 53aum, tn. (-e§; *e) ; 

little — , 33aumd)en, n. (-§; 

triumph, Xrtumpb/, tn. (-es; 

true, roabr ; (faithful), treu 

trunk (of a tree), Saum* 

ftamm, tn. (-es; "t). 
trust, v., traueit (dat.). 
truth, SBaijrbeit, / (-en), 
try, cerfuc&en. 
Tuesday, £ienstag, tn. (-e§; 

two, jroei; beibe; — at a 

time, je jroei ; — and a 

half, brittebalb. 


umbrella, Wegenfd)irm, tn. 
(-es; -e). 

uncle, Ctyeim, tn. (-e§ ; -e); 
Dttfel, tn. (-5; — ). 

under, unter (dat. or ace. ; 

understand, begreifen, 118; 
perftefjen, 186; to make 
one's self understood, fid) 
oerftanblid) mad)en. 

undertaking, Unterneb/men, 

«. (-6). 
unfortunate, ungliicf lid) ; — ly , 

unhindered, ungebmbm. 

until, conj., bi-5 (bilfe). 
untruth, Uniiirtlirl)Cit,/.(-cn). 
upon, (lilt {dat. or a. 

upper, o6er. 

rs, often, jmcfi oben, 

use; of no — , un'iuil;. 
useful, uiitjlu!) ; the — , ba3 

utmost, mogliajft. 


vainly, in vain, nergeblid); 

valley, Shell, n. (-co; -"er). 
venture, v., nntgen. 
verse, 3?er3, m. (-c3; -e). 
very, fefjr ; recfit; — much, 

vex, Srgern; be — ed (at), fid) 

Brgcrn (iiber + ace). 
victory, 2ieg, m. (-e§; -e). 
village, 2>orf, «. (-e3; -er). 
vinegar, Gffig, m. (-3 ; -e). 
violet, 58eild)en, «.(-§; — ). 
virtue, STugenb, /. (-en). 
visit, Sefud), >«. (-co; -e); 

to be on a — at any one's, 

bei jeinanb auf iiefuch fein ; 

v., befucben; einen Sefud) 

abftatten, madden {dat. of 

visitor ; to have — s, 93efucf) 

voice, Stimme, f. (-11). 
voyage, Sicife, _/I (-11), See= 



wait for, marten auf {ace). 

waiter, ilellner, m. (-3; — ). 

walk, 'subst., Spajiergang, 
m. (-e§ ; -c) ; take a — , 
einenSpajiergang madden; 
fpajieren geben, 188. 

; [pa« 

walking (act of), Gkbeit, n. 
erengeben, «. 
want, rolinfdjen ; iuot(en(i96). 
: to be — , fchlcn 
{dat.), mnngelit {dat.). 
warm, — ly, unum ("cr). 
warning, ©arming, f. (-en). 


watch, subst., Uhr, f. (-en) ; 
itufjr, f. (-en); v., 

watchful, road)fam. 
watch-key, tlbrfd)lufje[, >«. 

(-«; -)• 

water, Soffer, «. (-3; — ). 

waver, fd)roan(en. 

way, 2Beg, >«. (-co ; -e) ; 

(manner), 2Beife, / (-11); 

in this — , auf biefe 2Beife. 
we, luir. 
weak (in), fd)roacfj (an + 

wear, v. intr. (of clothes), fid) 

tragen, 186. 
weather, SBBetter, n. (-3) ; in 

fine — , bet fdjbnem 2Bet= 

Wednesday, SUttroocf), m. 

week, SBodje, f. (-n) ; ad)t 

Sage; for a — past, feit 

ad)t £agen. 
weigh, intr., roiegen, 131. 
welcome, roillfont'iiten. 
well, pred. adj., roohl, get 

funb; adv., gut; as — as, 

foroobl ale; — known, be. 

West, SBeft(cn), to. (-0). 
wet, nafj ("er). 

what, interrog. pron., Jt>a§? 
interrog. adj., roefeber, 
roeld)e, roelcbc3; — kind 
of, 10115 fur (cin, cine, cin); 
rel. pron. {= that which), 

nai ; — a! roelcb, ! — is 

that in German ? une lieifjt 

bu3 1 
when, interrog., roatin? ju 

roclrficr 3ett? conj., roenn; 

att, 58. 
where, roo. 
whether, cb. 
which, interrog. adj., toels 

d)cr, roclcbc, roe'IdjeS; rel. 

pron., raeldjer, roetd)c,u>eU 

d)e3; ber, bie, ba3; that 

— , roa3. 
while, whilst, roabrenb (bafj), 

whistle, pfeifen, n8. 
white, rocifj. 
who, interrog., roer ? rel. 

pron., roeldjcr, roeld)e,roets 

djes; ber, bie, ba3; he—, 

the one — , roer. 
whole, ganj ; the — of, 

whom, roen {ace), roem 

whose, interrog., roeffen? 

rel., beffeu, m. n. sing.; 

beren, f. sing. ; pi. 
why, roarunt? n>e3ha(b? 
wide, brett. 
will, roollen, 196-202. 
William, 2M6elm, to." (-3). 
willing ; to be — , rooUen, 

wind, Sffiinb, m. (-eS; -e). 
wind up, aufjiehen, 131. 
window, genfter. ». (-3 ; — ). 
windy, roinbig. 
wine, Sffiein, to. (-e3; -e). 
wing, (J'iigef, >«. (-3 ; — ). 
winter, Sffitnter, m. (-3; — ). 
wise, roeif e ; tlug (-'er). 
wish (for), roiinfd)en. 
with, 234, mit {dat. ; 46) ; bei 

{dat.; 46). 
without, ol)ne {ace. ; 34). 
witty, roi ¥ tg. 

wolf, SEolf, m. (-e3 ; H). 
woman, #rau, /. (-en). 

-•■<; — ); 
I — > i 

rounbcre mid) ; — of the 
world, SBeltrouttber, n. (-§; 

wood, ©alb, m. (-c§ ; E er). 
word, . ; -e or 

; to send — , benad)= 

work (labour), Mrbeit,/ - . (-en); 

(thing done), 22eit, n. (-C§; 

-e) ; v., arbetten. 
world, 2BeIt, /. (-cn) ; in the 

— , auf ber 2Belt. 
worth, adj., toert; — while, 

ber 3)tube roert. 
wound, v., oevrounben. 


(130 ; 

writing (act of) 

wrong ; to be (in the) — , Uti; 
recbt fjabeit. 

yard (measure), <S\i(, f. (-It). 
nb,r, n. (-e§; -c). 
yes, jn. 
yesterday, ge'ftern; — 's, con 

geftcni, geftrig. 
yet, nod); not — , nod) nidit. 
yonder, bort. 

5ie ; bit ; 
young, jun.v, — man, 
ling, »;. -C3 ; -e). 

1, euer; 
bcin, beine, bein ; Jjfjr, 

yours, ber, bie, ba§ eure, eiu 
rtge; ber, bie, baS ^>i)\:<:, 
3ljrige ; ber, bie, ba§ beine, 
bcinige ; eurer ; belner ; 

youth (time of), 3ugenb, /. ; 
(young man), Jjiingling, m. 

Typography of C. H. Heintzemann, Boston, Mass. 


* # * The references are to the sections and subsections, unless otherwise specified ; 
N. = Note ; R. = Remark ; O. = Observation; p. = page. 

Abbreviations, p. 404. 

aber, conj., 230. 

Ablaut, 105, R., 110. 

' About,' how rendered in 
Germ., 226. 

Absolute accusative, 255; ab- 
solute superlative, of adjs. , 
127,2; of advs., 190, 4-6. 

Abstract substs.,take article, 
44, 1 (/'); plural of, 66,3; 
App. H. 

Accentuation, p. 10; in com- 
pound verbs, 117, 3, 204, 

205, 3, 208, 209, 212; of 
compound adv. prefixes, 

206, 2, N. 1. 
Accusative, use of, 3, 252- 

255; place of, 2<J6, 4; af- 
ter preps., 34, 50, 65, 
223, 19, R. 2 ; expresses 
time, 184,1 ; measure, 185, 
4 ; after reflexive verbs, 
210; after impers. verbs, 
217, 2, (a), 219, 220; after 
adjs., replacing gen., 244, 
R. 1, 2; double ace, 253; 
after intrans. verbs, 254; 
cognate ace, 254, 1; ad- 
verbial ace, 255; absolute 
ace, 255, 2; before advs. 
of direction, 224, 1. 

Address, modes of, 40, 43, 

Adjects, place of, 296, 1, 
297, R. 1. 

Adjectives, when spelt with a 
capital, pp. 11, 12; predi- 

cative, not declined, 14, 
100 ; place of, 18, 20, O. 
3, 296, 296, 8 ; attributive, 
decl. of, 101; strong, 102, 
weak, 115, mixed, 110. ta- 
ble, 121, general remarks, 
122 ; place of, 290, (*), 
N. 2, 298, 1, 299; in- 
declinable in «er, 122, 9; 
as advs., 122, 8 ; of colour, 
122, 3; in =e(, =en, set, 
122, 6 ; a succession of, 
122, 5; after pers. prons., 
122, 10; after indef. prons. 
and numerals, 122,11,12; 
after njeldje, 122,13; used 
as substs., 122, 2; compa- 
rison of, 125-127; without 
Umlaut, App. L. ; incapa- 
ble of comparison, 101, 
N. ; adjs. used as attri- 
butes only, 100 ; as predi- 
cates only, 161; as pre- 
fixes to verbs, 206, 4, 212; 
governing gen. and ace, 
244; dative, 251; preps., 
291; possessive adjs., 43, 
44,6, (a); interrogative, 84- 
86 ; appositive adj., 290 ; 
concord, 288 ; derivation, 
by suffixes, 313; by pre- 
fixes, 316 ; composition, 

Adverbial clauses, 306. 

Adverbial conjunctions, co- 
ordinating, 237; throw the 
subject after the verb, R. 1. 

Adverbial expressions, place 
of, 45, 297. 

Adverbs, 187 ; place of, 45, 
297; formation, 182, (a), 
183, (c), 189 ; compari- 
son, 128, 190 ; numeral 
adverbs, 182, 183; idio- 
matic uses of certain ad- 
verbs, 195 ; advs. with an 
accusative, 224, 1 ; with 
preps., 224, 3, 4. 

sage, substs. in, gender, 89, 

2, («)• 

Agent, with passive, 112, 
R. 3. 

sal, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 

' all ' expressed by gang, 170, 
1; 'at all,' 157. 

aUein, conj., 236, 241, 1. 

alfcr, -e, -e§, 169; aUers be- 
fore superlatives, 127, 1, 
N. ; alleS of a number of 
persons or things, 162, 2 ; 
before adjs., 122,12. 

Alphabet, German, pp. 1, 5, 

atS, conj., 239, 3 (6); after 
a comparative, 126, 1 ; dis- 
tinguished from roettn and 
umnn, 58, 241, 6, 8 ; 
'but,' 241, 19; aI3 clause 
replaces Engl. part, of time, 
284, 1, (a) ; introducing 
an apposition, 289, 6 ; with 
comparative clauses, 306, 

R. 4. 




a(3 bag, alter adjs. with ju, 

al3 ob, alo menn, 239, 3, (b), 
and R. 4. 

am, before a super!., 1-7, 1, 
(6), 12S, 190, 8. 

an, prep., 65 ; expresses 
date, 184, 2, (a); of loca- 
lity, 227. 1 .• . . aaa, 

2, 233, V , 2 : of cause, 
with disen 

with names of batti . 281 . 
(d), 2 ; after verbs and 
adjs., 244,245,1,291,',, 
8, 9, 12. 

sart, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, C. 

anber, ordinal numeral, 166, 
1, N. ; anbexfeitS, 2:i> ; 
anbertbalb, 188, (t), R. 2. 

artgefu J . 

anftatt, 223, 14; governing 
aninfin. or bandar 

'any,' how rendered in Ger- 
man, 2, 2, 157, ISO. 

Apposition, appositive sub- 
stantive,' 299 ; participle, 
880, (*), 281, R. 3; ad- 
jective or participle, 290; 
clauses, 304. 

;ar, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 

Article, not used before words 
in partitive sense, 2,2; de- 
finite, declension, 4; agree- 
ment, 5, 1 ; repetition of, 
0, 2 ; use, 44 ; contraction 
with preps., 34, R., 46, 
R. 1, p. 83, O., 65, R. ; 
with proper names. It. J, 
3, 73, 76, 2, 5, H 
poss. adj., 44, 6. 

Article, indefinite, declen- 
sion, 9; use, 44, 4, 5. 

Aryan languages, 322, 2, 3. 
v rendered in Germ., 
162,4,241, 8-11. 

ives, how formed, 

=nft, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22 

;<xt, foreign substs. in.declen- 
sion, 22 

'at,' of time of day, 184, 3, 
(c); how rendered in Germ. , 
227; after verbs, etc., 291, 

'at all'; see 'all.' 

Attributive adj., see Adjec- 

atid), adv., after rel. prons., 
96, G, idiomatic use of, 
195, 9; conj., 236, 237, 
R. 2, 288. 

aw, prep., 65; with abs. 
superl. of advs., 190,6; of 
locality, 227, (a), 3, 230, 
(a), 888, (, I, 2::.",, \c), 2; 
of future time, 229, (b), 
2 ; after adjs. and verbs, 
245. 1, 291,2, 7, 10; after 
r-flexive verbs, 215, 1, (i). 

auf ban, 239, 3, (b), 268, 3. 

nuS, prep., 46 ; of cause, 
229, (c). 

ctufcen, adv., 189, 3; com- 
parison, 130. 

aufjer, prep., 46. 

au&crbalb, 223, 3. 

au&erft, with absolute superl., 
127, 2, 190, 4. 

Auxiliary is verb in com- 
pound tenses, 26, 32. 

Auxiliary verbs of mood, see 
' Modal Auxiliaries.' 

Auxiliary verbs of tense, 25, 
53; place of, with Modal 
Auxiliaries, 199, 3; omitted 
in dependent clauses, 287. 

balb, comp?rison of, 190 ; 
balb . . . balb, 238. 

=bar, suffix of adjs., 313, 1. 

' be,' with p. part., how ren- 
dered in Germ., 112, R. 5. 

be;, insep. prefix, 35, R. 6, 
204; meaning of, 311. 1. 

bei, prep., 46; = 'with,' 

' about,' 226, (J) ; of time, 

227, (b), 3; idion. 

(*), (<r),232, (d); of bat- 
tles, 231, (</), 1. 
betbe, beibeS, 165, 3. 
bciBcii Model, 118. 
bcoor, 241, 13, 14. 
bimten, 51, 1. 

p., 34, 50, 4 ; conj., 

239, 3, (6). 
bleibcn Model, 120. 
93(ume Model, 5(5. 
'both . . . and," 288. 
' but,' rendered by als, 241, 

'by,' with passive, 112, R. 

3; how rendered in Germ., 


Capitals, use of, p. 1 1 ; 122, 
2, 9, N., 11, O. 

Calling, verbs of, 242, 3, 
253; with p. part., 28 1,0. 

Cardinal numerals, 163,165 ; 
gender as substs., 80, 2, 
(c), 165, 10. 

Cases, use of, 3; syntax of, 
242-255; place of, 296. 

Cause, adverbial expressions 
of, 284, 1, (b), 306, R. 2 ; 
their place in a sentence, 
45, Rule 5. 

sdjen, substs. in, declension, 
16, 17; gender, 89, 3, (a) ; 
subst. suffix, 312, 2; pro- 
duces Umlaut, 326, R. 2, 

Choosing, verbs of, 242, 3, 
X., 253. 

Clauses, conditional, 59,267, 
293, (a), 3; proportional, 
see 'Comparative clauses,' 
below; dependent, preced- 
ing principal, 293, (jb), R. 
4, 294, (b), R. 2, 306; 
with bemt, 241, 18, 293, 
(<-), R. ; ; incomplete or 
elliptical, 299 ; order of 
302-306; apposi- 



:;04 : relativi , 806 ; 
live, objects 

vcrbial, 300. 

accusative, 254, 1. 

Collectives, declension of 
v, ith prefix Ok;, 16, 
17.2; gender, 89, i 
concord of with vei 
R. 4; formation, HI.",, 2, 

Colour, adjs. of, used as 
substs., 122, 3. 

Comma, before dependent 
sentences, 98, 3, X., 301, 
N. s ; before infin. clauses, 
278, R. 2. 

Comparative degree, 125, 
126; declension of, 126,5. 

Comparative clauses, with 
befto, etc., 126, 4, 293, 
(6), R. 4, N. 3 ; 806, R. 4 
and N. 

Comparison, of adjs., 125- 
130; of equality, 126, 3, 
241, 8; irregular, 129; de- 
fective, 130 ; of advs., 
128, 190 ; adjs. incapable 
of, 161, X. 

Compass, points of, p. 104, 
top; gender, 80, 1, (c). 

Complex sentences, 302- 

Composition of words, 318- 
321 ; of numerals, 165, 
5-7, 182, 183; of Verbs, 
203-213; of substs., 319; 
of adjs., 320 ; of advs., 

Compounds, accentuation of, 
p. 1 1 ; how formed, 31S- 
321 ; primary and secon- 
dary, 319, 1, X. 1, 2 ; spu- 
rious, 319, 2, X. 

Compound substantives, of 
irregular declension, 68 ; 
of irregular gender, 90, 4, 
App. I., p. 388 ; how 
formed, 319. 

Compound tenses, formation, 

25, 10S ; .,- 

Compound sentences, 302. 
tnd vcrli^, 208-218, 
separable, 109, 117,206- 
207 ; inseparable, 35, R. 
6, 109,204; compounded 
with substs., 206, :;•, with 
adj.., 206, -:, 212 | 
rable and inseparable, 208 ; 
with double prefixes, 207, 
21.'! : v>ithmif>, 209; with 
l)cr= and Ijins, 210 ; from 
compound substs., 211. 

', of Subject and 
Vi rb, 285 ; other concords, 
2 vs. 

Conditional clauses, 59, 239, 
R. 1, 2, 4, 267,293, (a), 
3, (b), R. 4, X". 1,2; ellip- 
tical, 268, 2, X., 298, (c), 
R. 2 ; use of fo in, 59, N. ; 
293, (i), R. 4, X. 2. 

Conditional conjunctions, 59, 
239, R. 1, 2, 4. 

Conditional mood, formation 
of tenses of, 25, 2, 3; 
shorter forms, 111, 112, 
R. 1 ; in Modal Auxilia- 
ries, 199,4; use, 263, 267. 

Conjugation of verbs ; see 
" Verbs," "Modal Auxili- 

Conjunctions, 235-241 ; co- 
ordinating, proper, 236 ; 
not counted, 293, (i), R. 
2; adverbial, 237, 298, 
(J>), R. 2 ; correlative, 238 ; 
place of, 298, 3. 

Conjunctive Mood, see 
" Subjunctive." 

Considering, verbs of, 242, 
:., 253. 

Consonants, pronunciation, 
p. 9, top ; digraphs and 
trujraphs, pp. 5, 8, 14; 
doubling of, in verbs, 118, 
R. 1, 123, R. 1, 107, A., 
R. 2, 181,0.6. 

( 'onstrui itences, 

292-306; principal, 20, 

26, 2' 1, (i), 

295, 2, 297, R. 1. 

t, 32, 33, 293, {c), 
294, (r), 296, 2,297, R.2, 
806 ; direct intcrro , 2:'.. 

1)1 i,294,(,/ 
2, 300; indirect statements, 
s7, 298, (O, R. 1; indirect 
88 ; relative 
sentences, 98, 305 ; im- 
perative, 293, (<?), 2 ; of 
clauses with betvrt, 293, 
(c), R. 4; of incomplete 
clauses, 299 ; general re- 
marks, 301 ; compound and 
complex, 302, 303; see 
also " Clauses," " Condi- 
tional clauses." 

Contracted form of strong de- 
clension, 70, R. 3. 

Contraction of def. art. and 
preps., 34, R., 46, R. 1, 
p. 83, O., 65, R. 

Coordinating Conjunctions, 
proper, 236, adverbial, 
237, correlative, 238. 

Copula, 292 ; place of, 293, 
301, 1. 

Correlative prons., 43, R. 3, 
4; conjunctions, 238; clau- 
ses, 241, 9, 293, (6), R. 4, 

Countries, names of, gender, 
80, 3, (c ) ; see also ' ' Places, 
names of." 

sb, suffix of substs., 312, 1, 
b(l, adv., with prep, annexed, 
38, R. 5, 142;conj.,239, 
3, (b) ; various uses of, 
241, 12, (d), 20 ; with 
preps., representigg an in- 
fin. or bag clause, 277 ; re- 
places Engl. part, of time 
and cause, 284. 
bamit, conj., expresses pur- 
pose, 239, 3, (6), 268, 8. 



ba5 before the verb l'ciit, 141 ; 
of a number of pci 

baft, conj., omitted, s 7. 
Ml, 3, 13, 266, K. 2; use, 
889, (*), 841, 3; express- 
ing purpose, 268, 3. 

bafj clauses governed by 
preps , 224, 2, i.v); for in- 
fin., 272, k. 1, 876, 876, 
R. 2, 277. 

Date, how expressed, 184, 
2, {a). 

Dative, use of, 3, 248; place 
of, 296, 4; ethical dat., 
249; dat. after verb- 860 ; 
after adjs., 251 ; after 
preps., 46, 51, 65, 22:5; 
after reflexive verbs, 216, 
2 ; after impersonal verbs, 
217, 2, (6), 219, 1; after 
feirt and roerbcit, 217, 2, 
(c); after interjections, 240, 
4, (*). 

baucftten, see beuefjten, bitus 

*be, subst. suffix, 312, 1. 

Declension ; see " Substan- 
tives," "Adjectives," "Pro- 
nouns," " Numerals." 

Definite Article; see "Arti- 

Degrees of comparison ; see 

bem after fein, 250, (e), 
268, C. 

Demonstrative pronouns; see 
" Pronouns." 

btnn, conj., 236; adv. conj., 

(4. R- 4. 

bennod), adv. conj., 237. 

Dependent sentences ; see 
" Construction," " Sen- 

Dependent questions ; see 
" Construction," " Sen- 
tences," " Indirect ques- 

eer, bic, bas; see "Article, 
definite"; demonst. pron., 

188, 188, 1 86, -. 140, 1, 
(a), (*), 142, 143, 1, 2; 
after luer, 162 ; relative 
pron., declension, 99 

95. 140,2; replaced by mo 
before preps 96, 2 ; used 
for mer, 306, R. 3, N. 
bcnjleicficn, rel. pron., 97; 
demonstr. pron., 132, 

189, 2. 

bercn, gen. pi. of demonstr. 

pron., when used, 133, 

2, N. 
Derivation, 307-317; of nu- 
merals, is 2. ls:l; ofadvs., 

189; see also "Adjective," 

berjenige, 132, 135, 140, 

1, (6). 
bero, 49. 

berfelfc(ifl)e, 132, 136; re- 
places poss. adjs. and pers. 

prons., 143, 2-4. 
beSgleicfyeii, rel. pron., 97; 

demonst. pron., 139, 1; 

adv., 139, 1, N. 
bejjen, used for gen. of rods 

djer, 95, 1, (a); precedes 

its case, 95, 3; of neut. 

pers. pron., 143, 1; for 

poss. adj., 143,2. 
beiicmm3ea<f}tet, adv. conj., 

237. 241,21. 
befto, 126, 4, 237, 841, 2. 

293, (/", K. 4, N. j. 
beud)tcn, 99, 2. 
biefer Model, 6. 
bicicr, declension, 6 ; use, 

188, 184, 140,1, (a), 141; 

replaces pers. prons. ,143, 3. 
223, 12, R. 
Digraphs, consonantal, pp. 4, 

8, 14. 
Diminutives, gender, 89, 3, 

(a); formation, 312, 2; 
n, 886, R. 2, (<-). 
Diphthongs, pp. 1, 6, 14. 

Direct objects, clause or neut. 
pron. . , iuiin. 

as, 272, K 2 
"Accusative," " Cases," 
Direct questions; see also 
"Questions," "Interroga- 
tive Sentences." 
Direction, expressed by t)irt5 
and ljcr= before 
210; with an accusative, 
224, 1. 
Distance, measure of, Is.), 4. 
bod), adv. , idiomatic use, 195, 
8; adv. conj., throws subj. 
after verb, 237, k. 3, 293, 
(i>), R. 3 ; 
300,2, N. 1. 
Sort Model, 3(1. :57 
of Umlaut in, 326. 
Double Accusative, 253. 
" Gender, 91 ; App. J. 
" Plurals, 64; App. G.* 
" Prefixes, 207, 210, 

" Vowels, pp. 4, 6, 14; 
do not take Um- 
laut, p. 12. 
brei, declension, 165. 2. 
bunfeii, 99, 2. 

burcf), prep., 34 ; prefix, 808. 
burton, conjugation of, 196- 
199; use, 200,1. 

I e, in conjugation of verbs, 
31, R. 1, 35, R. 2-4, 107, 
R. 1 ; in imperative, etc., 
167. B., R. 3, 181, O. 4; 
in subjunctive, 31, R. 2, 
107, O. 3 ; in dat. of 
substs., 21, 0,i, O. 4, 46, 
R. 2; in adjs., 102, R. 
2, 122, 8, 186, R. r,, 6, 
12G. 5; in po s. adj ., 43, 
k. 2 ; ., 119, 

presents Umlaut of a, 326, 
R. 3. 

m, 102, 



R. 2 126] 

R. 6. 

it, substs. in, declension, 54, 
57, 1, 61; gender, s'.l. 2, 
(«•); subst. suffix, 312, 4. 

cben, 195, 2. 

ebcitfo, 237, 241, 8. 

e^c, conj., 241, 13, 14; com- 
parison, 130. 

cti, substs. in, gender, 89, 2, 
(a); subst. suffix, 312, 5. 

eitt, see "Article, Indefi- 

cill, numeral, 163,165, 1 ; 
with dcf. art., 165, 1, (c), 

einanber, 42, 2. [and N. 

einer, indef. pron.,145, 150; 
cardinal numeral, 163, 
165, 1, (*). 

einerlei, 182, (c), N. 

einerfeits, 238. 

einige, cinigeS, ctlicf>e, ctlis 
cf)c3, indef. pron., 145, 
152; numeral, 168, 173, 
ISO; before adjs., 122, 12. 

einmol, 182, (a), N. 2, 3. 

cirty in counting, 165, 1, (d). 

etnfi, 182, («), N. 2; 1st, 
1, W- 

sCl, substs. in, declension, 
16, 17 ; ferns, in, 57, R. 
2; gender, 89,1, {a), App. 
I.; adjs. in, declension, 
122, 6; comparison, 125, 
R. 6; subst. suffix, 312, 6. 

sel, verb-stems in, drop e, 35, 
R. 4. 

scldjen, diminutive suffix, 
312, 2, N. 2. 

Elliptical constructions, 59, 
239, R. 2, 4, 266, X. 4, 
267, 6, X., 268, 2, N., 
269, R. 6, 278, 293, (*), 
R. 4, N. 2, 299. 

sellt, verbs in, conjugation, 

sent, substs. in, declension, 
16,17,69, 1; gender,89, 
I, («). 

cmp., insep. prefix, 35, R. 
6, 201; meaning, 31 I. 'Z. 

sen, substs. in, declension, 
16, 17; gender, 89, 1, (a), 
App. I. ; adjs. in, declen- 
sion, 122, 6 ; comparison, 
1 •_'.">, R. 6 ; not used as 
predicates, 160; advs. in, 
189, 3; subst. suffix, 312, 
7; adj. suffix, 313, 2. 

sen for sea 1 in gen. sing, of 
adjs., 102, R. 1. 

seilb, substs. in, gender, 89, 
2, (b); subst. suffix, 312, 

Endings of weak verbs in 
simple tenses, 35 ; of strong 
do., 107 ; of substs., 70; 
of adjs., 121. 

English, its relations to Ger- 
man, 322. 

Enlarged form of strong de- 
clension, 70, 4. 

sen§, termination of advs., 

ents, insep. prefix, 35, R. 6, 
204; meaning, 311, '2. 

entgegen, 51, 2. 

entfong, 223, 19, R. 2. 

entroeber...ober, 238,285, 
R. 6, N. 1. 

seitj, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, («-). 

er;, insep. prefix, 35, R. 6, 
201; meaning, 314, 3. 

ser, substs. in, declension; 
16, 17; ferns, in, 57, R. 2, 
gender, 89, 1, (a), App. I ; 
adjs. in, declension, 122, 
6; comparison, 125, R. 6, 
126, N. ; subst. suffix, 
312, 8. 

scr, verb-stems in, drop e, 
86, R. 4. 

ser, Plural ending, 36; ori- 
gin, 326, R. 2, (b). 

seret, subst. suffix, 312, 5, 

N. 2. . 

5 1' ill, Adjs. iii, not used as 

predicati s, L66 ; adj. suf- 
fix, 313,2. 
sera, Verbs in, conjugation, 

35, R.4; formation, 311,2. 

crft, adv., idiomatic use, 
196, 4. 

crftcny, adv., distinguished 
from juerft, 195, 5, N. 

Gr}=, subst. prefix, 315, 1. 

e§, neut. pron., uses of, 39; 
omission of, 113, 2, N. ; 
for a number of persons or 
things, 162, 2 ; as subject 
of impersonal verbs, 217, 
220, 2, R. 2, N.i after 
adjs. governing gen., 244, 
R. 1; representing a fol- 
lowing infin., 272, R. 2, 

c§ gtebt, e$ ift, etc., 220. 

effett Model, 181. 

Ethical dative, 249. 

etlidje; -e<5, see einige. 

ctroa, 187, III., 226, (<•). 

Cti»UG\ indef. pron., 145, 
149 ; indef. numeral, 168, 
177; before adjs., 122, 11. 

' even,' rendered by felbft, 42, 
3, R. 

' ever,' after rel. prons., 96,6. 

Exclamatory clauses, 269, 
R. 6, 293, (b), R. 3, 300, 


;fad), sfaltig, form multipli- 
cative numerals, 182, (b). 
fallen Model, 188. 
falls, subord. conj., 239,3, 

sf&Uig; see sfad). 
Factitive accusative, 253. 
Factitive predicate, 253. 

254, 3. 
Family names. 74, 76, 4, 6. 
fed)tcn Model, 124. 
' few,' how rendered in Ger. , 

145,152,168, 173, 175. 
'for,' how rendered in (kr., 

229; after verbs, substs. 

and adjs., 291. 2 1 



Foreign substs. , accentua- 
tion, p. 10, bottom ; de- 
clension, 22, 6, 37, 4, 
App. D., 57, 5, f,:j. 
gender, 89, 2, 0). 

Fractional numbers, 188, (a), 

freilid), 187, IV. ; does not 

count as a member of a 

sentence, 293, (*), R. 2, 

Frequentatives, how formed, 

315. - 
frieren Model, 131. 
'from,' after verbs, 291, '■>. 
fur, prep., 34; not used of 

purpose, 229, (a) ; after 

verbs of considerin<_r, 253. 
Future Tense, how formed, 

25, 2 ; use, 261 ; replaced 

by present, 257, 5. 
Future-perfect Tense, how 

formed, 25, 3 ; use, 202 ; 

replaced by perfect, 259, 4. 

gan$, indef. numeral, 168, 

ge*, prefix of p. part., 30 ; 
when omitted, 35, R. 5, 6, 
109, 112. B. 2, 204; of 
verbs, 35, R. 6, 204.314, 
4 ; with sep. verbs, 117,'-', 
205, 2 ; with mifs=, 209 ; of 
substs., 315, 2 j of adjs., 
316; declension of substs. 
beginning with ges, 16, 17, 

2, 36, 37, 3; gender, 89, 

3, (J). 
gegen, prep., 34. 
gegeniiber, 51, 4. 

gchen with infin., 271, (c). 
gemcifj, 51, 5. 
gen, 50, 2. 

r of substs. , according 
to meaning, 80, and form, 
89; of compound substs., 
90, 4, App. I , p. 33S; 

_'enera! remarks on, 

90 ; exceptional gender, I 
App. I. 

Genitive, use of, 3, 243 ; af- 
ter adjs., 244 ; after verbs, 
245 ; adverbial, of time 
and manner, 184, 2, (b), 
189,2, 246; of place, 246; 
after reflexive verbs, 215, 
216 ; after impers. verbs, 
819, 2, (a); after interjec- 
tions, 240, 4, (a); after 
preps., 222, 223 ; unin- 
fected appositive genitive, 
2^9, '■'•, N. 2 ; position of 
in a sentence, 296, 4-7. 

genug, indef. num. and adv., 
168, 17s ; followed by 
inf., 273,3. 

German language, its rela- 
tions to English, 322 ; his- 
torical sketch, 322-326. 

Germanic languages, 322, 
323 ; diagram of, p. 

gem, comparison of, 190, 1; 
idiomatic use of, 195, 3. 

Gerunds, or infin. in -ing. 
not to be confounded with 
pres. part., 277, R.3,4,6. 

Gerundive, 282. 

glaubcn, infin. after, 275, 

glcid), prep., 51, 6. [R. 3. 

*gleidjen, 48, 97, 139. 

©raf Mod 

Grimm's Law, 325. 

grofj, comparison, 12" 

©runbipradie, 322. 

gut, comparison, 129; as 
adv., 195, 10, N., 298, (J), 
R. 2, N. 

f), mute before consonants, 
after vowels and after t, p. 
9 ; when rejected after t, 

p. 12. 

fjaben, conjugation, 24 ; use, 
25 : with 

and R. 1, 272, R. 2; omis- 
sion of in dependent sen- 

.b.aft, suffix of adjs., 313, 3. 
balb, numeral, ls:5, («), N. 

2, d). 
bolb(cn), briber, prep., 222, 

223, 1. 
' half,' how rendered in ( ler. , 

188, r», X. z\ (6). 
half-hours, 184, 3, («). 
beifjen with infin., 271, (rf). 
sfyeit, substs. in, gender, 89, 

2, (a); subst. suffix, 312, 9. 
belfen Model, 159. 
ber, prefix, 210. 
Slier, 1S7, II., (a); before 

preps., 142. 
High German, history of, 

bjn, prefix, 210. 
bjnten, adv., 189, 3; com- 
parison, 130. 
binter, prep., 65; sep. and 

insep. prefix, 208. 
bod}, declension, 122, 7 ; 

comparison, 129. 
bbdjft, with absolute superl., 

127,2, 190,4. 
'however,' adv. conj., how 

rendered in Germ., 241, 

Hours of the day, 184, 3. 
§unb Model, 21, (b). 
b,unbert, 165, 8, 10, (c). 
Hyphen, its use in com- 
pounds, 318, 3, N'., and 4. 

i, produces Umlaut, 326. 

sid), substs. in, declension, 
82, -: gender, so, ],(*). 

ad)t, subst. suffix, 812, 18; 
adj. suffix, 313, 4. 

;ie, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, (<?). 

sier, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 

sieren, foreign verbs in, take 
no ge; in p. part., 35, R. 
5; verb suffix, 311, 3. 

' if,' when rendered by Ob, 



*tg, substs. in, declension, 
22,2 ; gender, S9. 1, (a); 
adjs. in, not used as predi- 
cates, 160; advs. in.superl. 
of, 1110,5; suffix of poss. 
prone, , 1 19, (c) ; subst. suf- 
fix, 819, 18; adj. suffix, 
818, ">; before sleit, '.Hi. 
in, X.; after stjnft, 313, 
3, N. ; produces Umlaut, 

320, (/). 

3l)io, 49. 

sif, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, (e). 

tinnier, adv., 187, I., (<0; 
after rel. prons., 96, 6. 

Imperative Mood, true forms 
of, 81, K. 4; endings, in 
weak verbs, 35 ; in strong, 
107 ; expressed by laffcu, 
200, 7, (a) ; replaced by 
subjunctive, "208, 1 ; use 
of, 269. [196. 

Imperfect-Present Verbs, 

Imperfect Tense, formation, 
in weak verbs, 30 ; in 
strong, 104 ; endings, in 
weak verbs, 35 ; in strong, 

Imperfect Indicative, use, 
258; distinguished from 
Perfect, 259, 2, 3; replaced 
by present, 257, 3. 

Imperfect Subjunctive, for 
conditional, 111, 263, 2, 
N.J in hypothetical peri- 
ods, 267, 2; to express 
wish, 26S, 2; to express 
possibility, 268, 5 ; origin 
of Umlaut in, 326, (g). 

Impersonal Verbs, 217 ; con- 
jugation, 218; govern- 
ment, 219; 'there is,' 
etc., 220; impersonal use 
of passive voice, 113, 2. 
' in,' how rendered in Germ., 

in, prep., 65; rendered by 
'at,' 227, (a), i, and 4. 

«tn, substs. in, declension, 
57, R. 3; gender, 89, 2, 
(«); subst. suffix, 312, ilj 
produces Umlaut, 326, 

Indefinite article, see "Arti- 
cle, Indef." [180. 

Indefinite numerals, 168- 

Indefmite pronouns, 145- 

intent, subord. conj., 239, 
211, 1H; replaces Engl. 
participle, 2S4, 1, (a), (6). 

inbeffen, conj., 237, 239, 
241, 15. 

Indicative mood, use, 256; 
tenses of, 257-262; in in- 
direct statements, 266, R. 
3 ; in hypothetical periods, 
267, R. 5. 

Indirect statement, 87, 265; 
tense of, 266; construction 
of, 293, (e), R. 1. 

Indirect or dependent ques- 
tions, 88, 293, (c); object- 
ive, with intin., 275, R. 4; 
use of obin, 277, R. 5. 

Indo-European or Indo-Ger- 
manic languages, 822. 

Infinitive, place of, 26, 33, 
295, 3, 299 ; endings, 35 ; 
for p. part, in Modal Auxi- 
liaries, etc., 199, 2; with 
passive sense after (affen, 
200, 7, f», N, ; for im- 
perative, 269, R. 5 ; as 
subst., 270 ; without 5U, 
271 ; with 511, 272 ; of 
purpose, 273 ; after substs., 
274; accusative with inf., 
not used in Germ., 275 ; in 
objective indirect questions, 
275, R. 4; governed by 
preps., 276, 277; infin. in 
-ing, or gerund, 277, R. 
3-6 ; in elliptical construc- 
tions, 278 ; replaced by p. 
part., 281, R. 6, 7; as 
part of predicate, 295. 

'-ing,' infinitive in, or gerund, 

277, R. 3-6. 
sing, substs. in, declension, 

22,2; gender, 89, 1, (a); 

subst. suffix, 312, 18. 

inmitten, 223, 21. 

innert, adv., 189,3; compa- 
rison, 130, 

imicrl)ult\ 223. 4, and R. 

Inseparable prefixes, 35, R. 
6, 109, 208, 204, 207, 
209, 212, 213; meaning 
of, 314. 

Interjections, 240. 

Inversion, inverted sentence, 
301,2, N. 1,2. 

Interrogative pronouns and 
adjs., 81-86. 

Interrogative sentences, con- 
struction, direct, 23; 298, 
(a), 1, 294, (a), 295, 2, 
300, 301, N. 2 ; indirect 
or dependent, 88, 275, R. 
4, 277, R. 5, 293, (c). 

Intransitive verbs, used only 
impersonally in the passive, 
113, 2; accusative after, 

=ion, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, f». 

siren, verbs in ; see siercn. 

irgenb, 157. 

stfcf), adjs. in, not used as 
predicates, 160; adj. suf- 
fix, 313, 6. 

Italics, not used in Germ., 
p. 12. 

'it,' when rendered by er, fie, 

j, produces Umlaut, 326. 
\a, idiomatic use, 195, 11. 
ja, jaroof)!, not counted as 

member of sent., 293, (b), 

R. 2, X. 
je, before cardinal numerals, 

165, 9. 
je . . . befto, 126, 4, 239, 

3, (i), 293, {b), R. 4, X. 3. 



ie(tnalS), adv., 187, I.,(<?). 
jeber, declension, 6 ; indef. 

pron., 145, 153 ; indef. 

numeral, 168,171; jebeS, 

of a number of persons or 

things, 162, 2. 
jebermciini, 145, 147. 
jeborf), 237. 
jebtneber ; see jebcr. 
jeglidjev; see icber. 
jetnanb, 145. 1 18. 
jctter, declension, 6 ; use, 

132,134, 140,l,(c), 141, 

jenfeit(S), 223, 13, and R. 
jetjt, 187, 1., (-5). 

lein, declension, 8 ; indef. 

numeral, 168, 172. 
fetncr, indef. pron., 145; 

used for niemanb, 151. 
*feit, substs. in, gender, 89, 

■2, (a); subst. suffix, 312, 

tennen, 196, R. 4, N. i 
Jlnabe Model, 54. 
fomtnen, with p. part., 281, 

R. 5. 
formen, conjugation, 196- 

199 ; use, 200, 2, 202. 
(raft, prep., 223, V. 

A, forms fractions, 183, («). 

langs, 223, 18, and R. 1. 

Language, German, histori- 
cal sketch of, 322-326. 

Language-names from adjs., 
122, R. 2. 

Languages, Indo-Germanic, 
etc., 322, 2, 3; Germanic, 

lafjen, its use, for passive 
voice, 114, (6); as Modal 
Auxiliary, 200, 7. 

lout, 223, 8. 

£autt>cvf<f)iebung, 325. 

Aei, forms variative nume- 
rals, 182, (c). 

iletn. substs. in, declension, 

16, 17 ; sender, 89, 3, 
(a); subst. suffix. 312, 3; 
produces Umlaut, 326, R. 
2, (c). 
Letters, German, shape and 
pronunciation of, see In- 
troduction, pp. I-I2. 

Ie|t, 130. 

sleilte, plurals in, 6S, 1. 
slicf), adjs. in, not used as 

predicates, 160 ; superl. of 

advs. in, 190, 5 ; suffix of 

advs., 189, 1,(8); of adjs., 

313, 8. 
Iteber, compar. of gent, 190 ; 

use, 195, 3. 
sling, substs. in, declension, 

22, 2 ; gender, 89, 1, (a) ; 

subst. suffix, 312, 12. 
*(tng$, suffix of advs., 189, 

1, (c). 
fobeii, paradigm of, active, 

31 ; reflexive, 41 ; passive, 


slit, substs. in, declension, 
69; gender, 89,1, (a). 

SDiucftt, irregular compounds 
of, 68, 2. 

=mn(, forms numeral advs., 
182, (a). 

Water Model, 16, 17, App. 

man, indef. pron., for passive j 
voice, 114, (a); use, 145, 
146 ; replaced by oilier, 
150; with imperative, 269, 
R. 2. 

tnandjer, indef. pron., 145, 
154 ; indef. numeral, 168, ; 
174 ; before adjs., 122, 12. | 

>mann, substs. in, declen- 
sion, 68, 1. 

Manner, advs. of, 189; 
their place in a sentence, 
45, Rule 0. 

Materials, names of, take 
art., 44, 1, (£); plural of, 

'may,' when expressed by 
biirfen, 200, 3, (/>), N. 

'meanwhile,' how rendered 
in Germ., 241, 15. 

Measure, expressions of, 
185: advs. of, Is;, HI. 

mcbr, when used in compari- 
son of adjs., 126, 2, 161, 
N. ; adv. of quantity, 129, 
N. 1; indef. numeral, 168, 

mehrere, -e§, indef. pron., 
145, 152 : indef. numeral, 
168, 175 ; before adjs., 

meiii Model, 8. 

Middle High German, 324, 2. 

iliiUioii, declension, 165, 10, 

Minutes of the. hour, 184. 3, 

mil>, verb-prefix, 204, 209, 

314, 5 ; subst. prefix, 

315, 3. 

tmt,46; after reflexive verbs, 
215, 1, (a). 

mittel, comparison, 130. 

niittelft, see ocrmittclft. 

Mixed declension, of substs., 
60-63, 70; of adjs., 116, 
121, III. 

Modal auxiliaries, 196-202 ; 
peculiar forms, 196, R. 1- 
3 ; paradigms, 198 ; fur- 
ther peculiarities, 199 ; idi- 
omatic use, 200-202. 

Modern High German, 324,3. 

Modification of vowels ; see 

mogen, conjugation, 196- 
199 ; use, 200, 3, 202. 

Monosyllables, declension, 
22, 1,3, 5, App. B., C, 
E., 37 ; gender, 89, 1, (a). 

Month, day of, how ex- 
pressed, 166, 3. 

Months, names of, p. 104, 
top; gender, 80, 1, (6). 

Moods of the verb, their use, 



250-278; see also "Con- 
ditional," " Indicative," 

with absolute super- 
lative, 127,2. 

Motion, neuter verbs of, con- 
jugated with fein, 53, (/'I. 

milffett, conjugation, 190- 
199 ; use, 200, 4, 202. 

SUIllt, fern, compounds of, 

App. I, p. 383; }u aRiite 

fein, luerben, 250, (e). 
Mutes, progression or shift- 
ing of, 325. 

Had), prep., 40, 1S4, 3, (/■), 
233, (<), i ; after adjs., 
244 ; after verbs, etc., 291, 
3 ; after reflexive verbs, 
215, 1, (a). 

9Jud)lHU- Model, 02, 68. 

ncid}bcin, subord. conj. clause 
with, replaces Engl. perf. 
part., 284, R. 1. 

ltfid)ft, 51, 7. 

italje, comparison, 129. 

Slame Model, 60, 61. 

Names, see "Materials," 
" Persons," " Places," 
"Proper Names." 

nSntlidje, bev, 132, 137. 

itebcn, prep., 65. 

lie oft, 51, 8. 

nennen, infin. with, 271, (</). 

Neuter verbs conjugated with 
fein, 53. 

New High German, 324, 3. 

nid)t, place of, 12. 

nid)t mir . . . fortbern aud), 

nid)t foiuoljl . . . al§, 238. 

nntt<S, indef. pron., 145, 
149 ; before adjs., 122, 11. 

tttdjtSbeftorocniger, coord, 
adv. conj., 237. 

uit^tS roeniger qI§, 241, 19, 

nib, obsolete adv., compari- 
son, 130. 

nie(mo»), 187,1., 0). 

nicber, 130. 

nicmctnb, 145, 148; re- 
placed by feincr, 151, 1. 

nimmcr, 187, I., (c). 

etti§, substs. in, declension, 
22,4; gender, 89, 2, (</), 
3, (<r); subst. suffix, 312, 
13 ; produces Umlaut, 320, 


nod), adv., idiomatic use, 195, 
7; conj., 237, 238. 

Nominative, use of, 3, 242. 

Number, in Substs., 3; ex- 
pressions of, 1S5. 

Numerals, cardinal, 103, 
166 ; ordinal, 164, 100; 
Roman, how rend 
Germ., 106. 2, N. ; indefi- 
nite, 10S-180; derivative, 
182, 188 ; multiplicative, 
182, (/•); variative, 182, 
(r); fractional, 183, («), 

mm, 195, 1. 
mir, 195, 12. 

ob, prep., 51, 10; conj., 241, 
4; when omitted, 239, R, 
4, 207, R. 6, N. ; in in- 
direct questions, 27 7, 
R. :,. 

ob aud), 239, R. 3, 4. 

Obetl, adv., 189, 3; compari- 
son, 130. 

o&erfcalb, 223, 5. 

obfllcicfi, obfd)ott, obrooht, 
239, R. 3, 4. 

Object, direct, see "Accusa- 
tive " ; indirect, see " Da- 
tive " ; remote, with reflex- 
ive verbs, 210. 

Objects, place of, 45, 296, 
297, R. 1, 2. 

Objective clause before the 
verb, 306. 

Objective genitive, 243, 3. 

ober, 236, 238. 

'of,' how rendered in Germ., 

3, 40, R. 3 ; 231 ; omitted 
before infin. clauses, 277, 
R. 1 ; after verbs, etc., 
291, 8-11. 

ofjnc, prep., 34; governing 
infin. or baf} clause, 224, 
2, (*), 276. 

ohncbcm, 50, 3. 

Cbr Model, 02,03. 

Old High German, 324, 1. 

sOlt, foreign mascs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 

' on,' how rendered in Germ., 
232 ; after verbs, etc., 
291, 7. 

'one,' rendered by c<5, 39. R. 
3; indef. pron., 145, 146, 
150; not expressed after 
adjs., 122, 4. 

j or, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6, 03, 3. 

Ordinal numerals, 104, 166. 

Origin, genitive of, 243, 1. 

Orthography, p. 1 1 ; recent 
changes in, p. 12. 

pcuu (cin), indef. numeral, 
173, 3, N. 

Participial constructions, 
English, how rendered in 
Germ., 284; English pres. 
part, after ' come,' 281, R. 
5; not to be confounded 
with inf. in -ing, or ge- 
rund, 277, R. 3. 

Participle, past, how formed, 
in weak verbs, 30 ; in 
strong, 105 ; of Modal 
Auxiliaries, 199, 2. 

Participles, place of, 20, 33, 
283, 4, 295, 1, 3, and N., 
298, 299 ; endings, 80, 
85 ; used as adjectives^ 
122, 1; as substs., 122,2; 
comparison of, 125, 4 ; iso- 
lated strong, 194, N. ; use 
of, 279-284; present part., 
280; not used with 'to be,' 
81, R. 3; past, 281; with 



imperative force, 269, R. 5; 
fut. pass, part., or gerund- 
ueral remarks, 
; no perfect part, in 
Germ., 284, R. 1; apposi- 
tive participles, 280, (3), 
281, R. 3, 283,3, 290. 

Partitive genitive, 248, 6. 

Partitive sense, words used 
in, take no art., 2, 2. 

voice, 112-114; pa- 
in, 112 ; agent with. 
R. 3; limitations of, 113; 
substitutes for, 114; pass- 
ive of transitive verbs, 113, 
1 : of intransitive verbs, 

Past participle, see " Parti- 

'people,' indef. pron., 145, 

litic forms of conju- 
gation, English, 31, R. 3. 

Perfect participle, none in , 
Germ., 284, R. 1. 

Perfect tense, formation, 25, 
1 ; use, 259 ; replaced by 
present, 257, 4. 

al pronouns, declen- 
sion, 38; use, 39-42, 44, 
6, (b) ; place of, 45, Rules 
3, 4, 294, («•), >•'•, 290, 3, 
4 ; replaced by demonstra- 
tives, 143 ; after gleidjen, 
48 ; after ljulben, roegen, 
223, 1, 2, R. 3 ; omitted 
with imperative, 209, R. 1. 

Persons, before things, 45, 
Rule 2, 296, 5 ; names of, 
how declined, 73, 74, 76, 
2-7; article with names of, 
73, 1, 2, 76, 2, 5, 78. 

Place, advs. of, 187, II. ; 
position in a sentence, 11, 
45, Rule 5, 297, 3, and 
R. 1. 

Places, proper names of, 72, 
76, 1 ; article with, 44, 3. 

Pluperfect tense, formation, 

25. 1 ; plupf. indicative, 
use, 260; plupf. subjunc- 
tive, used for conditional, 
263, 267, 2, and R. 4 ; to 
express a wish, 268, 2. 

Plural, see " Concord," 
" Number," " Substan- 

Possessive adjs., 43; agree- 
ment, 43, 5 ; replaced by 
def. art., 44, 6, 

Possessive case, rendered in 
Germ, by the genitive, 3, 
243, 4. 

Possessive dative, 44, G, 249. 
" pronouns, 119. 

Possibility, advs. of, 187, 
VI. J expressed by impf. 
subj., 26S, 5. 

Predicate, definition of, 292, 
1, 295; place of, 295 ; fac- 
titive pred., 253, 254, 3. 

Predicative nominative, 242. 

Predicative adj., not de- 
clined, 14, 100; place of, 
18, 20, O. 3, 295, 3, 296, 
8; factitive, 254. 3. 

Prefixes, of verbs, 203-213, 
314; inseparable, 35, R. 
C, 109, 204, 207, 208, 
209, 212; meaning of, 
314; separable, 117,205- 
208, 210, 295 ; separable 
and inseparable, 208; com- 
pound, 206, 2; double, 
207 ; accent of, 204, 205, 
3; place of, 117, 295, 3, 
and N. ; subst. prefixes, 
315 ; adj. prefixes, 316. 

Prepositions, governing accu- 
sative only, 34, 50 ; dative 
only, 46, 51 ; dat. or ace, 
66; genitive, 222, 223; 
contracted with def. art., 
34, R.,46, R. 1, p. 8 3 ,0., 
65, R. ; general remarks 
on, 224; joined to advs., 
224 ; governing the intin., 
224, 2, (b), 276, 277; 

English preps, and their 
Germ, equivalents, 225- 
234 ; place of, 40. 51, 
223, 898, 2 ; after verbs, 
etc., 291. 

Present participle ; see 
" Participial Construc- 
tions, English, '' and 
" Participles." 

Present tense, endings, in 
weak verbs, 35, in strong, 
107;pres. indicative, 267, 
267, R. 5 ; pres. subj., re- 
places imperative, 208, 1, 
209, and R. 2. 

Preterite, see " Imperfect." 

Primary Form of strong 
declension, 70, R. 2. 

Principal assertive sentences, 
construction, 20, 20, 59, 
N., 293, (*)> 294, (*), 
295,2, 297, R. 1,2,301, 
2, 302, R., 303. 

Principal parts of a verb, 

Progression of mutes, 325. 

Pronouns, agreement of, 13; 
place of, 45, 290, 2-4; 
personal, declension, 38; 
use of e3, 39; use in ad- 
dress, 40, 47, 49 ; dative 
of, replaces poss. adj., 44, 
6, (b); reflexive, 41, 42; 
reciprocal, 42 ; interroga- 
tive, 81-83; relative, 92- 
97, place of, 98; posses- 
sive, 119 ; demonstrative, 
132-143 ; indefinite, 145- 
157; remarks on, 162. 

Pronunciation, Introduction, 
pp. 1-12. 

Probability, expressed by 
future, 261, 2 ; by future- 
perfect, 262. 

Proper names, declension of,. 
66, 1, 72-74, 76. 

Proportional Clauses ; see 
" Comparative Clauses." 

Purpose, conjs. of, 239, 3 4 



(6); expressed by ju, 229, 

(a) ; by subj. with bafj, 
etc., 268,3; by infin. with 
ju or urn . . . }u, 273, K. 
1, 276,1. 

Quality, genitive of, 243, 5. 
Quantity of vowels, pp. 9, 10. 
Quantity, expressions of, 

Quarters of the hour, 184,3, 

Questions, dirct, construc- 
tion of, 23, 898, (<*), 1, 
294, (a), 295, 2, 300; in- 
direct or dependent, 88, 
293, (c). 

Question-word, begins sen- 
tence, 23, O. 2, 293, (a), 
1, 294,(a). 

Reciprocal pronouns, 42. 

Reflexive pronouns, 41, 42, 
44, 6, (b), N. ; used in re- 
ciprocal sense, 42 ; place 
of, 294, (c), N. 

Reflexive verbs, paradigm of, 
41 ; for passive, 114, (b) ; 
use, 214 - 215 ; govern- 
ment, 216. 

Relati ve clauses, replaceEngl. 
part., 284, 2, (a); place of, 
305, 306, R. 3, and N., 
R. 4. 

Relative pronouns, 92-97 ; 
place of, 98, 294, (c), 305; 
introduce dependent clau- 
ses, 98 ; not omitted in 
Germ., 96, 7, O.; concord 
of, 95, 1, (b), 288, 2, N. 

Relative superlative, of adjs., 
127; of advs.,190, 3. 

Roman numerals, how read 
in Germ., 166,2, N. 

s§, plurals in, 77, 5. 

•§, suffix of advs., 189, 1, 2, 

321, 1, N. ; suffix in subst. 

compounds, 319, 1, N. 2, 3. 

•fat, substs. in, declension, 
22, 4; gender, 89, 3, (<r) ; 
subst. suffix, 312, 14. 
•fam, adj. in, superl. of, 190, 

5; adj. suffix, 313, 9. 
famt, 51, 9. 

•fcfjaft, substs. in, gender, 
89, 2, (a); subst. suffix, 
fctjiepcit Model, 123. 
fdjlagcn Model, 186. 
fdjon, idiomatic use, 195, 6. 
Script, German, pp. i3-«6. 
febr, with absolute superl., 

127, 2, 190, 4. 
fein, 'to be,' use as auxilia- 
ry, 25, 4 ; conjugation, 
52; verbs conjugated with, 
53; with past part., 112, 
R. 5, (b) ; as impersonal, 
217,220; with dat., 250, 
(*); with infin., 272, R. 2; 
omitted in dependent sen- 
tences, 2S7. 
feit, prep., 46, 241, 12, (a) ; 

conj., 239, 241, 12. 
feitbem, adv. conj., 237 ; 
subord. conj., 239, 241, 
12, (c). 
*fef, substs. in, gender, 89, 
3, (c); subst. suffix, 312, 
felber, felbft, 42, 3, and R. 
fetbig, 136, N. 
felbft; seefctber. 
Sentences, construction of, 
292-306; essential parts 
of, 292 ; construction of 
assertive principal, 20, 26, 
69, N., 293, (*), 294, (b), 
295,2, 297, R. 1, 301, 
2, 306; of dependent, 
32, 33, 98, 293, (<r), 294, 
(c), 295, 2; relative, 98, 
305, 306, R. 3 and N., 
R. 4 ; interrogative, 23, 
88, 293, (a), i, 293, (c), 
294, (a), 295, 2, 300; ex- 
clamatory, 293, (b), R. 3 ; 

expressing command or 
wish, 293, (a), 2 ; condi- 
tional, 69, 293, (a), 3 J po- 
sition of verb in, 293 ; of 
subject, 294 ; of predicate, 
295 ; of objects, etc. , 296 ; 
of advs., etc., 297 J of 
other members, 298; in- 
verted, 301, N. 1,2 ; com- 
pound and complex, 302- 
Separable prefixes, when se- 
parated, 117 ; place of, 
295, 3 and N., 303, 4. 
' shall,' how rendered in 

Germ., 201. 
Shifting of mutes, 325. 
' since,' how rendered in 

Germ., 241, 12. 
fingen Model, 144. 
Singular, see " Concord,*' 

" Substantives." 
'so,' rendered by eS, 39, 3. 
fo, after conditional and ad- 
verbial clauses, 69, 239, 
R. 2, 267, R. 3, 293, (b), 
R. 4, N. 1, 2, 294, (b), R. 
2 ; replaces fold) before ein, 
138, N. 2 ; adv. conj., 
fo . . . fo, 241, 9. 
fo ein, followed by rote, 

162, 4. 

fogar, adv. conj., 237, R. 2. 

©otjn Model, 21 ; origin of 

Umlaut in, 326, R. 2, (a). 

fold)(er), demonstr. pron., 

132, 138 ; followed by 

roie, 162, 4 ; before adjs., 

122, 12. 

foden, conjugation,196-199 ; 

use, 200, 5, 201, 202. 
'some,' how rendered in 
Germ., 2, 2, 150, 162, 
155, 168, 173, 177, 180. 
fonber, 50, 1. 
fonbern, 236, R. 1. 
foroofjl . . . alS (aucb), 238; 
285, R. 6. 



fptnnen Model, 158. 

fpredjen Model, 167. 

ff. i, P- 5; in verbs, 118, 
R. 2, 1-23, R. 1, 181, O. 
1, 188, R. 3. 

ftatt, see anftatt. 

•ft, subst. suffix, 312, 1. 

ftefjen, with infin., 272, R. 2. 

Stem of verbs, 27. 

Strong declension; see " Sub- 
stantives, declension of." 

Strong conjugation ; see 
" Verbs, conjugation of." 

Subject, definition of, 292 ; 
place of, 294 ; in principal 
sentences, 20, 59, N. ; 
in direct questions, 23, 
O. 1; in dependent sen- 
tences, 33, N.; inver- 
sion of, 301, 2, N. 1, 2; 
expressed by nom. case, 
3, 242, 1 ; agreement with 
verb, 285; repetition of, 

Subjective clause, 306; rela- 
tive, 306, R. 3. 

Subjective genitive, 243, 2. 

Subjunctive Mood, use, 264- 
26M, for conditional. 111, 
263, X. ; in indirect state- 
ments, 87, 265, 266; in 
indirect questions, 88 ; in 
hypothetical periods, 239, 
R. 1, 267 ; for imperative, 
31, R. 4, 268, 1, 269; 
expressing a wish, 2CS, 2 ; 
of purpose, 268, 3 ; after 
a negative, etc., 268, 4; of 
possibility, 268, 5; origin 
of Umlaut in impf. subj., 
326, U). 

Substantives, their declen- 
sion, Water Model, 16, 
17; 2obn do., 21, (a), 22, 
App. C. ; £unb do., 21, 
(*), 22, App. E. ; 2>orf do., 
36, 37; Sinabe, Sraf, 
931ume do., 64-57, App. 
F, ; 9iame, Dladjbar, Cbr 

do., 60-63, App. C<. ; with 
double plurals, 64, App. 
Summary and tables, 
70; essential parts, 71; 
anomalous, 66-69 ; substs. 
without plural, 60 ; without 
and number, 185 ; as verb 
prefixes, 206, 3, 212; ir- 
regular compound substs., 
68; appositive subst., 289; 
derivation, by internal 
change, 310; by suffixes, 
312 ; by prefixes, 315 ; 
composition, 319; see also 
under " Accentuation," 
" Compound Substan- 
tives," " Foreign Substan- 
tives," " Gender." 

Suffixes, of verbs, 311; of 
substs., 312 ; of adjs., 

Superlative degree, of adjs., 
relative, 127, 1; absolute, 
127, 2; of advs., 190, 

st, substs. in, gender, 89, 2, 
(6); subst. suffix, 312, 1. 

stfit, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, (e). 

taufenb, 165, 8, and 10, (c). 

tcils . . . teils, 238. 

Tense, in indirect state- 
ments, 87 ; in indirect 
questions, 88; auxiliariesof, 
use, 25, 53 ; place of with 
auxiliaries of mood, 199, 3. 

Tenses, simple, how formed 
in weak verbs, 30 ; in 
strong, 104-107, 110 ; 
endings of, in weak verbs, 
35 ; in strong, 107 ; com- 
pound, how formed, 25, 
108 ; construction, 26, 
83 ; sequence of tenses in 
indirect statements and 
questions not observed in 
Germ., 87, 2, 88, 2, 266, 

4 ; of the indicative, how 
used, 257-2(52 (see also 
under the various tenses) ; 
of the conditional, 2 63, 
N.; the tense in indirect 
statements, 87, 266; in 
hypothetical periods, 267. 

Terminations; see "End- 

' than ' after the compara- 
tive, 126, 1,241, 7. 

'that,' how rendered in 
Germ., 140. 

' the . . . the ' before compa- 
ratives, 126, 4. 

' there,' rendered by es, 39, 
1, R. ; ' there is, there are,' 

' they,' indefinite, 145, 146. 

stbum; see stum. 

Time, expressions of, 184 ; 
place of, 11, 45, 297, 2, 
306, R. 2 ; advs. of, 187, 
I. ; English participial con- 
structions of, how rendered 
in Germ., 284, (a); time 
of day, 184, 3, 285, R. 6, 
N. 2. 

Titles of rank, 49 ; 76, 5, 6. 

' to,' how rendered in Germ., 
46, R. 4; 233. 

Towns, names of, gender, 
80, 3, (c) ; see also "Places, 
names of." 

Transitive verbs, English, 
with object unexpressed, 
rendered by reflexive verbs 
in Germ., 215, 2; "often 
intrans. in Germ., 250, R. 
1, 252, R. 

Trigraphs, consonantal, pp. 
4, 8, 14- 

trofc, 223, 16, and R. 2. 

itlltn, substs. in, declension, 
37; gender, 89, 3, (6) ; 
subst. suffix, 312, 16. 

ttber, prep., 65 ; after inter- 
jections, 240, 4, (a) ; after 



verbs, etc., 291, 1; prefix, 
208 ; aftei rcllexive verbs, 
216, l. 

nut, prep., 34, 184, 3, (c), 
228, («), (*), 227, (*), i; 
after verbs, 291, 4; go- 
verning an infin. of pur- 
221, 2, (/>), 273, 
276; prefix, 208. 

um jo, before comparatives, 
126, 4, 241, 2, 293, (/-), 
R. 4, N. 3. [12. 

Um . . . luiUcn, 223,22, R. 1, 

Umlaut, pp. 3, 6, 12, 14; in 
declension of substs. , 17, 
(a), 21, (a), 22,30, 70, R. 
6, App. A., C. ; in subj. 
mood, 107, O 2; in com- 
parison of adjs., 125, R. 1, 
in strong verbs, 186, 188, 
192, R. 1 ; in Modal Aux- 
iliaries, 196, R. 1 ; in deri- 
vation, 808, N., 309, 311, 

1, 2, 312, 2-4, 8, 11-13, 
313, 5 ; origin, 326. 

Hits, subst. prefix, 315, 4. 

unfa, 236. 

itiifetn, 223, 23. 

sung, substs. in, gender, 89, 

2, ni)\ subst. suffix, 312, 

uitgeuditet, prep., 223, 15; 
conj. 239, 3, (b), 241, 21. 

units, before tens, 165, 7. 

'unless,' how rendered in 
Germ., 241, 18. 

utttcit, adv., 189, 3; com- 
parison, 130. 

Utlter, prep., 65; prefix, 


imterbcjfcn, adv. conj. ,237 ; 

subord. conj., 239, 3, (b), 

241, 15. 
untcrtjdb, 223, C. 
iinwcit, 223, 24. 
VXt, subst. prefix, 315, 5. 
sur, substs. in, gender, 89, 

2, W. 
Urjpnube, 322. 

Variative numerals, 182, (c). 

BCl's, insep.verb prefix, 35, R. 
0, 204 ; meaning, 314, G. 

Verb, place of, 20, 32. 33, 
s7, 2, 88,2, 266, R. 2, 
2(17, R. 2, 292. 293, 301; 
English periphrastic forms 
of, how rendered in Ger., 

31, R. 3; tenses of, 256- 
262, 203, 200 (see also 
under the various tenses); 
moods of, 250-27S (see 
also under the various 
moods); concord of, 2s,") ; 
when omitted, 209, R. 0, 
Verbs, stem of, 27; principal 
parts of, 28; weak conjuga- 
tion of, 30, 31 ; endings of 
simple tenses, 35 ; verbs 
conjugated with fcin, 53 ; 
neut., of motion, etc., 53 ; 
irregular weak, 99 ; strong, 
103-108, App. L. ; beifeen 
Model, 118; bleiben do., 
120; ftfiie&en do., 123 ; 
fecljtnt do., 124 ; frieren 
do., 131; {ingcndo.,144; 
fntnnen do., 158 ; helfeu 
do., 159; iprecbcit do., 167; 
effen do., 181 ; febjetgen 
do., 186; faUcndo., 188; 
table of strong verbs, 192; 
passive voice, 112-114 ; 
reflexive verbs, paradigm 
of, 41; use, 214-216; im- i 
personal verbs, 217-220 ; 
compound verbs, insep. , 
35, R. 6, 109, 204, 207- 
209, 211-213; separable, ! 
117, 205 - 208, 210 ; 
auxiliaries of tense, 25, 
53 ; irregular strong, 194, 
190; auxiliaries of mood, 
196-202 ; verbs with two 
nominatives, 242,2,:j; with 
genitive, 245 ; with dative, 
250; with accusative, 252, 
253 ; verbs of choosing, 

242, N.; of calling, con- 
sidering, 253 ; verbs fol- 
lowed by the subjunctive, 
205; by the infin, without 
ill, 271; with 511, 272; 
prepositions after, 291 ; 
derivation of, without 
change, 308 ; with in- 
ternal change, 809 ; by 
suffixes, 811 ; by prefixes, 

Dcrmittelft, 228, 9. 

Bcrmogc, 223, 10. 

ntel, comparison of, 129 ; 
indef. pron., 145 ; indef. 
numeral, 168, 170; before 
adjs., 122, 11, 12. 

Vocative, 242, 1. 

uotl, prefix, sep. and insep., 
208; adj., 244. 

Don, prep., 46, 228, (a), 
231, (*), 234; used for 
genitive, 46, R. 3; with 
passive voice, 112, R. 3; 
with names of places, 72, 
3, 4; with names of per- 
sons, 76, 6 ; replaces geni- 
tive of quality, 243, 5, N. ; 
after partitives, 243, 6, N.; 
after »oll,244 ; after verbs, 

cor, prep., 65, 184, 3, (b), 
234 ; after verbs, etc., 291, 
5, 11; after reflexive verbs, 
215, 1, (b). 

oorn, adv., 189, 3; compari- 
son, 130. 

Vowels, modified, pp. 3, 6, 
12, 14; double, pp. 4, 6, 
12, 14; importance of, p. 
8, bottom ; long and short, 
pp. 9, 10; see also "Um- 

roahvenb, prep., 75, 2, 223, 
17; conj., £39,3, (b), 241, 
13; repl irticiple 

of time, 284, 1, (a). 

raann, 58, 187. I., (</). 

roarum, 83, R. 3, N. 



iuo.3, interrog. pron., declen- 
sion and use, 83; some- 
times =--' why,' 83, 6, US:!, 
3; used for ctrociS, 149, 
1; relative pron., 92, 96; 
followed by baS, 162, 1 ; 
of a number of persons 
or things, 162, 2; not gov- 
erned by preps., 83, 3, 
96, 7 ; construction of sen- 
tences with, 98, 3. 

lUQgfur (ein), 86. 

'we,' indef. , 146. 

W tak conjugation, see 
" Verbs " ; declension, see 
"Substantives," "Adjec- 

roeber . . . nod), 238. 

roegen, 75,1, 223, 2, and R. 

Weight, expressions of, 185. 

veil, 239, 3, (6), 241, 17. 

roeldjcv, interrog. pron. and 
adj., 6, 81, 82, 84, 85 
in exclamations, 85, 1,2 
relative pron., 92, 94, 95 
indefinite pron. and num 
eral, used for ' some,' 
145, 155, 180; before 
adjs., 122, 13. 

roeilig, comparison of, 129; 
indef. pron., 145; indef. 
numeral, 168, 176 ; before 
adjs., 122, 12. 

wenn, 58, 239, 3, (i), R. 1- 
4, 267 ; omission of, 239, 
R. 2-4, 267, R. 2, 3, 6, 
N., 293, (a), 3 , R. 4, N. 
2,(<-), R. 2, 294, (*), R. 
roenn aud), roenn gleid), roenn 

fcfjoil, 239, 3, (i), and R. 
3, N. 

roenn . . . nicht, 239, 3, (6), 
241, 18. 

roev, interrog. pron., 81, 83; 
relative pron., 92, 96,135, 
(6), N. ; followed by bev, 
162, 1 ; replaced by ber, 
806, R. 3, N. ; construc- 
tion of sentences with, 98, 

roevbcn, pres. and impf. of, 
19 ; conjugated with fein, 
53, (a); use as auxiliary 
of tense, 25, 2; as auxili- 
ary of passive voice, 112, 
113; conjugation, 112; 
as impersonal verb, 217, 
2, (<■); with dat., 250, (e). 

'when,' how rendered in 
Germ., 58. 

' whether,' expressed by mi); 
gen, 200, 3, (c). 

' while, whilst,' how rendered 
in Germ., 241, 15. 

' whole,' how rendered in 
Germ., 168, 170. 

roiber, prep., 34 ; prefix, 

roie, in comparisons, 126, 3, 
241, G, 8; after jold) ein, 
fo ein, 162, 4; subord. 
conj., 239, 3, (b); in com- 
parative clauses, 306, R. 
4, N. 

roieber, prefix, 208, N. 2. 

roieoielfte, ber, 164, 166, 3, 

' will,' how rendered in 
Germ., 201. 

Wish, expressed by the Sub- 

junctive, 268, 2 ; construc- 
tion of sentences express- 
ing, 293, (a), 2.' 

toifien, 196, and N. 1. 

roo, 187, II., (c); before 
preps., replacing interrog. 
prons., 83, 3, and relative 
prons., 95, 2. 96, 7. 

wohl, comparison of, 190; 
idiomatic use, 195, 10. 

rooilcn, its conjugation, 196- 
199; its use, 200, 6, 201, 

roorben, for gcroorben, in 
passive voice, 112, R. 2; 
when omitted, 112, R. 4. 

' you,' how rendered in Ger., 
40 ; indef. pron., 146. 

;}e&n, in compound num- 
erals, 165, 5. 

jer;, insep. prefix, 35, R. 6, 
204; meaning, 314, 7. 

sjig, in numerals, 165, 6. 

SU, prep.,46,227,(«),4,(£), 
2, (c), 228, (c), 229, (a), 
230, (c), 232, (5), 233, (l>), 
(c), 2, (ii) ; with Infinitive, 
272-277; place of, 109, 
117, R. 2; with insep. 
verbs, 205, 2 ; followed by 
all bafj or tint 511, with 
verbs of choosing, 242, 3, 
N., 253; after adjs., 244. 

juerft, 195, 5. 

jufolge, 223, 11, R. 

junadjft, 51, 7. 

5uiuiber, 51, 3. 

jtuei, declension of, 165, 2. 

}iuijd)en, prep., 65. 


MAY 1 3 868